Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Neha Assudani portfolio, B.Sc-Interior Design+ 2 years Diploma,Dezyne E'cole College


Published on

Commercial Design Diploma Programme Portfolio where the student has devised designs based on theconcept of Geometry
The space planning areas by the student are restaurant design ,retail design and office design.
Commercial design of Dezyne E'cole College is asper the NSDC QP aligned course as per the Industry Specification

Published in: Design
  • How To Make Every Day Your Perfect Day By Raising Your Vibration 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • 8 Ways to Communicate with Your Guardian Angels... ■■■
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here

Neha Assudani portfolio, B.Sc-Interior Design+ 2 years Diploma,Dezyne E'cole College

  2. 2. Interior Design PORTFOLIO 2015-16 Commercial Design Retail Hospitality Office
  3. 3. Project Report On Commercial Design At Dezyne E’cole College, Ajmer Submitted To Dezyne E’cole College Towards The Partial Fulfillment Of Bachelor Of Science In Interior Design By Neha Assudani Dezyne E’cole College 106/10, Civil Lines, Ajmer Tel – 0145 – 2624679 Www.Dezyneecole.Com 2015 - 16 TM
  4. 4. ACKNOWLEDGMENT I, Neha Assudani, student of Dezyne E’cole College, am extremely grateful to each and every individual who has contributed in successful completion of my project. I express my gratitude towards Dezyne E’cole College for their guidance and constant supervision as well as for providing the necessary information and support regarding the completion of project. I than to Almighty for providing me with everything that I required for completing this project. I would like to thank all the faculty members of Dezyne E’cole for their critical advice and guidance without which this project would not have been possible. I would like to express my special gratitude towards my parents and friends who have been constant source of inspiration for me during this project.
  5. 5. Dezyne E’cole College 106/10, Civil Lines Ajmer – 305001, Rajasthan This Project Report Of Ms. Neha Assudani student of Bachelor of Science in Interior Design of One Year Diploma in Commercial Design has been checked and has been graded as Thanking You Principal (seal & signature) TM
  6. 6. SYNOPSIS Commercial design involves the designing of spaces that serves the business purpose. The main motive of these spaces is to sell the products or services as much as possible. During the tenure of 2nd year Commercial Design Diploma programme I studied about various different commercial spaces like Retail Stores, Restaurant Design, Office Spaces etc. Commercial design includes everything from small retail spaces to malls, small saloons to higher end boutiques, healthcare clubs to gyms, roadside dhabas to the higher end a-la-carte restaurants. Commercial interior spaces have various features like LEED certification, Sustainable Designs, Security and safety of spaces, Licensing, Ethics in profession and Professional Growth. While studying about Retail Design I learnt that the Retail Spaces are divided into three parts. Exterior Presentation, Window Display and Interior Presentation of Store. Exterior presentation means how a store visually welcomes a client. The Exterior Presentation includes the Store Name, Store Sign, Marquee, Landscaping, Awnings, Banners, walks and Entries etc. This means the name of the store should be easily visible and readable, Marquee helps to locate business from distance, Landscaping attracts the clientele, Awnings protect the people etc. Window displays play a very important role as it is through which the customers gets attracted. People love to do window shopping. A person connects his lifestyle with the products he/she sees in the window display. A product is only sold when it is seen by the clientele and attracts him/her to that extent that he/she decides to buy. I learnt that the person only enters the space when the Window Display of the store attracts him/her. The Window Display either depicts some story, concept or theme that attracts the clientele and increases the footfall for the store. Along with this the Interior Presentation of the store also plays a significant role. It includes the type of plan incorporated for the store, the space planning of the store, proper Transition Space, no Butt-Brush effect should be there, display of merchandise in the store, the room temperature of store should be maintained, pleasing and complementing background music, the fragrance for the different departments, proper lighting of the store to attract the customers. I also learnt that the customer uses his five senses to buy any product. The five senses are touch, taste, smell, see, hear.
  7. 7. For working on Retail Design Project I considered all the points so that I can give the best outcome to my client. In the given case study I was suppose to do the space planning and designing for the furniture store of brand STANLEY. The space provided was 57’3” x 37’1”. The major requirements were to display the collection series, 2-3 bedroom sets, 3,2,1 seater sofas etc. I did the space planning for whole store in which I incorporated Straight Plan and did the designing of the four cubicles of the store as it was not possible for me to design the whole store. The next I learnt was the Restaurant Design. Restaurants are the spaces which serves the purpose of eating very well. It is a place where preparing and serving of food is done in exchange of money. They play essential role in Business, Social and Intellectual life. Restaurants are the places where people meet their friends and families being away from their busy lifes. Restaurants have great ambience, nice music along with good food. Restaurants are of different types like roadside dhabas, a-la-carte restaurants, fast food outlets, self service, third places like coffee shops, ice-cream parlors, juice centers etc. For doing the space planning of a Restaurant we have to follow the space considerations like, volume and type of service, suitable traffic aisle, type of equipment to be used etc. We also have to see how much sq.ft. space per seat requires for different type of operations. The number of seats given in the dining area are also to be paid attention to. They are calculated by the formula R=N/T where R is rate of people leaving serving area, N is the number of seats in a dining area and T is the average time required for eating. I learnt that the diagonal seating arrangements are better because they require less space. Along with this the Turnover Rate is also important, it is estimating the average time a seat is occupied. After learning about the Restaurants I was given a case study in which I was suppose to do the space planning and designing of the space. The space provided was 46’x 50’. The first thing I did was the SWOT Analysis of the Restaurants in Ajmer so that I can give the best outcome to my client. During the SWOT Analysis I also found the loop holes that restaurants in Ajmer were having. For working on any project a designer needs an Inspiration. I took the inspiration from Geometry as it is present all around us. I incorporated all the above points in the space planning of restaurant.
  8. 8. I did the designing part for 2 walls as it was not possible to design the whole restaurant. As my inspiration was Geometry. I studied about various styles that were having geometry like the Islamic Style, Moroccan Style, Chinese Style, Japanese Style etc. I was most fascinated with Moroccan Style and thus I worked with the Moroccan Style for my Restaurant. Moroccan Style features beautiful architecture, ranging from royal arches to modern buildings. It got influenced from Islamic Style. This style features beautiful archways and curved doors, along with delicate metal work, carving or color. Other key features were courtyards, bold colors, ornate furniture, textiles, lanterns, metal works, tiles etc. along with this I did the Product Designing for 2 furnitures of my restaurant they were the Reception Desk and the Bar Counter Table. After this I learnt about the Office Spaces. They focus on the public and private areas utilized by corporate and professional service firms. It is said that the office design is back bone of Commercial Interior Design. The project on Office Design is still in the making.
  9. 9. Neha Assudani PROFILE I As An Interior Designer Wanted To Achieve Good Position In My Life. To Achieve My Goals Dezyne E’cole Helped Me In Developing My Skills And Knowledge And Made Me Industry Ready As Per Today’s Era. As Designer I Believe In Eye For Detail. I Keep Watching Things Around Me And Believe That Everything That Exists Has Design In It In Some Or The Other Way And All This Inspires Me To Design More. Interior Designer Experience • Residential Project -- Residential Space Planning And Designing -- Elements Of Style -- Wardrobe Design -- Multi Functional Product Design • Commercial Design -- Retail Outlet’s Space Planning And Designing -- Restaurant’s Space Planning And Designing • Participated In Identity Exhibition EDUCATION • Bachelor Of Science In Interior Design – Dezyne E’cole College, Ajmer [2014 – 2017] • 12th Cbse Board – St. Stephen’s Senior Secondary School, Ajmer [2013 – 2014] • 10th Cbse Board – St. Stephen’s Senior Secondary School, Ajmer [2011 – 2012] Professional Skills:- • GOOGLE SKETCHUP • AUTOCAD • AUTODESK 3DS MAX • MICROSOFT POWERPOINT • MICROSOFT WORD Languages Known • ENGLISH • HINDI Personal Skills:- • HARDWORKING • LEADERSHIP QUALITY Phone Details:- 09829024839 0145-2624679 Email ID:-
  10. 10.  Introduction- Interior Design contents  Introduction- Commercial Design  Types Of Commercial Design  Introduction- Retail Design • Types Of Retail Design • Customer Behavior • Exterior Presentation • Window Display • Interior Presentation  Case Study- Retail Design  Introduction- Restaurant Design • Space Requirements And Considerations  Case Study- Restaurant Design
  11. 11. contents • Site Considerations  Study On Restaurants In Ajmer  Inspiration- Geometry  Architectural Layouts  Design Development  Introduction- Office Design  Conclusion  Bibliography  Assignments  Print Making
  12. 12. INTERIOR Design
  13. 13. INTRODUCTION - INTERIOR DESIGN Interior Design is the process of shaping the experience of Interior space, through the manipulation of spatial volume as well as surface treatment. It is a profession that includes design development, conceptual development, management of project and execution of design along with the communication skills. Interior Design is much more than about “ What looks right”. It is about giving a space that the occupants enjoy and love to inhabit. It is about finding and creating a cohesive answer to set of problems and dressing the solution so as to unify and strengthen our experience of the space. Good Interior Design adds a new dimension to the space. Thoughtful and good design makes the space easier too understand and experiencing such space lifts the spirit too. It is a profession totally different from decorator. People usually have misconception that interior design is same as decoration. But designing is an art and science of understanding client’s behavior to create a more functional space. He works from the beginning. Interior Designer studies about the Orientation of space, Daylighting, ventilation, HVAC, Lighting, Landscape etc. whereas decoration is furnishing of space with beautiful things or accessories. Interior Design provides various career opportunities as it is a vast field. In the study course it deals with various topics like space planning, anthropometrics, drafting, study of materials etc. Interior Design is an interdependent profession. Interior Designer works with architects, landscape designer, product and furniture designer, event managers etc. They use expertise of other professionals for their work such as environmental engineers, furnishing experts, textile designers, painters etc.
