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Pawan kumar sharma MSc Interior Design ( Lighting Project)

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Dezyne E'cole College Interior Design Student Work

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Pawan kumar sharma MSc Interior Design ( Lighting Project)

  1. 1. LIGHTING DESIGN OF COMMERCIAL AND RESIDENTIAL SPACES www.dezyneecole.com Student:- PawanKumar Sharma MSc Interior Designer Commercial Space Designer DezyneE’coleCollege
  2. 2. LightisaformofenergymanifestingitselfaselectromagneticradiationandiscloselyrelatedtootherformofelectromagneticradiationsuchasRadiowaves,Radar,Microwave,InfraredandUltravioletradiationandX-rays, WHAT IS LIGHT ?
  3. 3. CANDELA-It is equalentto the illumination of one standard candle. FOOT CANDELA-It is the amount of illumination on a surface from a light source of on candela that is a foot away from the surface. ONE FOOT CANDELA =1 Lumen /Square foot ONELUX-Istheamountofilluminationcreatedbyalightsourceofonecandelawhichisonemeterawayfromthesurface. 1LUX=1Lumen/Squaremeter. LIGHTING PRINCIPLES AND TERMS
  4. 4. LIGHTING PRINCIPLES AND TERMS Efficacy The ratio of light produced to energy consumed. It’s measured as the number of lumens produced divided by the rate of electricity consumption (limens per watt).
  5. 5. ACTIVITY FOOT CANDLES LUX Hall ways 5-7 55-75 Entertaining 10-20 110-215 Dinning 10-20 110-215 Easy reading 20-50 215-540 Bathroom 20-50 215-540 Kitchen basic lighting 20-50 215-540 Kitchenfood preparation 50-100 540-1075 Difficult reading writing 50-100 540-1075 General workshop lighting 50-100 540-1075 Fine ordetailed work 100-200 1075-2150 LIGHTING CALCULATIONS
  6. 6. COLOUR TEMPERATURE OUTDOOR/INDOOR Colourtemperature is a characteristic of visible light. In practice, colourtemperature is only meaningful for light sources that do in fact correspond somewhat closely to the radiation of some black body. The colourtemperature of the electromagnetic radiation emitted from an idea black body is defined as its surface temperature In KELVINS. Colourtemperatures over 5,000 K are called cool colours(blueishwhite), while lower colourtemperatures, (2,700-3,000 K) are called warm colours(yellowish white through red).
  7. 7. COLOUR TEMPERATURE OUTDOOR/INDOOR ColourTemperature : •Defined as the tone of light or hoe the light looks in terms of whiteness. •Higher the colourtemperature = whiter/cooler the light source. •Unit measurement = Kelvin (K)
  8. 8. COLOUR RENDERING INDEX (CRI) The rendering index (CRI), sometimes called colourrendition index, is a quantitative measure of the ability of a light source to reproduce the coloursof various objects faithfully in comparison with an idea or natural light source. Colourrendering : Effect of an illuminant on the coloyrappearance of objects by conscious or subconscious comparison with their colourappearance under a reference illuminant. Finishes should be evaluates under the type of lamp (lamp and/or daylight ) which will actually be used in the interior. Colourrendition depends on lamp colourspectrum, reflective property of surfaces and context and condition in room. Judgment of apparent surface colourdepends also on the experience and expectations of an individual with normal colourvision.
  9. 9. ColourTemperature in Kelvin (K) Degrees Daylight Warm White Cool White How does ColourTemperature affect the appearance of a room? Daylight Warm White Cool White
  10. 10. LIGHTING FIXTURES Light fixture is integral part of building electrical system, transforming energy into usable illumination. Light fixture requires electrical connection (power supply), lamp holder, lamp (design to diffuse, reflect, focus light). Form of lighting fixture, light source, light illumination point sources, linear sources, planar sources, volumetric sources.
