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Community Resilience: 
Challenges, Requirements, 
and Organizational 
Models 
Vincenzo 
De Florio 
MOSAIC: 
UniAntwerp 
iM...
Times, they are a-changin’… 
Less resources 
Higher 
peaks, harder 
shocks 
Higher 
number 
of users… 
ICT 
Businesses 
En...
With the meter in the red zone… 
• …organizations that 
appeared to work fine 
reveal their limitations! 
– lose too much ...
Challenges 
• How do we address “big” societal 
problems such as crises & disasters? 
• How do we rethink our organization...
CRISES 
Single events 
(or chains thereof) 
with multiple 
and diverse 
consequences 
NATIONAL 
SECURITY 
PUBLIC 
SAFETY 
...
CRISES 
Single events 
(or chains thereof) 
affecting 
multiple 
"human 
circles" 
Business 
organizations 
People 
Local ...
KATRINA 
One of 
the five 
deadliest 
hurricanes 
in US history
Katrina’s circles: 
Private circles 
People: 
Individuals, 
families, 
neighbors... 
Private organizations: 
Business orgs...
Katrina’s circles: 
Institutional circles 
Local 
institutions: 
City police 
Fire brigades 
Flood rescue
Katrina’s circles: 
State circles 
State 
organizations: 
Depts of 
emergency 
management 
Budget: (e.g., California): $80...
Katrina’s circles: 
Federal circles 
Federal 
organization: 
Federal 
Emergency 
Response 
Org, $10.9B/y
Katrina’s circles: 
National circles 
Dept of 
Homeland 
Security 
(created in 
2001; abso-rbed 
FEMA 
in 2003) 
The farth...
Katrina’s circles 
People 
 Individuals, families, neighbors... 
Private organizations 
 Business orgs, communities 
Loc...
How did it fare? 
BADLY! 
Slow initial 
response 
Strict hierarchy 
→ Each layer is 
SPOC & SPOF
How did it fare? 
Slow reactions 
Info/KW 
collection/ 
dissemination: 
centralized! 
"Where in the hell is the cavalry 
o...
How did it fare? 
Wrong/ 
untimely 
decisions! 
Far-from-the-field 
control 
E.g. $12.5M to buy ice for K's 
victims → unu...
How did it fare? 
"Poor comm. 
among federal/ 
state/local 
entities" 
"Unadequate 
readiness" 
"Reduced effectiveness" 
M...
Major reason: 
Institutional-only 
response! 
“[Responders] would have been 
able to do more if the tri-level 
system (cit...
Community Resilience 
• "A measure of the sustained ability 
of a community to utilize available 
resources to respond to,...
Three aspects 
1) Organization 
Limited inter-circle 
interoperability 
Difficulty to propagate 
KW & share assets 
Indivi...
Three aspects 
1) Organization 
Limited inter-circle 
interoperability 
Plastic, fragile 
organizations 
Difficulty to pro...
Three aspects 
1) Organization 
Limited inter-circle 
interoperability 
Expensive! 
Plastic, fragile 
organizations 
Diffi...
Three aspects 
2) Society 
Private circles: 
INACTIVE!
Three aspects 
2) Society 
Private circles: 
INACTIVE! 
Waste of 
social energy
Pre-defined 
roles / 
behaviors 
Three aspects 
3) Behavior
Private circles: 
DEMOTED! 
Pre-defined 
roles / 
behaviors 
Three aspects 
3) Behavior
Private circles: 
DEMOTED! 
Pre-defined 
roles / 
behaviors 
Three aspects 
3) Behavior 
Passive-behaviored 
components 
(...
Centrifugal 
forces 
→ Emergence 
failures 
Behavioral 
mismatches →
Centrifugal 
forces 
→ Emergence 
failures 
Behavioral 
mismatches →
Conjecture 1 
• Society must be part of "the solution" 
• Society ≡ abundant "pool" of mobile 
“resources” able to exercis...
Conjecture 2 
• Fact: Organizational choices 
determine the features of our systems 
• Classic model (quasi-closed, 
hiera...
Conjecture 2 (cont.d) 
• Conjecture: Biologically inspired 
distributed organizations may play a 
key role in the emergenc...
Conjecture 3 
• A match should exist between the 
behaviors exercised by the 
societal nodes and those 
exercised and expe...
Community Resilience 
• How? 
• Through sociotechnical 
organizations managing 
communities of participating members. 
• N...
Service-oriented Community 
• Sociotechnical organization 
built by explicitly addressing 
organization/society/behavior: ...
37 
Starting point: classical SOA 
model 
Service 
description 
Service provider Service 
requester 
Service registry 
Pub...
38 
Service-oriented Community 
Local reasoning & 
coordination 
Service registry 
Service 
description 
Publish Publish 
...
Service-oriented 
Community 
BEHAVIOUR 
Reasoning & coordination 
Member w/ 
service & feature registry 
Service 
& featur...
SoC for Ambient Assistance: 
Mutual Assistance 
Community 
40
Mutual Assistance Community 
• Aim: 
– Optimally orchestrate devices & beings 
– Complement existing healthcare orgs 
– Sp...
Mutual Assistance Community 
• Self-serve paradigm (mutually satisfying requests).
SoC as a building block 
Local analysis 
and coordination 
Service and 
feature registry 
Publish Publish 
Service 
descri...
Fractal Social Orgs 
• Mathematical model: 
http://goo.gl/gvVGH5 
• Geometrical and audio 
representations 
– Modularity 
...
Elements of a Model 
Model of the collective behavior in a “flat” 
society of roles 
Society = multiset of roles (=integer...
Elements of a Model 
Event: Condition c takes place 
(for instance, a patient has fallen) 
Response: 
Intervention of 1 GP...
001122222222
012345678
001123344
Modularity 
• "Templates" that repeat at 
different scale 
–Blocks that represent other 
"sub-communities" (circles!) 
–So...
A fractal organization of SoC’s 
51 
C 
I 
R 
C 
L 
E 
S
Layer 0 
(Raw 
compo-nents) 
...Upper 
layers... 
Layer 1 
(Smart 
Rooms) 
Layer 2 
(Smart 
Flats) 
Layer 3 
(Smart Buildi...
Little Sister 
• Low-cost non-intrusive 
telemonitoring solution 
• System: multi-tier 
distributed 
architecture 
• Speci...
Little Sister 
• Services structured within hierarchical 
federation reflecting structure of 
deployment environment 
• Al...
Little Sister : Resolving Resources 
• Seamless integration w/ external apps (layer 4) 
• Information exchange: pub-sub me...
Conclusions 
• “We are confronted with a vast quantity 
of plastic..." organizations! 
• An organization "is like a parach...
Thank you for 
your attention! 
vincenzo.deflorio@gmail.com 
@EnzoDeFlorio 
goo.gl/D9frjV
Community Resilience: Challenges, Requirements, and Organizational Models
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Community Resilience: Challenges, Requirements, and Organizational Models

