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The Alcorso Foundation’s
Dr Don Martin
Sustainable Viticulture
Fellowship
Partners for the 2012 fellowship:
• Conference on the “Biocontrol of Plant Pathogens”
• Visited 22 producers in Champagne, Alsace, Burgundy and England
• Vi...
Vineyard Comparison
• Size
• Organic Viticulture
• Mechanisation
Biocontrol
• Modes
• Induced Systemic Resistance
Sustaina...
Vineyard - Size
What is the median size of a vineyard in Tasmania?
3 Ha
What is the median size of a sustainable vineyard
...
Vineyard - Size
3 Ha => 6 Ha
Gilles Ballorin
Domaine Ballorin
Started in 2005 0.6 Ha
• 0.2 Ha was bought
• 0.4 Ha was leas...
Vineyard – Organics
Every vineyard I visited was using organic practices
Only several were certified
The idea was to be or...
Vineyard – Organics
2012 Vintage in Europe
Wet, warm
Stuffed?
Organic methods are less effective at reducing/preventing
disease
Equipment is very important
Vineyard – Organics
Random dude in the street, Burgundy
Vineyard – Organics
Domaine Parent, Burgundy
Vineyard – Organics
Alsace
Vineyard – Organics
Stopham, England
Lipco Tunnel
Sprayer
Vineyard – Organics
Very little herbicide is used for weed management
Mostly cultivation
With a little mowing
Vineyard – Organics
Cultivation: Burgundy and Champagne
• Vine spacing: 1m x 1m
• No room for covercrop
• 100% bare soil
•...
Vineyard – Organics
Cultivation: Domaine Ballorin, Burgundy
Vineyard – Organics
Cultivation: Burgundy
Vineyard – Organics
Cultivation: Paul Ginglinger, Alsace
Vineyard – Organics
Cultivation: Josmeyer, Alsace
Vineyard – Organics
Should Tasmania be organic?
Pragmatic Vineyards
Used some synthetic fungicide, still need to get a cro...
Vineyard – Mechanisation
Cost of Labour Australia:
$22/Hr
Cost of Labour France:
$11/Hr
Cost of Labour UK:
$9/Hr
Vineyard – Mechanisation
Labour costs are the highest input
into vineyards in Tasmania
Reducing the amount of labour
hours...
Vineyard – Mechanisation
Leaf Plucking
Domaine Gibourg Robert
Vineyard – Mechanisation
Leaf Plucking
Souslikoff Effeuilleuse
Vineyard – Mechanisation
Leaf Plucking
Video Souslikoff Effeuilleuse
Vineyard – Mechanisation
Leaf Plucking
Contract Rate: ~$1000
Cost of Labour: $22/hr
Speed: 100hrs
Saving: $1,200
And 100hr...
Vineyard – Mechanisation
Shoot Positioning
Vineyard – Mechanisation
Shoot Positioning
Video Shoot Positioning
Vineyard – Mechanisation
Shoot Positioning
ERO Shoot Binder 250
ERO Shoot Binder 500
ERO Shoot Binder 4000
Cost of Machine...
Vineyard – Mechanisation
Pruning
One of the two most expensive operations in the
vineyard
Unavoidable in Tasmania
3 main o...
Vineyard – Mechanisation
Pruning - Cutting
Cost of Machine: ~$2400
Running Costs: $22/hr
Speed: 70 hours (2 weeks)
Cost of...
Vineyard – Mechanisation
Pruning – Pulling Out
Contractor
Costs: ~$1000
Speed after machine: 210 hrs (6w)
Cost of hand lab...
Vineyard – Mechanisation
Pruning – Tying Down
Cost of Machine: ~$2000
Running Costs: $22/hr
Speed: 70 hours (2 weeks)
Cost...
Questions?
Conference
International Organisation of Biological Control (IOBC)
Phytopathogens Group
“Biological control of fungal and ...
150 Plant Pathologists
And me
Conference
There is a very big drive to find alternatives to chemical
pesticides and fungicides in Europe
Directive 2009/1...
Conference – Biological Control
What is it?
Bugs eating bugs
Trichogramma wasp larvae inside LBAM eggs
Conference – Modes of Action
4 modes of action
• Parasitism
• Competition
• Antibiosis/Antagonistic
• Induced Systemic Res...
Conference – Parasitism
Bugs eating bugs (Fungi)
Trichoderma is a common genus used for Biocontrol
Tasmanian product Trich...
Conference – Competition
Aim to outcompete the pathogen by:
a. Adding large amounts of benign microorganism/s
b. Adding a ...