  11. 11. LIGHTING LUMINARIES •An assembly used to house one or more light sources. Also called lighting fixture. Luminaries Light Lamp Light Socket Light Switch
  12. 12. CLASSIFICATION OF LUMINARIES Recessed Ceiling Mounted Track Mounted Wall Mounted Suspended Architectural Portable Pole Mounted Bollard Outdoor Wall washer Ceiling washer Floor washers Spot light Integral Luminaries Light Structures Uplighters Down lighters
  13. 13. CLASSIFICATION OF LUMINARIES
  14. 14. CLASSIFICATION OF LUMINARIES
  15. 15. CATEGORIES OF LUMINARIES •Direct :90 –100% downward. •Semi direct : 60 –90% downward. •General diffuse : 40 –60% both downward and upward. •Direct –indirect : little light is emitted in the horizontal plane. •Semi –indirect :providing 60 –90% of its output upward. •Indirect : providing 90 -100% of its luminous output upward.
  16. 16. POINT LIGHT SOURCE FOCUS ON OBJECT OR AREA GREAT BRIGHTNESS CONTRAST HIGHLIGHT, SPARKLE OR RHYTHM
  17. 17. LINER LIGHT SOURCE GIVE DIRECTION, OUTLINE SHAPES EMPHASIZE THE EDGES
  18. 18. PLANAR LIGHT SOURCE SURFACE REPETEAD LINEAR DIFFUSED ILLUMINATION OF AREA
  19. 19. VOLUMETRIC LIGHT SOURCE LIGHT AS VOLUMETRIC ILLUMINATION EXPANDED THROUGH THREE-DIMENTIONAL FORMS OF LAMP 60w Bulb Insulation Lamp Socket Lamp Socket Cap Threaded Pipe Lamp wire Bobesche Two Nuts Lamp Shade 11/4” Plastic tube LIGHT SOURCE LAMP HOLDER CONNECT TO SUPPLY DESIGN OF LAMP
  20. 20. TYPES OF LIGHTING General Lighting
  21. 21. Accent Lighting TYPES OF LIGHTING
  22. 22. TYPES OF LIGHTING Decorative Lighting
  23. 23. TYPES OF LIGHTING Task Lighting
  24. 24. TYPES OF LIGHTING Kinetic Lighting
  25. 25. TYPES OF LIGHTING Washlights Washlightsare designed to provide uniform lighting over extensive surfaces, mailnlywalls, ceilings, and floors, therefore. They are included in the group downlightsand louvered luminaries although washlightsdo have there own luminaire forms. Wall washers Ceiling washers Floor washers Spot Light Light Structure Integral Luminaries Downlighters Uplighters
  26. 26. TYPES OF LIGHTING Wall washer
  27. 27. TYPES OF LIGHTING Ceiling washer
  28. 28. TYPES OF LIGHTING Floor washers
  29. 29. TYPES OF LIGHTING Spot light
  30. 30. TYPES OF LIGHTING Integral Luminaires Suspended Ceiling Coffered Ceiling Vaulted Ceiling
  31. 31. TYPES OF LIGHTING Light Structure
  32. 32. TYPES OF LIGHTING Uplighters
  33. 33. TYPES OF LIGHTING Down lighters
  34. 34. ARTIFICIAL LIGHTING SOURCES Incandescent Lamps Fluorescent Lamps High –Intensity Discharge Lamps Mercury Lamps Metal Halide Lamps High Pressure Sodium Lamps Low Pressure Sodium Lamps Electrode less Lamps Compact arc xenon and Mercury Lamps Electroluminescent Lamps Light Emitting Diodes (LED) Carbon arc Lamps Gaslights
  35. 35. What? Hotwire –filament sealed in a glass jar (bulb). How? Electric current pass through the wire heats it to incandescence, and the wire emits light. Use standard voltage circuit. INCANDESCENT LAMP
  36. 36. Inside the glass is a gas such as argon and/or nitrogen. At the centre of the lamp is a tungsten filament. Electricity heats this filament up to about 2,500degrees Celsius. Just like any hot metal, the tungsten gets "white hot" at that heat and emits a great deal of visible light in a process called incandescence. INCANDESCENT LAMP
  37. 37. INCANDESCENT LAMP 1.GLASS BULB 2.VACUUM OR GAS FILLED 3.WIRE/FILAMENT 4.-5. LEAD –IN WIRES 6. SUPPORT WIRES 7.NECK 8.-11. ELECTRIC FUSE 9. BASE