  14. 14. Interior Design is not just a job. It is a profession, a career, a lifestyle. To practice it successfully it is important to have a clear idea of what interior design includes. It is much more than just the aesthetics. Interior design is a multi faceted profession in which creative and technical solutions are applied within a structure to achieve a built interior environment solves the customers problems and link space to business strategies and goals. These solutions are functional , enhance the quality of life and culture of the occupants and are aesthetically attractive It is something that includes a space of service performed by a professional design practitioner qualified by means of education, experience and examination, to protect and enhance the life, wealth, safety and welfare of the public.
  15. 15. Residential Spaces
  16. 16. Commercial Spaces
  17. 17. COMMERCIAL Design
  18. 18. INTRODUCTION - COMMERCIAL DESIGN Commercial Interior Design deals with designing the public spaces such as office buildings, museums, hotels, stores, warehouses, community centers, libraries etc. We usually interact with Commercial spaces everyday, say it from studying for a test at the library or stopping at a fast food restaurant for a quick lunch. Perhaps we sometime visit a shopping center or join a friend at a health club. Designing Commercial Interior involves designing the interior of any facility that serves business purposes. Facilities that fall under the category of Commercial Interior Design includes business that invites the public in. The design of commercial interior is complex and challenging. Commercial Interior Design requires a thorough understanding of an organization's :- -- Workspace Culture -- Branding -- Work Practices -- Contact with the public In Commercial Design the designer has to create an environment that includes aesthetics and functions to make it a successful hit. Here the Interior Designers work includes selecting paint colors, choosing the artwork, accounting for acoustics and lighting, selecting appropriate furniture, and placing all these together in the most appropriate manner. Commercial Interior Designer will involve much more than decorating. It will include the choice of building materials, the placement of interior walls, plumbing and power systems, coordinating communication etc.. This level of Interior Designer requires to have the solid working knowledge of architecture as well as sense for creating functional and attractive settings with the space.
  19. 19. NEED It is important to understand the business specialty even before seeking projects in that specialty. An advantage of understanding the client’s business is that the interior design will be more functional. One issue that is expected is the customer of business. Different design decisions will be made if a restaurant’s customers are neighborhood residents, tourists or business executives. The type of work conducted in a business also varies with the nature of the business. The work done in a coffee shop that only sells coffee products and bakery goods is very different from that of a full service, higher end restaurant. The work of designer begins with the understanding the business which means understanding the purpose and goal of a business along with the type of facility to be provided.
  20. 20. Corporate and Executive Offices Healthcare Facilities Hospitality and Entertainment Facilities Retail/Merchandising Facilities Transportation Facilities/Methods Institutional Facilities Industrial Facilities Types of Commercial Design
  21. 21. TYPES OF COMMERCIAL DESIGN 1. Corporate and Executive Offices • Professional offices • Financial institutions • Law firms • Accounting firms • Real estate firms • Travel agencies 2. Healthcare Facilities • Hospitals • Surgery centers • Psychiatric facilities • Rehabilitation facilities • Medical labs • Veterinary clinics 3. Hospitality and Entertainment Facilities • Hotels, motels, and resorts • Restaurants • Health clubs and spas • Sports complexes • Theaters • Museums 4. Retail/Merchandising Facilities • Department stores • Malls and shopping centers • Specialized retail stores • Showrooms • Galleries 5. Institutional Facilities • Government offices and facilities • Schools—all levels • Day-care centers • Religious facilities • Prisons 6. Industrial Facilities • Manufacturing areas • Training areas in industrial buildings • Research and development laboratories 7. Transportation Facilities/Methods • Airports • Bus and train terminals • Tour ships • Yachts
  22. 22. RetailOfficeRestaurant
  23. 23. Retail Design
  24. 24. RETAIL SPACES Retail Design and store planning concentrates on retail venues, including boutiques, department stores, outlets, showrooms, food retailing centers, and shopping malls. Gaining experience and knowledge about retailing will be an advantage for us in designing any kind of retail space People love to look, window shop, and buy. Shopping as an experience should provide fun which in turn provides profits. A successful store or shop is one that is designed to merchandise in addition to looking good. Designing a store includes the study of the interior as well as exterior & window display. For a retail store, it is mainly the exterior which provokes customers to buy. How a retail store visually welcomes a customer has to do a lot with whether or not they enter a store. 1. Store sign 2. Marquee 3. Banners 4. Awnings 5. Window display 6. Props & signage's and many more. All these points play an important role in designing a retail store. .
  25. 25. DESIGN Design is a fundamental soul of man-made creation. Design is the only thing that differentiates one product from another in the market place. Design is an intangible value to product. .
  26. 26. RETAIL Retail is the process of selling consumer goods and/or services to customers through multiple channels of distribution to earn a profit. It is one of the largest sector of business in the world. .
  27. 27. TYPES OF RETAIL SPACES  Specialty Store:- It carries narrow product line, they can be apparel store, florist and book store having a deep assortment within the line. . • Super Market:- It’s a large, low cost, low margin, high volume, self service operation. They have been designed to serve the consumers total needs for food laundry and household maintenance. .
  28. 28.  Departmental Store:- It carries several product line, clothing , home furnishing and household goods. Each department over here is managed by a specialized buyer or a merchandiser. .  Hyper Market:- These are even larger. It contains supermarket, discount store, ware house along the other stores.
  29. 29.  Super Store :- Combination of Hyper Market and super store’s average 35000 sq.ft of selling space. They have the total needs of the consumer. They offer services like shoe repairing, dry cleaning, lunch counters etc. combination store is a diversification of super market with drug and prescription store. .  Off Price Retailers:- They are ordinary discounters who sell at wholesale price.
  30. 30.  Discount Store:- A discount store sells standard merchandise at a lower price by accepting lower margins of profit. .  Convenience Stores:- These are located near to the residential areas and are opened seven days a week for long hours and they are relatively small store.
  31. 31. RETAIL DESIGN Retail design has become an important aspect for any retail company because it can make a big difference when it comes about sales and profits. Any retail space must be specially designed to draw people into the space to shop by taking into account the kind of product being sold in that space Is A complex study which incorporates the management of people and space with the ability to respond to retail’s most important characteristics CHANGE… .
  32. 32. HOW DO CUSTOMER BUY..?? A consumer connects his lifestyle with a product he/she sees in the window display than only the consumer is attached towards the store. 80% of our impressions are created by sight and that is why “one picture is worth a thousand words”. Buying is a Psychological Process which includes use of senses and the senses are  Sight  Sound  Smell  Touch  Taste People shop or buy a product only after analyzing it. They use their senses to select any product. .
  33. 33. CONCEPTS HOW A CUSTOMER BUY..??  Traditional Concept:- This was the common way of buying. Customer doesn’t have the facility to touch, feel or examine the product. Customer used to stand outside the shop and what they need, they used to ask the shopkeeper to give them. .  Modern Concept:- Nowadays, people buy those things which they can feel, touch or examine, they have the proper knowledge of the product. Customers like to move in the store and feels the space. .
  34. 34. HOW DO CUSTOMER LOCATE BUSINESS..??  Before considering all the points of retail design the major decision a store has to make is the location. The location of the business outlet plays a significant role on its performance.  Along with the location of a store, Road marks and road signs are helpful in locating a business to customers. They should be attractive and should be different the competitors road signs.  They should be visible from the distance and should be well illuminated so that the customer can locate, radium's are the best form for illuminating the road signs for making it visible.  The most important is the exterior sign of a store ”a sign is a silent salesperson” and a part of shoppers first impression of a store.  Name of the store has to be bold, simple, large, easy to read, well designed and should convey a feeling of welcome. .