Conference – Antibiosis (antagonistic)
Pseudozyma flocculosa
Produces a glycolipid called flocculosin, known to have
micro...
Conference – Induced Systemic Resistance
(ISR)
“Plants fighting for themselves”
Grapevines have natural Systemic Resistanc...
Conference – ISR
The genome has been mapped
Conference – ISR
The future:
We will able to trick grapevines into using their own
defence mechanisms to protect against c...
English Sustainability System
Plumpton College
English Sustainability System
Late 2007
• EU put through Wine Reforms to reduce the “wine
lake” including a vine pull sche...
English Sustainability System
www.wineskills.co.uk/sustainability
• A system of self training with mentors and workshops
•...
English Sustainability System
Thank you
?
Alcorso Foundation Dr Don Martin Sustainable Fellowship - Paul Smart 2012
Alcorso Foundation Dr Don Martin Sustainable Fellowship - Paul Smart 2012
Alcorso Foundation Dr Don Martin Sustainable Fellowship - Paul Smart 2012
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Alcorso Foundation Dr Don Martin Sustainable Fellowship - Paul Smart 2012

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Presentation given to the Tasmanian Wine industry at the 2011 Field Day. What I learnt from travelling through European vineyards, learning about sustainable vineyard and business practices. And how they relate to Tasmanian vineyards.

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Alcorso Foundation Dr Don Martin Sustainable Fellowship - Paul Smart 2012

  1. 1. The Alcorso Foundation’s Dr Don Martin Sustainable Viticulture Fellowship Partners for the 2012 fellowship:
  2. 2. • Conference on the “Biocontrol of Plant Pathogens” • Visited 22 producers in Champagne, Alsace, Burgundy and England • Visited Plumpton College, England. Host of the 2016 ICCS What Did I Do?
  3. 3. Vineyard Comparison • Size • Organic Viticulture • Mechanisation Biocontrol • Modes • Induced Systemic Resistance Sustainability • English System What Did I Learn?
  4. 4. Vineyard - Size What is the median size of a vineyard in Tasmania? 3 Ha What is the median size of a sustainable vineyard in Champagne/Alsace/Burgundy? 10 Ha
  5. 5. Vineyard - Size 3 Ha => 6 Ha Gilles Ballorin Domaine Ballorin Started in 2005 0.6 Ha • 0.2 Ha was bought • 0.4 Ha was leased Now has 5 Ha • owns some • leases some • buys some grapes We need to have the conversation, What do we want the Tasmanian Wine Industry to look like in X years
  6. 6. Vineyard – Organics Every vineyard I visited was using organic practices Only several were certified The idea was to be organic • for themselves • for their future • not as a marketing tool
  7. 7. Vineyard – Organics 2012 Vintage in Europe Wet, warm Stuffed?
  8. 8. Organic methods are less effective at reducing/preventing disease Equipment is very important
  9. 9. Vineyard – Organics Random dude in the street, Burgundy
  10. 10. Vineyard – Organics Domaine Parent, Burgundy
  11. 11. Vineyard – Organics Alsace
  12. 12. Vineyard – Organics Stopham, England Lipco Tunnel Sprayer
  13. 13. Vineyard – Organics Very little herbicide is used for weed management Mostly cultivation With a little mowing
  14. 14. Vineyard – Organics Cultivation: Burgundy and Champagne • Vine spacing: 1m x 1m • No room for covercrop • 100% bare soil • Equipment?
  15. 15. Vineyard – Organics Cultivation: Domaine Ballorin, Burgundy
  16. 16. Vineyard – Organics Cultivation: Burgundy
  17. 17. Vineyard – Organics Cultivation: Paul Ginglinger, Alsace
  18. 18. Vineyard – Organics Cultivation: Josmeyer, Alsace
  19. 19. Vineyard – Organics Should Tasmania be organic? Pragmatic Vineyards Used some synthetic fungicide, still need to get a crop to get an income Dogmatic Vineyards Have disease, reduced crop, reduced quality Which is the sustainable method?