  38. 38. Advantages: 1. Less expensive 2. Easier to dim with Rheostats 3. Warmer colour than Fluorescent and Tungsten -halogen lamps 4. Light output is relatively high 5. Excellent colour rendering 6. Can be dimmed Disadvantages: 1. Energy inefficient 2. Short lamp life time 3. Warm source INCANDESCENT LAMP
  39. 39. Shape of lamps: Around 100 combinations of glass and quartz Bulb shapes and sizes. SYMBOLS: 1stpart = one or more letters indicates the Shape of bulb 2ndpart = number, indicates diameter of thebulb in eights of an inch Example: A19 = arbitrary shaped, 19/8 inch diameter INCANDESCENT LAMP
  40. 40. INCANDESCENT LAMP INCANDESCENT LAMPS General Lighting Service (GLS) Parabolic Aluminium Reflector (PAR) Metal Reflector (MR) Examples: A15 A17 A19 A21 A20 PS25 PS30 PS35 PS40 PS52 PAR30 PAR38 P25 PAR38 PAR40 SIDE PRONG PAR56 PAR64 PAR26 END PRONG AR70 AR111 AR56 R12 R14 R20 R30 R40 R HALOGEN 36 56 S14 B61/2 B10 B18 C7 CA8 CA9 CA10 F10 F15 G161/2 G181/2 G25 G30 G40 MR11 MR16
  41. 41. INCANDESCENT LAMP BASE IDENTIFICATION: 1. Small base: bayonet, bipin, candelabra, Intermediate, miniature, mini- candelabra, Twist-and-lock, two-pin 2. Medium base 3. Large base: mogul screw, mogul bipost
  42. 42. INCANDESCENT LAMP
  43. 43. INCANDESCENT LAMP
  44. 44. INCANDESCENT LAMP LAMP LIFE TIME: 1. STANDARD-LIFE LAMP: high temperature for the filament to operates, emits more light, shorter life time –“burns out” 2. LONG-LIFE LAMP: given wattage produces less light, designed for longer life LAMP EFFICIENCY= LIGHT PRODUCED (LUMENS, lm) / ELECTRICITY CONSUMED (WATTS W) LIGHT OUTPUT: INSERT GAS (ARGON, NITROGEN, KRYPTON)SLOWS BULB BLACKENING CAUSED BY CONDENSATION ON THE BULB WALL
  45. 45. INCANDESCENT LAMP BULBS ARE SOLD BY WATTS–MEASURE OF POWER CONSUMED LUMENSTELLS HOW MUCH LIGHT LAMP EMITS HOURS OF OPERATION IS PRODUCED LIFE-TIME (750 –1000H, UP TO 2500H FOR EXTENDED SERVICE LAMPS) ENERGY SAVING LAMPS –REDUCED WATTAGE, REDUCED LIGHT OUTPUT
  46. 46. INCANDESCENT LAMP LAMP TYPES: 1. NON DIRECTIONAL (emits light in all directions -A, C, G, P, PS, S and Tshapes, requires additional external elements for brightness, glare and distribution control) 2. SEMI DIRECTIONAL (silver bowl or white bowl lamps, coating on inner side of bulb, reduce filament glare) 3. DIRECTIONAL (complete optical systems: source, reflector, lens or filament shield, R, AR, MR, PAR built-in beam control)
  47. 47. INCANDESCENT LAMP AR LAMP SILVER BOWL LAMP WHITE BOWL LAMP PAR LAMP
  48. 48. INCANDESCENT LAMP SEMIDIRECTIONAL
  49. 49. INCANDESCENT LAMP Right: PAR reflector lamp with pressed glass bulb and powerful parabolic reflector Left: R reflector lamp with soft glass bulb and ellipsoid reflector with moderate focusing power. DIRECTIONAL R LAMP PAR LAMP
  50. 50. INCANDESCENT LAMP
  51. 51. TUNGSTEN -HALOGEN What? Selected gas of the halogen family How? Halogen gas combines with tungsten molecules that sputter of the filament deposits tungsten back on the filament and emits constant level of light
  52. 52. TUNGSTEN -HALOGEN A halogen bulb has a filament made of Tungsten, which glows when electricity is applied, same as a regular incandescent bulb. The halogen gas removes the carbon deposits on the inside of the bulb, caused by the burning of the tungsten filament, and re- deposits it back on to the filament, resulting in a light bulb which can be burned at a higher