  35. 35. A STORE IS DIVIDED INTO VARIOUS PARTS:-  Exterior Presentation  Window Display  Interior Presentation  Visual Merchandising  Entrance  Circulation
  36. 36. EXTERIOR PRESENTATION How a store visually welcomes customer has a lot to do with whether or not they enter the store. Although good prices and positive word of mouth, advertising is important, it is hard to overcome the negative image of a poor store exterior. Exterior Presentation of retail store includes:-  Store Sign  Store Name  Marquee  Banners  Awnings  Walks and Entries  Landscaping
  37. 37. A sign is a silent sales person and a part of shoppers first impression of a store. In less than 10 seconds the sign must attract attention and tell who the business is and what it has to sell off premise. Signs provide information and direction specially for travelers ad new residents. Sign can also help communicate a poor location. A sign design conveys a great deal about the business inside. A stark design(simple) and limited material suggest discount price and no frills shop. Elegant and expensive sign material may suggest luxury goods and services. When preparing a sign do not forget to consider size, shape, material, lettering, height, placements and structure. The stores sign is its signature. The lettering should be large enough to read from 200 feet, which is the distance required to stop a car travelling 40Kms/ hour. Signs with 8 inch letters can be read from a distance upto 250feet. A car travelling 55Kms/ hour need about 400feet to stop, so our design will require 12 inches lettering sign to be read at that distance. Signs should be used to target a specific market segment such as youth, women, senior citizens, singles etc. When you have several rectangular sign in close proximity to each other, construct an oval or circular sign that stands out. Consider the signs relationship with its surroundings. Simple, well designed, easy to read signs convey a feeling of welcome. Focus on one or two key words to describe business.  EXTERIOR OR STORE SIGN
  39. 39. Name of the store has to be bold, simple, large, easy to read, well designed and should convey a feeling of welcome. The height of the letter of the sign should be minimum 8 inches. The name should have self illumination. The proper optical space should be given in the name of the store otherwise customer will not be able to read. Three types of fascia sign are:-  Painted  Fret-cut in metal  STORE NAME  Illuminated Box
  40. 40. A special type of sign to display the name of the store. It can be sometimes a kind of permanent canopy at the entrance or on top of the building to promote the showcasing of season display, an effective marquee must stand out from other businesses to attract attention.  MARQUEE
  41. 41. Banners are used increasingly as an inexpensive eye catching means of promotion. Banners can be hung from flat poles or projected from the building. This leads to making the consumer feel that change are taking place.  BANNERS
  42. 42. The window awnings provide the customer with protection from weather and makes viewing of the window display more pleasant as it reduces heat, cuts down on glare and reflection and prevents fading of merchandise from exposure to the sun. it adds appeal to the window display. May businesses use black lit awning, electrical awnings. A variety of styles of awnings are available square, long dome etc. the fabric of canopy is vinyl it can be translucent/ transparent.  AWNINGS
  43. 43. 75% of the first time customer remember the store front. It provides the first and the last view of the stores interior. Picture walking along the wall where the flat surface is plain glass door, as opposed to the protective feeling offered by walking under a porch or canopy. Entrances that allows shoppers to come into a store without being aware of their entry is becoming more popular . Whenever we add an entry way it should be designed to blend with the architecture of building.  WALKS AND ENTRIES
  44. 44. Landscaping should lead the customers eye to the focal point using color and texture to provide contrast and harmony. The focal point is the business sign and the building itself. Landscape screens the undesirable sight such as power transformer, refrigeration equipment's, garbage areas etc. The essence of good landscaping is simplicity that means the designs that are easy to maintain. A proper landscaping increases the acoustics of a place. Use benches for resting and relaxing in the landscape done in front of the retail outlet, this encourages the customer to stay longer.  LANDSCAPING
  45. 45. WINDOW DISPLAY The window display’s main task is to communicate to potential customers the essence of the interior and to display a glimpse of what can be found on the other side of the glass. The shop front is a draw to buyers to make them feel comfortable when approaching the store and venturing over the threshold.  It is a major factor often overlooked in the success or failure of a retail store.  Attractive product display highlight the display and the focus of the merchandise increases.  By a pleasant room temperature, attractive general lighting and nice fragrance, along with suitable background music increases the purchase decision.  Shop Windows are regularly updated i.e. within 15 days to show the latest products in the store. .Points to be followed here are:-  Principles of design  Color and Lighting  Influence of background color on Merchandise  Color Rules that can improve Display  Colors to be used for displaying Merchandise  Props, fixtures & signage – floor covering, wall treatment, background & backdrop, mannequins, shelves & steps  Non-merchandise props- Desks, tables, chairs, shopping bags, pencil, pen, paper
  47. 47.  PRINCIPLES OF DESIGN To execute a display to sell merchandise, it is necessary to have a working knowledge of the principles of design. The primary principles of design used in display include balance, proportion, rhythm, emphasis, color, lighting and harmony. When applied appropriately all parts of the display are pulled together to create a purposeful, effective and aesthetically pleasing presentation. An understanding of these principles will make it easier to design a display for all types of merchandise. The Principles Of Design are:- PRINCIPLES BALANCE EMPHASIS PROPORTION RHYTHM HARMONY
  48. 48. BALANCE Two types of Balance are:-  Symmetrical or Traditional Balance  Informal or Asymmetrical Balance Symmetrical or Traditional Balance Traditional or Symmetrical balance is large on one side and large on other side. This is effective where expensive and quality merchandise is being presented
  49. 49. Informal or asymmetrical Balance  Informal or asymmetrical balance creates flow of rhythm and feeling of excitement.  The two sides of display appear to be equal in weight, but they are not replicas of each other.  Something large can be balanced by several small objects or an expanse of empty space, a bright color or a shot of lights.  Several soft colors in a large space can be balanced by one bright color because of the intensity of bright color will compensate for its small size.
  50. 50. EMPHASIS It is the point of initial eye contact. From this spot all other eye movements flow. There should be emphasis in all the displays. This can be by virtue of focal point’s size, color or position. Whenever emphasis is to be created it recedes an impact when thin, fuzzy lines, irregular shapes, regular spacing between the objects, cool colors, dull intensities, medium tints and shades, dull and opaque texture, small and over all patterns, even light absorption reduces the impact of the show window. Eye movement is from left to right
  51. 51.  Triangle is the strongest shape in design as it has the best load bearing capacity.  Circle attracts the attention at the center Size difference and eye movement from small to large and left to right. The focal point is the small square. The eye movement is from the square to the space below the dashed line.
  52. 52. PROPORTION It is the ratio of the parts to the whole display. It is a comparative relationship of distances, sizes, amounts, degrees or parts. Each piece of merchandise must be considered in relationship to all the other merchandise. The blocks in the pyramid are all in proportion to each other. If not in proportion. Then people have trouble looking at it. The size of these steps are also in proportion.
  53. 53.  Do not use all large objects, break monotony and sameness of large feeling.  Use odd numbers in display.  Add small objects of odd number, but related with large pieces create interest and Balance.  Ratio of merchandise to space is critical:- i. Each piece of merchandise must be considered in relation to other. ii. The ratio of props and show card of merchandise must be in proportion to avoid appearance of stress or selling your props rather than your merchandise. iii. Each object should not be too large or too small nor too heavy or too light in proportion of other items in display. iv. Proportion and contrast work wonders and same is with color and texture. A pair of baby shoes is seen next to a big teddy bear. Proportion is also important when repetition is used in a display.
  54. 54. RHYTHM It is the ratio of the parts to the whole display. It is a comparative relationship of distances, sizes, amounts, degrees or parts. Each piece of merchandise must be considered in relationship to all the other merchandise.  It has an organized movement.  It has self contained movement from object to object, Background to foreground and side to side. . The size of these steps are also in proportion.
  55. 55.  It should lead the viewers eye from dominant object to subordinate object or from primary presentation of the grouping down to the arrangement of accessories or alternate parts of display.  Repetition gives impact to the arrangement.  English reading people read from left to right. So we should create the display left to right  Use elements that mean something together and relate to the merchandise.  Create a pattern through the use of high and dark either with color or light.  Overlapping of objects placed together in the display area can prevent the blank space that could exist with an even number of items in the display. Progression of Size
  56. 56.  Overlapping is good method of creating good flow. It is used for displaying odd numbers of display.  Use fabric or color that unifies the theme. Radiation Flow is created by a continuous line movement created by the placement of the items in the display.
  57. 57. HARMONY It is a coordinating UMBRELLA principle that can cover and incorporate every other principle. Harmony is agreement in feeling and consistency in mood; ,the feeling that all parts of display relate to each other and to the whole display. Without harmony, the observer is uncomfortable and will not be enticed to purchase merchandise. Types of Harmony:- • Structural Harmony:- It is correctly fitting all the pieces ; merchandise should be out of place in the display. • Functional Harmony:- It deals with how something works physically , which means it must be realistic and must work. An example is kitchen counter used in a display that is the appropriate • Decorative Harmony:- It includes the part of display that are included only for decorative purposes. These items are attractive and add to the theme.
  58. 58. “Light Catches Our Attention And Lead Our Eyes”  A shopper’s eye is drawn automatically to the brightest item or area, we need to pay attention that the lighting used outside should be 2-5 times stronger than the lighting used inside the store  If the object is of warm color warm light will be used  If the object is of cool color, cool light will be used.  COLOR AND LIGHTING
  59. 59.  INFLUENCE OF BACKGROUND COLOR ON MERCHANDISE Color of Merchandise YELLOW Enhanced in Richness RED BLUE GREEN ORANGE PURPLE White Background Lightly Duller Warmer Brighter Far More Brilliant Darker, Purer Bright but Less Intense Brighter but Loses Saturation More Luminous Paler and Sharpened Luminous Loses Strength and Brilliancy Richer and Darker Deepens in Value Darker and Redder Darker A Little More Luminous Lighter And Yellowish Lighter And Yellowish Brighter, Grey becomes Greenish Black Background Brighter Increases Brilliancy Increases Brilliancy Grey becomes Green Beige Background Grey Background
  60. 60.  If colors are too bright than they will overwhelm pastels.  Several soft colors in a large space can be balanced by one bright color because the intensity of bright color will compensate for its small size.  Pastel color object will not be seen with bold color object.  If yellow color is used with white then white will not be seen because yellow has high frequency.  Small objects are seen in front of a bigger object. But if the bigger object is of bold color then small objects will not be seen.  COLOR RULES THAT CAN IMPROVE DISPLAY
  61. 61.  Leather goods:- A comfortable background color choice for leather goods in the mid value range such as beige or grey. This is the colors used and works well too for intimate apparel and ready to wear.  Infant and Toddler:- Green should be avoided, light colors such as pink, yellow, blue and whites should not be used as background colors in the infant and toddler area as they are the colors used in the merchandise sol. The small size of garments and the generally light tones make the merchandise invisible. Brighter, sharper colors help these pastels stand out.  Girls and Boys Merchandise:- Background colors for girls merchandise should be neutral because of the extensive range of color there. Boys department go with bright colors because the clothes tend to bright or deep tones.  Brass Goods:- Browns and burgundies are great for displaying brass goods. Gift areas can use black and white with bright accents.  Hardware Store:- Bright orange, bright red and blue are appropriate colors to select for hardware stores as they provide best contrast with the wood handles and metals of hardware.  Sporting Goods:- Sky blue and tennis court green enhance sporting goods and equipments because of their outdoor associations.  Junior Department:- It utilize various color background depending on current fashion vogue. When neon colors are fashionable, white is suitable background but when subtle colors are in fashion, white is too cold and overpowering.  Men's Wear:- Dark green or dark blue colors used with neutral as accent is effective for men’s wear areas. Primary, secondary, peach, light blue and green colors should be avoided.  Grocery:- Stores that carry china and glass can effectively use grey, browns and blue background. Browns work especially well with bone china and blues are attractive with porcelain, grey can be used with either of china. Silver should not be shown on brown background because reflection will make silver appear tarnished.  COLORS TO BE USED FOR DISPLAYING MERCHANDISE
  62. 62. INTERIOR PRESENTATION It requires particular attention in specialty shops. Types range from displays of staple goods which assist customers in selection, to displays of accessories which the sale of staples may suggest to the customer. Problems of arrangement regarding to merchandise, departments and routes of customers approach are involved. Experienced sales people can tell at a glance the customer who is satisfied with shopping and too bewildered to buy. After he has been refreshed by a brief rest, the customer’s interest can be recaptured quickly. Such relaxation may be mental or physical, or both. Interior Presentation of retail store includes:-  Store Layout (Plan)  How to organize store space  Selling Area  Point of Sales  Transition Zone  Butt-Brush Effect  Chevroning  Seating Area  Dressing Rooms  Sounds And Smell  Floor  Wall  Ceiling  We need to make the important element placed at the right side.