  20. 20. Vineyard – Mechanisation Cost of Labour Australia: $22/Hr Cost of Labour France: $11/Hr Cost of Labour UK: $9/Hr
  21. 21. Vineyard – Mechanisation Labour costs are the highest input into vineyards in Tasmania Reducing the amount of labour hours will increase our sustainability Areas that Tasmania can improve: • Leaf Plucking • Shoot Positioning • Pruning
  22. 22. Vineyard – Mechanisation Leaf Plucking Domaine Gibourg Robert
  23. 23. Vineyard – Mechanisation Leaf Plucking Souslikoff Effeuilleuse
  24. 24. Vineyard – Mechanisation Leaf Plucking Video Souslikoff Effeuilleuse
  25. 25. Vineyard – Mechanisation Leaf Plucking Contract Rate: ~$1000 Cost of Labour: $22/hr Speed: 100hrs Saving: $1,200 And 100hrs! ERO Roller Defoliator
  26. 26. Vineyard – Mechanisation Shoot Positioning
  27. 27. Vineyard – Mechanisation Shoot Positioning Video Shoot Positioning
  28. 28. Vineyard – Mechanisation Shoot Positioning ERO Shoot Binder 250 ERO Shoot Binder 500 ERO Shoot Binder 4000 Cost of Machine: ~$30,000 Running Costs: $60/hr Speed: 4 km/h Cost of Labour: $22/hr Speed: 200 hrs Repayment Period: 6.5 years
  29. 29. Vineyard – Mechanisation Pruning One of the two most expensive operations in the vineyard Unavoidable in Tasmania 3 main operations: • Cutting (arm selection and trimming) • Pulling Out • Tying Down
  30. 30. Vineyard – Mechanisation Pruning - Cutting Cost of Machine: ~$2400 Running Costs: $22/hr Speed: 70 hours (2 weeks) Cost of Hand Labour: $22/hr Speed: 140 hours (4 weeks) Repayment Period: 1.6 years
  31. 31. Vineyard – Mechanisation Pruning – Pulling Out Contractor Costs: ~$1000 Speed after machine: 210 hrs (6w) Cost of hand labour: $22/hr Speed w/o machine: 420 hrs (12w) Yearly savings: $3600
  32. 32. Vineyard – Mechanisation Pruning – Tying Down Cost of Machine: ~$2000 Running Costs: $22/hr Speed: 70 hours (2 weeks) Cost of Hand Labour: $22/hr Speed: 140 hours (4 weeks) Repayment Period: 1.3 years Pellenc AP25
  33. 33. Questions?
  34. 34. Conference International Organisation of Biological Control (IOBC) Phytopathogens Group “Biological control of fungal and bacterial plant pathogens”, Reims, 24-27 June 2012
  35. 35. 150 Plant Pathologists And me
  36. 36. Conference There is a very big drive to find alternatives to chemical pesticides and fungicides in Europe Directive 2009/128/EC Sustainable Use Directive “establishes a framework for Community action to achieve the sustainable use of pesticides” In 2014 Integrated Pest Management will be mandatory
  37. 37. Conference – Biological Control What is it? Bugs eating bugs Trichogramma wasp larvae inside LBAM eggs
  38. 38. Conference – Modes of Action 4 modes of action • Parasitism • Competition • Antibiosis/Antagonistic • Induced Systemic Resistance
  39. 39. Conference – Parasitism Bugs eating bugs (Fungi) Trichoderma is a common genus used for Biocontrol Tasmanian product Trichoderma koningii Td67 “Colonizer” by Dean Metcalf Controls Botrytis cinerea through parasitism
  40. 40. Conference – Competition Aim to outcompete the pathogen by: a. Adding large amounts of benign microorganism/s b. Adding a stimulant/nutrient to promote the growth of benign microorganism/s Aerated Compost Tea • Has been shown to reduce the severity of Powdery Mildew • Contains large amounts of microorganisms
  41. 41. Conference – Antibiosis (antagonistic) Pseudozyma flocculosa Produces a glycolipid called flocculosin, known to have microbial effect against Powdery mildew in vitro Commercial product: Sporodex L Not available in Australia (?)
  42. 42. Conference – Induced Systemic Resistance (ISR) “Plants fighting for themselves” Grapevines have natural Systemic Resistance to pathogens such as Powdery Mildew • Older leaves are resistant to infection • Berries larger than pea size are resistant to infection • Ontogenic Resistance How can biocontrol induce resistance?
  43. 43. Conference – ISR The genome has been mapped
  44. 44. Conference – ISR The future: We will able to trick grapevines into using their own defence mechanisms to protect against common diseases • it may cost energy • it may be temporary
  45. 45. English Sustainability System Plumpton College
  46. 46. English Sustainability System Late 2007 • EU put through Wine Reforms to reduce the “wine lake” including a vine pull scheme • The UK was approached with cash to pull their vines • 992 hectares and growing What the English industry wanted was not cash for a vine pull scheme but a scheme for training and being sustainable Enter Wine Skills
  47. 47. English Sustainability System www.wineskills.co.uk/sustainability • A system of self training with mentors and workshops • System was designed by growers for growers • Based purely on training • not regulated • not audited • not for marketing purposes
  48. 48. English Sustainability System
  49. 49. Thank you ?

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