  53. 53. HIGH OPERATING TEMPERATURE(500C), HIGH COLOR TEMPERATURE QUARTZ INSTEAD OF GLASS EQUIPED WITH OUTER BULB, GLASS COVER, MESH SCREEN TUNGSTEN -HALOGEN
  54. 54. TUNGSTEN -HALOGEN Advantages: 1. High colour temperature make them “whiter” than standard incandescent lamps 2. Longer life time 3. Great efficiency 4. Compact in shape and size They come in many shapesand sizes, some directional others not, some quite small others the size of regular bulbs, some fit into normal sockets other require special sockets and voltages to work.
  55. 55. TUNGSTEN -HALOGEN There are many different types of (single ended) TH lamp, the most common ones are the G9 capsule lamp, GU10spot lamp and linear halogen lamps which are all domestic mains voltage, and G4 capsule lamp,(integral reflector) MR16, MR11 spot lamps which are low voltage lamps. LINEAR G4 GU10 MR11 G9 G6.35
  56. 56. LOW-VOLTAGE LAMPS –Incandescent and tungsten-halogen lamps that operate between 6V and 75 V. Standard building current of 115 V-125V must be stepped down by the use of transformer. Low-voltage luminaries with integrated transformers are larger in size and bulkier. Practical system is line-voltage equipment. LOW VOLTAGE LAMPS Aluminum Reflector
  57. 57. LOW VOLTAGE LAMPS LOW VOLTAGE PAR56 (halogen lamp) LOW VOLTAGE MULTIFACETED MIRROR REFLECTOR (halogen lamp)
  58. 58. COLOURED LIGHT BULBS COLOUR CERAMIC ENAMEL
  59. 59. HUE(quality in red or green), SATURATION (strength or depth of colour) BRIGHTNESS (quantity of light) COLOURED FILTERS
  60. 60. Thin transparent coloured plastic sheet in vide variety of colours, as well as multi coloured and diffused sheets. Short service life –colour fades rapidly. GELATIN FILTERS (“GELS”)
  61. 61. One or more layers of ultrathin film coating on clear glass that reflects rather than absorb unwanted wave length. They transmit one colour, and reflect the complementary colour INTERFERENCE FILTERS
  62. 62. What ? Gas, phosphor, cathode, discharge How ? Light is produced by passage of an electric current through a vapour or gas, rather than through a tungsten wire as in incandescent lamp. DISCHARGE LAMP
  63. 63. FLUORESCENT LAMP
  64. 64. The classic fluorescent lamp design, which has fallen mostly by the wayside, used a special starter switch mechanism to light up the tube. The conventional starter switch is a small discharge bulb, containing neon or some other gas. The bulb has two electrodes positioned right next to each other. When electricity is initially passed through the by pass circuit, an electrical arc jumps between these electrodes to make a connection. This arc lights the bulb in the same way a larger arc lights a fluorescent bulb. FLUORESCENT LAMP
  65. 65. FLUORESCENT LAMP
  66. 66. FLUORESCENT LAMP ADVANTAGES: •Heat is relatively low •Energy efficient •Range from low grade to high grade •Long lamp life •Usually Cool source •Control gears DISADVANTAGE: •Colour temperature •Require ballast: preheat, instant-start, rapid-start •Requires controlling elements for glare control
  67. 67. FLUORESCENT LAMP TYPES: 1.COLD CATHODE 2.2. HOT CATHODE SHAPE: 1.U-BENT SHAPE 2.2. CIRCULINE SHAPE 3.3. COMPACT FLUO-LAMPS
  68. 68. SHAPES Compact Fluorescent Lamps
  69. 69. Equipment required to control the starting and operating voltages of electrical gas discharge lights. Integrated Ballast (CFL) BALLAST/DRIVER Magnetic Ballast (Traditional) Electronic Ballast