  63. 63. Store layout needs to guide the customer silently about where he/she wants to go and for exposing him/her to the entire store offering. The store itself is the most meaningful communication between the retailer and customer. The store layout should entice customers to move around the store to purchase more merchandise than they may have originally planned. For any store design there are six basic plan types 1. Straight Plan 2. Pathway Plan 3. Diagonal Plan 4. Curved Plan 5. Varied Plan 6. Geometric Plan  TYPE OF PLAN (STORE LAYOUT)
  64. 64.  Straight Plan:-This is the conventional form of layout that utilizes walls and projections to create smaller spaces. It is very economical plan to execute and can be adapted for any store. The merchandise here pulls the customer to the back of the store.  Pathway Plan:- It pulls patter in through the store to the rear. It generally made for large stores which are 5000sq. Ft. or more and on one level. In between the path there are no fixtures or any interruption, this path can take any shape and can create any design pattern. The designer can use the floor or the ceiling for directional elements.
  65. 65.  Diagonal Plan:- It permits angular traffic flow and creates perimeter design interest and excitement in movement. Central placement of cash-wrap permits security and vision. Mainly used for self service stores.  Curved Plan:- For boutiques, salons and high quality store. This creates an inviting and special environment also costs more in creation. People respond to circular and curved shapes. They soften the angular square plan.
  66. 66.  Varied Plan:-This plan has ”bellows effect”. For products that require back up merchandise to be adjacent(shoes and men’s shirts). The varied plan is highly functional. It is a variation of straight plan where the square footage for keeping boxes can be done along the perimeter of the shop. Varied Plan illustrates added variety of forms which can work to a designer’s advantage.  Geometric Plan:-This plan can establish interest without excessive cost. Ceiling and floors can be lowered or raised to create departments and zones.
  67. 67. The store needs to be designed that it permits the store keeper to keep a close check on profit or losses from various types of goods. It becomes easy for handling, controlling and wrapping stock and at the same time training sales people(toilet, changing room, control room).  HOW TO ORGANIZE STORE SPACE
  68. 68. Point of sales mark the end of the journey around the store and is the point at which a customer will pay for goods.  POINT OF SALES
  69. 69. Transition zone is the zone where a customer pause, sense, feels and experience the space. The transition zone should be maximum 10’x10’. For a small store where space is at a premium, the goal is to keep transition zone as small as possible. .  TRANZITION ZONE
  70. 70. Each customer has an area of personal space. This is an area that when invaded causes customer to feel uncomfortable. When the shopper is bumped while looking at merchandise, they may become uncomfortable, lose interest and leave the area. Creating maneuvering room for customers eliminates the butt-brush effect. More maneuvering room extends time, customers spend in the store and enhances the ability of purchasing.  BUTT-BRUSH EFFECT
  71. 71. The key to having customers purchase items is their ability to locate items in the store. We should maximize customer’s view of the merchandise by chevroning. Chevroning involves ”placing shelves or racks at an angle”, instead of shelves being placed at the traditional ninety degree angle to the aisle. The outcome of chevroning is that shelves are located at 45 degrees.  CHEVRONING
  72. 72. Shopping tends to be a social activity . People like to shop with others , these shopping partners need a place to rest. If shopping partners have a place to sit, most likely they will not complain and shopping can continue for longer time. Seating should be provided by the dressing rooms.  SEATING AREA
  73. 73. Many retailers want to maximize the non-selling areas(storage) of their stores. Some apparel retailers make mistakes of assuming that a dressing room is a non-selling area whereas dressing room is the location where most apparel decisions are made. It needs lights, wall hooks, mirrors should be large, it must be clearly marked so that a customer can easily locate it.  DRESSING ROOMS
  74. 74. Sounds and smells can influence consumer purchasing decisions. Many stores diffuse artificial fragrances through their heating and air-conditioning vents or place scent machines above their doors. It was found that aroma increased the number of customers purchasing items and amount of their purchases. It was found when subjected to loud music, customers will spend less time in a store. Customers shop longer when exposed to unfamiliar music  SOUND AN SMELL “THE LONGER THE RETAILER CAN KEEP A CUSTOMER IN THEIR STORE, THE MORE THE CUSTOMER WILL BUY”.
  75. 75. Floors come in a variety of materials and finishes, but the key to a retail floor is durability. The expected lifespan of a floor finish can be anything from one years to 20 years depending on the retailer’s needs. The floor finish is used to define different areas within the store. Walkways, display areas and point of sale may all have different finishes within the same scheme.  FLOOR
  76. 76. Walls are one of the most important elements in the retail environment. They support the bulking structurally, but they can be used to display vast amounts of products, create feature displays and have color, texture and pattern applied to them in different finishes. Walls act as a divider between product offers or areas, as a piece of sculpture in its own right, or to add focus to a space.  WALL
  77. 77. The ceiling plays a huge role in the feel of the entire retail space. It is the architectural element that goes mostly unnoticed, but it is incredibly functional. The ceiling have light fittings, air- conditioning ducts, fire alarms and sometimes music speakers.  CEILING
  78. 78. VISUAL MERCHANDISING Visual Merchandising or Visual Display is a major factor often overlooked in the success or failure of a retail store. It encourages impulse buying by the customer. It helps in creating a positive image of a business and results in interest and attention, so also desire and action on the part of the customer 80% of our impressions are created by sight and that is why one picture is worth a thousand words. Each customer has a mental image of the store and its merchandise. Some businesses maintain minimum staff to reduce cost which means we need to pay more importance to the merchandise display so that it makes the customer easy to find and purchase. .
  80. 80. CIRCULATION Circulation diagrams are produced as ways of thinking and describing different schemes to the client. The circulation performs two main tasks:- • To allow for the flow of people in the form of walkways. These must be wide enough for at least two peoples to pass each other comfortably, whether walking or on a wheelchair, or pushing a pram. • To take the customer to the merchandise and allow them ample space to browse without bumping into other people or displays.
  81. 81. • HORIZONTALLY • VERTICALLY • SPINE – LEAD • CIRCULAR • LOOOP • ZIG-ZAG • FREE FLOW .  CIRCULATION CAN WORK The principles of circulation are quite simple and are governed by the ways in which people move around the space. Circulation an work horizontally, allowing the customer access through the shop front, with products displayed either side of the walkway and with an exit at the back, or vertically with merchandise displayed over more than one floor. This scheme is more complicated in the sense that stairs, lifts and escalators need to be negotiated, and methods for enticing people on to the upper floors must be considered. Circulation in a zig-zag or figure-of-eight fashion across the store allows for points of interest to be included and creates a longer journey and a variety of ways to travel around the space. The circular pattern takes customer from the front to the back and then to the front again.  PRINCIPLE OF CIRCULATION
  82. 82. ENTRANCE The design of a entrance to a store is very important. It needs to entice the customers in and gives a glimpse of products beyond the threshold. Entrances are that allow shoppers to come into a store without being aware of their entry. Once beyond the threshold, the entrance space is the starting point of the interior journey. It is an area of the store that is often left open and spacious, giving the customer time to pause and take in the store environment and to make way for people entering and existing the store comfortably. In larger stores, it is a place to meet friends before or after shopping, sometimes with seating areas on the sides out of the main flow of traffic.
  83. 83.  TRADITIONAL ENTRANCE .  TYPE OF ENTRANCE • Façade of Building • Symmetry • Modest Graphics • Standard Fonts and Colors • Mannequins Traditional Entrance:- The design of traditional shop front has a sense of symmetry and is set out in proportion to the existing buildings elevation. In some instances a standard front, text size and color may be specified as well as the type of signage. Signage may have to be painted onto the fascia. There is a framing done on the show windows. Dark colours were used in traditional shop front.
  84. 84.  CONTEMPORARY ENTRANCE . • Frameless • Transparency • Graphic Language • Live Colors • Story Telling & Scenography Contemporary Entrance:- it focuses on allowing light and visual access right into the store from the street. The look is clean with glazing reaching from floor to fascia panel or sometimes with the fascia situated inside the glass sat in a brushed stainless steel frame. Contemporary show windows are frameless , depicts transparency, graphic language, live colors are used and a story or a scene is depicted through it.
  85. 85. • Exterior façade, logo • Threshold, transition • Shop windows • Transparency • Interaction • Mystery, posters • Display
  86. 86.  FAÇADE ENTRANCE  Entrance of a store plays a significant role.  It needs to entice a customer in and give the glimpse of the products.  People enter the stores which are without the doors and guards.  They don’t even realize when they entered the store.  Customers hesitate before entering a shop with the door front and the security guards standing at the entrance..
  87. 87.  OPEN AND SPACIOUS AREA  The entrance space area has to be left open and spacious at least space of 10’X10’ is left.  Giving customer time to pause and take in the store’s environment and to make way for customers entering and exiting the store comfortably.
  88. 88.  TRANSPARENCY  Customers are able to see across the window displays to the store behind.  Allowing the transparency and interaction.
  89. 89.  MYSTERY  Blocked displays creates the mystery in customer’s mind.  It brings the customer’s main focus to the display.
  90. 90.  DISPLAY  Display plays a vital role. It encourages impulse buying by the customer. It helps in creating a positive image of a business and results in interest and attention.
  91. 91. After studying about the RETAIL. A case study was assigned to me for retail shop design in which I was suppose to design a store for the brand STANLEY. In the subsequent slides you will come across the case study given and the process of planning and designing a retail store.
  92. 92. CASE STUDY I am suppose to design a store for a leading furniture and interior finishes brand STANLEY. The space has to reflect the brand positioning, the range of products and brand image. The space has to be given due justice to the various sub categories of products, the space and the décor has to be modular and the space should have the ability to transform, move around and be utilized as per the product need. All services for the space should keep this in mind while being designed. Retail design is an ever evolving field that has to be able to relate the end user. The end user comes from various strata's and the store should be welcoming to all. Pillar The floor space of 57’3”x37’1” of the shop. Wall Glass
  93. 93. _Plan _Elevation
  94. 94. CASE STUDY The 2,109 sq. mts. Floor space is located on the ground floor of a premium mall in the upcoming suburbs of Pune. The façade and the store frontage are of prime importance to the client. The building is on a corner plot surrounded by two roads north and east side. The store is inside the mall and has no show window or external view. DESIGN BRIEF The Office Generally Consists Of A Near Rectangular Space With Floor To Ceiling Height Of 4,000mm. No Additional Window Opening Are Permitted On The External Walls. No Changes To The Façade. Door Location Cannot Be Changed. Liberty To Propose New Flooring And Revised Toilet Arrangements If Required, Keeping In Mind Location Of The External Supply And Drainage Pipes On North Wall. No Structural Changes And Alterations To External Walls Are Permitted. SITE CONDITIONS
  95. 95. CASE STUDY • Cashier And Help Desk Station • Customer Interaction Area • Sofa Set Display 3/2/1 • Display Of Two To 3 Bedroom Sets • Display Of 25 Sofas (Should Comprise The Varied Range That Stanley Offers) • Wardrobes • Collection series REQUIREMENTS • Air conditioning : chilled water tap provided by the developer. AHU to be located as per site requirement. • Electrical : tap off provided by the developer at the premise. Installations keeping in mind proper retail illumination levels, trunking, networking, connectivity, internet and prevalent green norms. • The Budget : for the project cannot exceed Rs. 20,00,000 and the execution work is to be completed within 45 days. The students are expected to work on the block costing. COST/ SERVICES TO BE CONSIDERED
  96. 96. CASE STUDY Your design presentations should include the following and should drafted in the scale 1:100 • Layout plan • Flooring plan • Ceiling plan with all services shown • Elevations min 4 • Two 3D views showing the store in totality DESIGN DRAWING EXPECTATIONS 1. The exact size of the furniture needs to be plotted that are available on the Stanley website in there different collections. 2. Full height storages must be provided for certain equipment that is kept for moment of furniture within the store. 3. As the showroom is in a mall, the mall has given a point where the main cable for this shop is given. From here the internal electrical works should be done. 4. It is expected that students will work out an interior design appropriate to the changing face to the international retail, which will sustain for many years, and is reflective of company’s image. 5. Please note: material board to have digital images with the details given of each materials used including manufacturer/code/specification and physical samples and models will be disallowed. IMPORTANT
  97. 97. STANLEY FURNITURE Stanley Furniture was founded in 1924 by Thomas B. Stanley, a farmer-turned- industrialist, who later became Governor of the Commonwealth of Virginia. Since 1924, Stanley Furniture has built a reputation as one of the most respected and recognized names in the home furnishing industry, with quality, stylish, affordable furniture offered in a array of colors, materials, finishes and layouts, with durability that keeps your furniture looking new for generations. Stanley Furniture products feature fashionable designs and artisanal finishes, styles from all major categories. Stanley offers a wide selection of furniture for the entire home, including dining, bedroom, home office, home entertainment, and accent items.
  98. 98. To design any store for retail space we need to understand it is like a “carte blanche” (blank document) and to design it in a proper manner we need to understand certain aspects which are enumerated below:-
  99. 99. METHOD OF SOLVING We have to divide the case study into 2 parts:- Exterior + Window Display Interior Case Study
  100. 100. The further pages will describe the Brainstorming and Idea generation, the points that I have incorporated in my design development from the above points, the interior of my design. For the given case study I have done the space planning of the store. And the design development of 2 power display in the place of window display and 2 cubicles out of 9 cubicles.
  101. 101. After this step of brainstorming, I did space planning for the space and made a complete plan with the elevations In the subsequent pages you will come across the planning and elevation layouts of the store.
  102. 102. Restaurant Design
  103. 103. INTRODUCTION TO RESTAURANT DESIGN Eating has always been a sociable event and restaurant serves this purpose very well. Restaurant is a business of preparing & serving food in exchange of money. Restaurants have always played an essential role in the business, social and intellectual life of today’s society. It provides a perfect location for all celebrations or social gatherings. Restaurants can be of self service, road-side dhaba, A-La-Carte and the third places like the coffee shops, juice centers, ice-cream parlors and many more. These different types of restaurants may vary with their working but their purpose is same i.e., serving people so that they can take out time from their hectic lives & spend a quality time. People enjoy sitting down in a nice comfortable and pleasant surrounding of a restaurant and dinning on good quality food, leaving behind the hustle and bustle of daily life. Restaurants have always been a place where people spend leisure time & money. As living has gotten more hectic, with so much of interest and money riding on food, it is extremely important for a restaurant to develop new trends that positively impact customers.
  104. 104. RESTAURANT DESIGN For designing the interiors of a restaurant, we have to study the space requirements. Adequacy of the space will influence building and operating costs and efficiency and decisions pertaining to space allowance may be strongly affected by the limitations of investment funds and available space. Space allowance in relation to investment should be balanced in terms of : • Proposed permanence of the facility. • Acuteness of need for the specific operation. • Essentials for operating efficiency. • Desirable standards in terms of appearance, sanitation & good quality of production and service. • Immediate & future costs, depreciation, upkeep and maintenance. Studies made before the building is planned as to how space may be added and how the initial plan should be designed to minimize ultimate cost will be helpful. It is well to block out space allowances according to functions that the facility is to perform. Calculate area requirements in terms of : • Volume & type of service • Amount & size of equipment to be used. • Number of workers required. • Space for needed supplies. • Suitable traffic area. The dining area location & space allowance are usually determined first, the production areas next in terms of specific relationship to the dining area & the other section as required to these.
  105. 105. Collage for hospitality spaces
  106. 106. SPACE REQUIREMENTS FOR DINING AREA Space for dining area is usually based on the number of square feet per person seated times the number of persons seated at one time For example - Small children may require only 8sq. Ft. - Adult would need 12 sq. Ft. For the same. • A banquet seating allowance might be as little as 10sq.ft./Seat & for deluxe restaurant 20 sq.ft. • The diners comfort should govern allowance. Both young and old enjoy having sufficient elbow room. • Crowding is distasteful to many people, it is likely to be tolerated more readily by youngsters then adults. • Service stations may be estimated in the proportion of a small one for every 20 seats or a large central one for every 50-60 places. TYPE OF OPERATION SQ FT / SEAT Cafeteria, commercial 16-18 Cafeteria, college & industrial 12-15 Cafeteria, school lunchroom 9-12 College residence, table service 12-15 Counter service 18-20 Table service, hotel, club restaurant 15-18 Table service, minimum eating 11-14 Banquet minimum 10-11 Table 1 – Square feet per seat used for various types of food operation
  107. 107. SERVING AREAS • Space allowances for serving areas should be adapted to the needs of the specific facility. The menu, organization of work, and the number served will influence size. The type of service will also be influential in dictating space needed. • Serving areas for most table service facilities are planned as a part of the main cooking area. • Ideal design results when the flow of people from the serving facility is balanced with the seating available in the dining room. • At equilibrium conditions, the number of seats provided in the dining area has a direct relationship to the number of people leaving the serving line for a given average eating time. • The relationship can be expressed by the equation : R = N/T R = rate of people leaving serving area N = number of seats in dining area, and T = average eating time
  108. 108. Fig. 2 – Flow diagram showing functional relationships Employee dining Refrigerator & frozen storage Employee facilities Linen and paper storage Common storage Vegetable preparation Ventilated storage Cleaning supplies Garbage pick up Car and truck washing Janitor closet Time recorder Bake shop Fountain service Cook’s unit Meat preparation Salad & sandwich unit Pot & pan washing & storage Dishwashing Short order Servingarea Diningroom andcatering Manager’s office Guest facilities
  109. 109. SPACE REQUIREMENTS  When space is too small, labor time and efforts are likely to increase and the volume and quality of output decrease. When it is too large, building and maintenance costs are excessive.  Ample space is sometimes provided by means of low-cost materials and equipment of such inferior quality that they have short and unsatisfactory service life.  Space allowances in relation to investment should be balanced in terms of: -- proposed permanence of the facility -- acuteness of need for the specific operation -- essential for operating efficiency -- desirable standards in terms of appearance, sanitation and good quality of production and service -- immediate and future costs, depreciation, upkeep and maintenance  Requirements will vary for facilities of a given type and volume.  Production and storage requirements will be affected by location; type of operation; clientele; frequency of deliveries of supplies; kind of food used, such as fresh, frozen, or canned; and the completeness of processing to be done. The policies of those in charge will have an influence. Certain general information such as numbers to be served turnover, arrival rate, and type of service will be helpful in deciding dining area needs.  Area requirements are calculated in terms of:- -- volume and type of service -- amount and size of equipment to be used -- number of workers required -- space for needed supplies -- suitable traffic area  The dining area location and space allowances are usually determined first, the production areas next in terms of specific relationship to the dining area, and the other sections are required to these.