  70. 70. Type of electrical gas-discharge lamp which produces light by means of an electric arc between tungsten electrodes housed inside a translucent or transparent fused quartz or fused alumina arc tube. This tube is filled with both gas and metal salts. The gas facilitates the arcs initial strike. Once the arc is started, it heats and evaporates the metal salts forming a plasma, which greatly increases the intensity of light produced by the arc and reduces its power consumption. High- intensity discharge lamps are a type of arc lamp. HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE LAMP
  71. 71. HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE LAMP
  72. 72. HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE LAMP
  73. 73. HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE LAMP
  74. 74. HIGH INTENSITY DISCHARGE LAMP When energy efficiency and/or light intensity are desired. These areas include gymnasiums, large public areas, warehouses, movie theatres, football stadiums, outdoor activity areas, roadways, parking lots, and pathways. Ultra-High Performance (UHP)HID lamps are used in LCD or DLP projection TV sets or projection displays as well.
  75. 75. Red and Infrared LEDs are made with gallium arsenide Bright Blue is made with GN -gallium nitride White LEDs are made with yttrium aluminium garnet There are also orange, green, blue, violet, purple, ultraviolet LEDs. LED LIGHTS
  76. 76. LED LIGHTS
  77. 77. BENEFITS OF LED LIGHTS Benefits of led lights
  78. 78. BENEFITS OF LED LIGHTS 1 SIZE LED lights are usually around 3mm –8mm long. The small size and profile f the LED lights allow then to be used where other light bulbs may not fit.
  79. 79. BENEFITS OF LED LIGHTS 2 EFFICENCY Where other lights give off more energy by shining in different areas. LED lights only shine in a specific direction becoming more efficient.
  80. 80. BENEFITS OF LED LIGHTS 3 35,000 to 50,000 hours, compared to 750 to 2,000 hours for an incandescent bulb, 8,000 to 10,000 hours for a compact fluorescent and 20,000 to 30,000 hours for a linear fluorescent bulb LIFE
  81. 81. BENEFITS OF LED LIGHTS 4 TEMPERATURE LEDs remain cool. In addition, since they contain no glass component, they are not vulnerable to vibration or breakage like conventional bulbs. LEDs are thus better suited for use in areas like sports facilities and high-crime locations.
  82. 82. LEDs are just tiny light bulbs that fit easily into an electrical circuit. But unlike ordinary incandescent bulbs, they don’t have a filament that will burnout, and they don’t get especially hot. They are illuminated solely by the movement of electrons in a semiconductor material, and they last just as long as a standard transistor. The lifespan of an LED surpasses the short life of an incandescent bulb by thousands of hours. LED LIGHTING
  83. 83. LED REFLECTORS
  84. 84. LAMPS Halogen MR16 GU5.3 Incandescent Standard E27
  85. 85. LAMPS Halogen QR111 G53 Halogen PAR E27
  86. 86. LAMPS PLC Compact Fluorescent Lamps CFL Compact Fluorescent Lamps E27
  87. 87. LAMPS Fluorescent CFL Spiral E27 Fluorescent MegamanLiliput E27
  88. 88. LAMPS Fluorescent TL (Tubular Lamp) T5 Fluorescent TL (Tubular Lamp) T8
  89. 89. LAMPS LED MR16 GU5.3 LED Tubular Lamp
  90. 90. LAMPS LED LED Strip LED Strip
  91. 91. LAMPS LED/Pijar Flexi Light LED LED Strip (Plat)
  92. 92. LAMPS LED Linestra LED LED Tape
  93. 93. LAMPS Fibre Optics
  94. 94. LAMPS Cold Cathode
  95. 95. Thank You

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