  110. 110.  I have planned according to the dimensions of Tie Savers Standards. all dimensions are pertaining to the standards. The dimensions will change if the person changes.  The patron’s size and the type and quality of service should be considered. Small children may require only 8 square feet for a type of service in which an adult would need 12 square feet for comfort. A banquet seating allowance might be as little as 10square feet per seat and that for a deluxe restaurant as much as 20 square feet.  The diner’s comfort should govern allowance. Crowding is distasteful to many people.  Place settings for adults usually allow 24 inches and for children 18 to 20 inches.  Service stations may be estimated in the proportion of one small one for every 20 seats or a large central one for every 50 to 60 places.  All of the areas in a dining room used for purposes other than seating are a part of the square footage allowed for seating. This does not include waiting area, guest facilities, cloakrooms, and other similar areas. Excessive loss or use of space for other than seating in the dining area will however, increase the needs.  Small substations for silver, dishes, napery, beverages, ice, butter, and condiments may measure 20 to 24 inches square and 36 to 38 inches high.  It is important that the table be of adequate size to accommodate the number of trays likely to be there. Four trays 14 by 18 inches fit better on a table 30 inches by 48 inches than on a table 42 inches square. Small tables, such as 24 or 30 inches square are economical for seating but are uncomfortable for large people. They are suitable in crowded areas with fast turnover and light meals.  Tables for booths are difficult for waitresses to serve if they are longer than 4 feet.  The maximum area best served by one waitress is generally 16 feet of counter. This will give 8 to 10 seats.
  111. 111.  A minimum passage area is 18 inches between chairs and, including chair area, tables should be spaced 4 to 5 feet apart.  Diagonal arrangement of square tables utilizes space better than square arrangement and yields a more trouble-free traffic lane. Table size influence patron’s comfort & efficient utilization of space and the best utilization of space can often be arrived at through the use of Diagonal Arrangement than square arrangement and yields a more traffic-free lane. Fig- 1. Rectangular and diagonal arrangement of tables. ‘NUMBER OF PERSONS’ ALLOWANCE The number of persons to be seated at one time is the second point of information needed for calculation of the dinning room size (Total no. of seats required x (Space required for each seat) = Total number of Sq.ft needed in at 1 time) Dining Area.
  112. 112. TYPE SHAPE MINIMUM SIZE(in.) SPACIOUS (in.) Table for 1’s or 2’s Square Rectangle Round 24 x 24 24 x 30 30 30 x 30 30 x 36 36 Table for 3’s or 4’s Square Rectangle Round 30 x 30 30 x 42 36 42 x 42 36 x 48 48 Table for 5’s or 6’s Rectangle Round 30 x 60 48 42 x 72 60 Drop leaf tables 30 x 30 in. opening to 42 in. round 36 x 36 in. opening to 52 in. round Table 2 - Typical sizes and shapes of dining tables Number of Person’s allowances:-  The number of times a seat is occupied during a given period is commonly referred to as “turnover”.  The turnover time is speed up 10 percent b patrons removing their soiled dishes so that the tables are quickly available for other guests.  Deluxe service for leisure dining, involving removal and placement of several courses, takes the longest time.  The calculation of occupancy of seats in a dining room must take into consideration a certain percentage of vacancy, except where a given number are seated at one time according to assignment. In table-service dining rooms this has been estimated as 20 percent of total capacity, in cafeterias from 12 to 18 percent, and for counter operations 10-12 percent.
  113. 113. The utilization of seating capacity tends to be greater for cafeterias than for table service. The patron may spend 25 to 50 percent of the time while seated at the table waiting for service. The cafeteria diner may begin eating as soon as he is seated. One cafeteria line can serve 4 to 8 patrons per minute depending on:- • Speed of the servers • The elaborateness of food selection • Convenience of the layout • Type of patrons Commercial restaurants located in shopping or office areas often have a heavier demand at noon than at the dinner hour. Kitchens serving a smaller number require a larger square footage per meal than those serving a larger number. The turnover is determined by estimating the average time a seat is occupied for the time period desired. For example, if the turnover is to be expressed on a per-hour basis and the average estimated time the seat is occupied is 20 minutes, the turnover rate is three. If the average seat occupancy time is 30 minutes, then the turnover rate is two per hour. Determining the turnover rate per meal period is useful for determining the total seating capacity based on estimated sales volume. Turnover rates are affected by the method of serving and serving time as well as by the type of customer, menu offerings and the dining atmosphere. Typical turnover rates for some types of food- service operations are given in table;- TYPE OF OPERATION TURNOVER RATE (per hour) Commercial Cafeteria 1 ½ - 2 ½ Industrial or School Cafeterias 2 - 3 Counter Service 2 – 3 ½ Leisurely Table Service ½ - 1 Regular Table Service 1 – 2 ½
  114. 114. Turnover rates can be increased to some extent by many design and operational factors. This is not to suggest that all facilities should be designed for high turnover rates. However, if high turnover is one of the basic objectives, then the planner and subsequent manager can do the following to accomplish this: • Use menu items that require short processing times, or use pre-dominantly preprocessed items. • Provide ample production space and equipment to handle the peak periods. • Use well-lighted and light-colored painted areas for serving and dining. • Arrange dining tables in close proximity to each other. • Develop a somewhat uncomfortable dining seat design. • Provide sufficient service personnel so guests are served promptly after they are seated • Provide for prompt clearing of the tables when a customer is finished with a course or the entire meal. • Make sure guest checks are presented to customers as soon as they are finished eating.
  115. 115. After studying in detail about the restaurants, I was given a case study to design a restaurant. In the subsequent slides you will come across the case study given and the process of planning and designing a restaurant.
  116. 116. CASE STUDY You are supposed to do space planning and create a restaurant for serving a multi- cuisine. As a designer you need to create a floor plan for this restaurant which needs to feature Reception, food serving area, toilet facilities and satellite kitchen. You need to provide location and give spaces for food receivables, storage, main kitchen, dishwashing, pot and pan washing, garbage, maintenance department for this restaurant. You also need to provide security and the time machine, staff parking zone, restrooms with toilets and sleeping facilities. The recruitment division, the remuneration and training division i.e. the HR Department. You need to specify the space for car parking of clients and the views on landscape provided by you for this restaurant.
  117. 117. MAP OF INDIA India lies on the Indian Plate, the northern portion of the Indo- Australian plate, whose continental crust forms the Indian subcontinent. The country is situated North of the Equator between 8⁰4’ and 37⁰6’North latitude and 68⁰7’ and 97⁰25’ east longitude. It is the seventh largest country in the world, with the total area of 3,287,263 square kilometers. The whole India has a tropical monsoon climate, since the greater part of the country lies within the tropics.
  118. 118. MAP OF RAJASTHAN • Location of Rajasthan in India is “north-west” direction. • Longitude of Rajasthan 69⁰29’ and 78⁰17’ East • Latitude of Rajasthan 23⁰30’ and 30⁰11’ North • The climate of Rajasthan is generally hot and dry • The hottest season summer extends from April to June. The temperature in this season ranges from 32⁰C to 45⁰C • Extending from December to March is the winter season the temperature ranges from 10⁰C to 27⁰C
  119. 119. MAP OF AJMER • Ajmer has a typical desert climate and hot and arid with over 55 cms of rain every year. • Temperature remains relatively high throughout the year, with summers having maximum temperature near 40⁰C and minimum is 28⁰C • The winters are chilly with minimum temperature 5⁰C • Longitude- 74⁰42’North • Latitude- 26⁰27’ East
  120. 120. ORIENTATION In every plan orientation is must to be paid attention to i.e. the directions East, West, North, South. We check the orientation of a site by placing a compass in the center of a plot. If the building is properly oriented the each part of the building is well lighted up and has proper ventilation. This reduces the use of artificial lighting in the buildings. With the help of orientation we can decide where to place the windows and doors in our plan and can decide the place for the reception desk, waiting area and the dining area etc. orientation plays a significant role in planning of a space. Orientation of my plot is EAST facing. NORTH SOUTH WEST EAST WINTER SUN SUMMER SUN INTENSE SUN Preferred Zone For Building Orientation Acceptable QUADRANT Of Windows orientation TOTAL SHADE
  121. 121. SITE SELECTION AND ANALYSIS Location of the site, site analysis, site and its surrounding are first undertaken. Site analysis is the process of surveying or studying the existing environment and how it will influence, the structural design and layout of the site. Site analysis must be completed first before design development. Residential Zone Rajasthan Food Plaza Proposed SitePlot PlotPlot
  122. 122. ACCESSIBILITY TO THE SITE The main entrance and the main road abutting the site is very important for any kind of project. Residential Zone Proposed Site Plot Rajasthan Food Plaza Plot Entrance of my site is East facing
  123. 123. Major Landmarks Connecting Site The connectivity to main roads and other sub roads:- The distance from major landmarks such as:- Railway Station – 3.4 Kms Bus Stand – 3.3 Kms Dargah Sharif – 3.5 Kms Pushkar – 13 Kms Shopping Centers (Bioscope) – 450 m Hospital (Get Well) – 400 m Dimension of site – 46’x 50’ Area of site – 2300 sq.ft.
  124. 124. MACROCLIMATE Macro climate is the climate of a large geographic areas such as geographic zones, continents and oceans or large parts or even the entire Earth. It deals with main climatic features of the areas. Macro climate are characterized by quantitative indexes that refer to the entire area being considered that is, intervals with which particular climatic characteristics change throughout the area or their average values for the entire area. The macro climate is contrasted with local climate and micro climate. To control macro climate is not in the hands of the designer.
  125. 125. MICRO CLIMATE A micro climate is a local set of atmospheric conditions that differ from those of the surrounding area. It is the climate of a small, specific place within a large area. Setting and site layout followed by landscaping can improve the micro climate around the building, taking advantage of existing topographical feature, adjacent buildings and vegetation for solar protections. Good site layout can also take greater advantage of local breezes by formation of air funnels and also aid natural ventilation by staggering of the building layout. The presence of water and vegetation of the site can also be used for natural cooling. Good site layout can reduce loads appreciably by optimizing natural solar protection and local breezes. Micro climate depends upon the shades, sunlight, wind at a particular space. Element of site design that can be used for controlling the micro climate of hospitality space and for efficient natural cooling are landscaping around the building, orientation to sun and wind, building shape, cavity walls construction, water bodies, natural ventilation and the proper selection of materials for the spaces are the best ways of controlling a micro climate of space.
  126. 126. RESTAURANTS IN AJMER What are Restaurants and Why people go?? Restaurant is a place where people come to spend some quality time with their loved ones. They come to the Restaurants so that they can get relaxed of their busy schedules and can get some quality time for themselves and their family members in addition to resolve their need for food, thus the place has to be comfortable, lively etc. It is a place where different types of cuisines and beverages are served to the diners. Restaurants can be of many types self service, a-la-carte table service, Dhabas, fast food outlets, third places etc. Some restaurants serve all the major meals of the day (i.e. breakfast, lunch, dinner) while other may only serve single meal or may serve two meals. Earlier it was believed that going out to a restaurant for eating meal was considered to be a luxury but nowadays people just need a small reason to eat out. Some of the reasons are:-  People just want to celebrate the each and every occasion whether small or big.  People believe in meeting people outside as there is already a perfect environment set.  During the time of travelling people just don’t have any other option but to eat out.  As nowadays all the family members are working and earning, people prefer to go out for their meals because eating out gives them a chance to get a break of their busy schedules.
  127. 127. During the tenure of my study program I was given a Hospitality Design project, I was suppose to design a restaurant in Ajmer. But before starting up with the space planning and designing the given project I did a SWOT analysis of restaurants in Ajmer, so that I can give the best outcome to Ajmer
  128. 128. SWOT ANALYSIS Strength:- Historical monuments and places like Dargah Sharif, Pushkar, Soniji ki nasiyan, FoySagar Lake, Akbar’s fort and Museum, Anasagr Lake, Adhai din ka Jhopda etc. makes the Ajmer a tourist destination. Many tourists from other states and countries come to visit these historical places. These historical places are the strength of Ajmer to attract tourists. Weakness:- as being the one of the important tourist destination of Rajasthan, Ajmer doesn’t have any such food joint where tourist can enjoy themselves and spend money. Food joints doesn't have lively environment. Most of the restaurants in Ajmer are either in basement or on the top floors which are not in sight and because of this they doesn't earn well and prove the Hindi saying “dikhega to bikega” right. Basic parameters like cleanliness and neatness are the essentials to be paid attention to. Seating arrangements of restaurants in Ajmer is not proper. Restaurants here doesn't have the outreaching view which people love to see when dining. Restaurants in Ajmer doesn't have the proper parking space, nor they pay attention to the promotion activities. Sometimes the quality of food and service also becomes the weakness of restaurants. .Opportunities:- as Ajmer being a tourist destination gives the biggest opportunity to grab for designing a restaurant. Tourist visiting have money and want to spend it but Ajmer doesn't have a space which is lively and where they can enjoy. Threats:- Ajmer doesn't have any such restaurants which can act as a threat for any other restaurant.
  129. 129. 20 loop Holes 20 loop holes of Ajmer's restaurants are:-  Sometimes the crockery used for serving the diners is broken.  No proper lighting is there in the restaurant either the intensity is too dim or too high.  There is no outreaching view in the restaurants here everything is packed.  Landscaping is not given in any of the restaurants in Ajmer.  Food outlets here are out of sight i.e. either they are in basements or on the top floors.  Utensils in which food and water is served to diners are not properly clean.  Overall cleanliness of restaurants is also not considered.  Restaurants in Ajmer doesn’t have the Étagère's for keeping necessary items.  Ambience is also not considered.  Designs of Ajmer's restaurants are not the Universal designs.  The design of restaurant is not as per the food served inside a restaurant.  Cutlery in which the food is served is not complementing the cuisine served.  The drapery used is not proper, sometimes it has stains.  Sitting arrangement of the dining area is not proper.  Sometimes the condiments served are not kept properly.  There is no proper parking space outside the restaurants  Place is not lively.  Sometimes the quality and service of food is not upto the mark.  Tables doesn’t have proper traffic aisle for movement..  Wrong music selection as sometimes loud music is played which customers doesn’t like.  Location selected for restaurants is inappropriate.
  130. 130. During The Study Programme I Learnt About Various Styles Like Japanese Style, Chinese Style, Moroccan Style, Contemporary Style, Islamic Style etc.
  132. 132. I found one thing common in all these Styles that was GEOMETRY. This fascinated me to study more about it and I took it as my INSPIRATION for Hospitality Design Project. In The Subsequent Pages Of My Project You Will Come Across The Brief Study Of Geometry Done By Me For My Project.
  133. 133. GEOMETRY Geometry is a part of mathematics that includes the shapes, size, 3D forms and properties of space. Geometry is a Greek word that means “measurement of Earth”. It started with the need to measure the shapes and forms. Geometry is traced from the ancient times say it the Indus valley civilization or the Egyptian civilization. The pyramids of Egypt are the great example of geometry in that era. History says it were Egyptians who started working with Geometry, but some says it were Babylonians, and it is true that they were the one who started working with geometry but on smaller parameters. But it were the Greek geometers who worked with geometry on wider parameters and developed the principle of modern geometry. Some of them were Thales, he was the one who brought geometry to Greece from Egypt. The Pythagoras, he contributed the Pythagorean theorem to geometry and Euclid, he is considered as the “Father of modern geometry”. Everything we see in the universe is based on geometry it can be the sacred geometry, golden ratio, golden rectangle, Fibonacci series or golden spiral. Pythagoras was the first who introduced the sacred geometry which is defined as the working with numbers and geometric principles of creation. It shows how everything in universe is connected. Fibonacci series given by Leonardo de Vinci is based on golden ratio, it is the ratio of proportion which is aesthetically pleasing to the eyes. The ratio of proportion is 1:1.618.
  134. 134. The painting of Mona Lisa by Leonardo de Vinci is based on golden ratio. The painting of a Vitruvian man by Vitruvius is completely based on ideal proportion of human body. The architectural work in which we can have the glimpse of golden ratio are Taj Mahal, Toronto’s CN tower, the Parthenon etc. The working with geometry can be seen in many countries and time periods some of them which are very famous are:- The origami of Japan, the dress form of Japan, the jaali work of china, the pagoda’s of China, the motifs of Islamic architecture, the inlay work of Islam, the art deco style, the Moroccan time period etc. all of them have geometry. Geometry is used in engineering, architecture and designing as it provides application of mathematical ideas to construction. Geometry plays a significant role in Interior Design for determining the proportion and placement of the objects that are aesthetically pleasing, geometry helps the designer to decide how much paint is required. Designing and devising a space requires spatial reasoning and arrangement of forms using geometric shapes. Designer or Architecture are said to be working with the sacred geometry when they choose geometric forms to work with for creating a pleasing and functional space or a golden ratio i.e. the ratio that describes the ideal proportion of the space. When I found that everything around me is having geometry in some or the other way like trees, buildings, flowers, human body etc. This fascinated me in Geometry and I included it in my hospitality design project.
  135. 135. In the subsequent pages you will find how circles can be used in myriad ways to create geometrical shapes and patterns:-
  136. 136. From All The Styles That Are Having Geometry In It Moroccan Style Fascinated Me The Most. And Because Of This I Worked With Moroccan Style For My Restaurant Design Project.
  137. 137. Architectural layout Architectural Layouts
  138. 138. CirculationCirculation demarcates the access ways to the various areas or zones of a space.
  139. 139. Flooring Layout Flooring design is important as much as ceiling or wall design. In the subsequent slides you will come across with the flooring patterns which I have made by considering Moroccan style motifs.
  140. 140. Design Development
  141. 141. DESIGN PROCESS Design means “to create”. Before designing anything, we have to follow certain process that is the design Process. It consists mainly of four steps which are- Analysis, Implement, Development and Evaluation. The building blocks of any design are the Elements Of Design and Principles Of Design. To create a good design the elements and principles of design should go hand in hand . The Elements of Design consists of line, shape, form, the color and texture. The Principles of Design are mainly five: Balance, Proportion, Rhythm, Emphasis and Unity. Apart from these there are several other principles to be followed like Harmony, Contrast, Rule of Thirds, etc. In my design I have worked with the Moroccan Style for my Restaurant Design where I have taken vital mood with Analogous Color Scheme. In my first wall composition I worked with the designing of a Dining Area. The main emphasis was on the wall paper in the Moroccan Arch of perspective view which was creating the mystery of depth. The wall sconces were given on both the side of the arch so that the balance can be followed. The overall aura is following the principle of harmony and unity. The second wall composition is of the aura of Bar Counter area following the principle of repetition in the battens. The main emphasis is on the lighting structure that is repeated following the pattern. The table is having geometry as hexagons are used in it. Overall the aura is having principle of unity and harmony. You will see the design boards in the further pages of my portfolio.
  142. 142. Inspirati on -GEOMETRY Geometryisapartofmathematicsthatincludes theshapes,size,3Dformsandpropertiesofspace. GeometryisaGreekwordthatmeans “measurementofEarth”.Itstartedwiththeneedto measuretheshapesandforms. Glimpseofgeometryisseeneverywhereeg- nature,humanbody,architectureetc. Theworkingwithgeometrycanbeseeninmany countriesandtimeperiodssomeofthemwhichare veryfamousare:-TheorigamiofJapan,thedress formofJapan,thejaaliworkofchina,thepagoda’s ofChina,themotifsofIslamicarchitecture,the inlayworkofIslam,theartdecostyle,the Moroccantimeperiodetc.allofthemhave geometry.
  143. 143. Style Moroccan Moroccanarchitectureisbeautiful, rangingfromroyalarchestomodern buildingslitupwithneonlightsat night.MoroccanStylegotinfluence fromtheIslamicArchitecture. Thisstylefeaturesbeautifularchways andcurveddoorwaysalongwith delicatemetalwork,carvingorcolor. Otherkeyfeatureswerecourtyards, boldcolors,ornatefurniture,textiles, tiles,lanterns,metalworksetc.
  144. 144. MoodBoardVitalVitalityandenthusiasmarebest promotedindesignbyusingthehue vermillionoranyofitsmanytintsand shades.Byusingcolorcombinations withthisred-orangehueatthecenter, afeelingofwarmthandvigorcaneasily becreated.Thesecombinationsare youthfuladplayful. OrangeTango X113 OrangeAppeal 7949 Polka 7869 RichChocolate 8645 RavenSong 8253 MirageWhite 8276 IcedSilver 8236
  145. 145. WallBoard Composition1 MoroccanStyle Thiswallcomposition showingtheauraofadining spaceiscreatedintheareaof 11’1.5”x7’4”usingthe featuresofMoroccanStyle. Thecompositionshowsthe archcreatedonwallwiththe wallpaperfixedcreatingthe mysteryofdepthinsideit. MoroccanStylemotif’sJaali workusedastheframingofthe arch. Size-10’(L)x6’(W) Thickness–1” SizeofsingleFlowerofmotif-1’ Material–Woodpolishedwith Copper Company- Customizedpaintingprinted onfabricplacedinsidearch. Size-9’6”(L)x5’6”(W) Company-Marshalls Wallpaper MoroccanStylearch customized. Size-8’6”(L)x4’6”(W) ThicknessofFrame–2” Material–Wood Company-LocalMarket
  146. 146. WallBoard Composition2 MoroccanStyle WoodBattensusedatback. Size-12’(L)x1’(W) Thickness–2” Material–Wood Company-MerinoLaminaes Boxesmadeofblockboard tokeepChampaignbottles. Size-1’4”(L)x1’(W) Material–Wood Company-Customized ArtificialPlantersand Creepersused. Size-8’6”(L)x4’6”(W) ThicknessofFrame–2” Material–Wood Company-LocalMarket Thiswallcomposition showingtheauraofaBar Counteriscreatedinthe spaceof9’x7’excludingthe barstools.Thiscomposition featurestheinspirationof GeometryintheBarCounter asitismadeplacingthe Hexagonsrandomly.
  147. 147. MoroccanStyle Flooring Board BelarusBlanco Finish-Matt Company-Kajaria Size-2’x2’and1’6”x1’6”
  148. 148. MoroccanStyle Ceiling Board Thiswoodwillbeusedforthe battens. CompanyName-Merino Laminates DesignName-Tan Colour/Texture-Brown SizeofBatten–9’(L)x1’(W)x 1”(H) SimpleCeilingIn thispartofDining Texture-Matt
  149. 149. Accessories Board MoroccanStyle ChampaignBottlesusedas accessoryonbattens Material–Artificial Company-LocalMarket Size-8’6”(L)x4’6”(W) Material–Glass Company-LocalMarket ArtificialPlantersand Creepersused. MoroccanStylemotif’sJaaliwork usedastheframingofthearch. Size-10’(L)x6’(W) Thickness–1” SizeofsingleFlowerofmotif-1’ Material–Woodpolishedwith Copper Company- Customizedpaintingprintedon fabricplacedinsidearch. Size-9’6”(L)x5’6”(W) Material–Silk Company-MarshallsWallpaper MoroccanStylearchcustomized. Size-8’6”(L)x4’6”(W) ThicknessofFrame–2” Material–Wood Company-LocalMarket
  150. 150. Lighting Board MoroccanStyle Therearemanytypeoflightsthat canbeusedforacommercialspace. Tocreateaambienceforthatplace. ThesearethelightsthatIusedinmy 2WallCompositionstoenhancethe lookofmyRestaurantSpace. TCG702CeilingLight Color/finish–Nickelfinish, sandblastedglass,steel Dimensions(mm)–360x360x96 Company-Philips AVIO GTH40 Trackmountedprojector WideBeam Company-Wipro LogamMoraccanFiligree HangingPendantLight Color–Gold Material-Iron Dimensions(in)–8x8x58.5 Company-Pepperfry SylvnStudioLuminusWall Sconce Color–Gold Material-Metal Dimensions(in)–8x4x10.5 Company-Pepperfry FosLightingPatterned Color–Brass Material–BrassandGlass Dimensions(in)–6x6x21 Company-Pepperfry
  151. 151. Texture Board Composition1 MoroccanStyle JaaliWorkAroundAn Arch Material–Wood polishedwithCopper Texture- Customizedpainting printedonWallpaper Texture- ArchonWall Material–Wood Texture- Polka-7869 Texture-Matt MoroccanStyleWall Sconce Material– MoroccanStyle PendantLight Material–Iron Texture- BelarusBlanco Material–Tile Texture-Matt CorralDining Material–StainlessSteel, TemperedGlass Texture- MoroccanStylePrint onUpholsteryof DiningAreaChairs. Colour-OrangeTango
  152. 152. Texture Board Composition2 MoroccanStyle AntiqueFinish PendantLight Texture- ChampaignBottlesin FrontofBattens Material–Glass Texture- BelarusBlanco Material–Tile Texture-Matt BarCounterTop Material–ToughenGlass Texture- BarCounterTable Material–OnyxStone Texture- WoodenBattens Material–Wood Texture-Matt
  153. 153. Furniture Board MoroccanStyle ThecustomizedBarCounterTable. OnyxStoneUsedFor Hexagons Company-Starline MineralsLlp Specifications(1 Hexagon)-1’(H)and6” eachside ToughenGlassusedforTable Top. Company-SaiGlassCompany Price-160Rs.Persq.ft. Specifications-7’2”x2’ Thickness-15mm AccentChair Color-OrangeTango Material-Upholstered,Wood Size-29.5”(H)x24.5”(W)x 20.5”(L) Company-Overstock CorralFourSeaterDining Color-Brown Material-StainlessSteelLegs, TemperedGlassTableTop Size-30”(H)x35”(W)x35”(D) Company-HomeTown
  154. 154. Composition 1
  155. 155. Composition 2
  156. 156. Product Design
  157. 157. Office Design
  158. 158. OFFICE DESIGN Office design focuses on the public and private areas utilized by corporate and professional service firms. Commercial office design requires knowledge of high-tech equipment's, as well as understanding of management & office production. In general, offices are designed for large group of people working together in a cooperative and productive way. The space must accommodate many different discipline with varying needs. It can be argued that the office design is the backbone of commercial interior design. Almost all interior design firms design office facilities because most commercial interiors includes some sort of office space.
  159. 159. PRINT MAKING
  160. 160. CONCLUSION During the working of these projects I learnt a lot about the design development, how to inbuilt the Elements and Principles of Design, color schemes in our design. These projects overall taught me how to increase the aesthetics of a space and how to increase the earning for a commercial space with the help of designing.
  161. 161. BIBLIOGRAPHY  Building Construction By Sushil Kumar  Time Savers Standard  Color Harmony  Inside Outside Magazine  Society Interiors magazine