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An important challenge for human societies is that of mastering the complexity of Community Resilience, namely “the sustained ability of a community to utilize available resources to respond to, withstand, and recover from adverse situations”. The above concise definition puts the accent on an important requirement: a community’s ability to
make use in an intelligent way of the available resources, both institutional and spontaneous, in order to match the complex evolution of the “significant multi-hazard threats characterizing a crisis”. Failing to address such requirement exposes a community to extensive failures that are known to exacerbate the consequences of natural and human-induced crises. As a consequence, we experience today an urgent need to respond to the challenges of community resilience engineering. This problem, some reflections, and preliminary prototypical contributions constitute
the topics of this presentation.
A companion article is available at https://dl.dropboxusercontent.com/u/67040428/Articles/serene14.pdf

Published in: Science

Community Resilience: Challenges, Requirements, and Organizational Models

  1. 1. Community Resilience: Challenges, Requirements, and Organizational Models Vincenzo De Florio MOSAIC: UniAntwerp iMinds
  2. 2. Times, they are a-changin’… Less resources Higher peaks, harder shocks Higher number of users… ICT Businesses Energy product-ion & distribution Transport of goods & people Water treatment & distribution CRISIS MANAGEMENT Understanding & rethinking our organizations is crucial!
  3. 3. With the meter in the red zone… • …organizations that appeared to work fine reveal their limitations! – lose too much – use up too many resources – do not scale well – intolerable to changes – fail to address new aspects → Traditional approaches are reaching structural limits.
  4. 4. Challenges • How do we address “big” societal problems such as crises & disasters? • How do we rethink our organizations? Which tools, which software could help? 1.Intro: What are crises? 2.A case study This ppt 3.Requirements 4.Conjectures & models
  5. 5. CRISES Single events (or chains thereof) with multiple and diverse consequences NATIONAL SECURITY PUBLIC SAFETY PUBLIC HEALTH ECONOMY
  6. 6. CRISES Single events (or chains thereof) affecting multiple "human circles" Business organizations People Local responders State responders...
  7. 7. KATRINA One of the five deadliest hurricanes in US history
  8. 8. Katrina’s circles: Private circles People: Individuals, families, neighbors... Private organizations: Business orgs, communities
  9. 9. Katrina’s circles: Institutional circles Local institutions: City police Fire brigades Flood rescue
  10. 10. Katrina’s circles: State circles State organizations: Depts of emergency management Budget: (e.g., California): $80M/y
  11. 11. Katrina’s circles: Federal circles Federal organization: Federal Emergency Response Org, $10.9B/y
  12. 12. Katrina’s circles: National circles Dept of Homeland Security (created in 2001; abso-rbed FEMA in 2003) The farther, the costlier Requested budget (2015): $38.2B
  13. 13. Katrina’s circles People  Individuals, families, neighbors... Private organizations  Business orgs, communities Local emergency response organization  City police, fire brigades, flood teams State emergency response organization  Depts of emergency management: http://www.fema.gov/state-offices-and-agencies- emergency-management Budget (California): $80M • Federal emergency response organization  FEMA, $10.9 billion budget (2012) Absorbed in the DHS (2003) (Department of Homeland Security) Private circles Institutional responders = Multi-level system of emergency mgmt
  14. 14. How did it fare? BADLY! Slow initial response Strict hierarchy → Each layer is SPOC & SPOF
  15. 15. How did it fare? Slow reactions Info/KW collection/ dissemination: centralized! "Where in the hell is the cavalry on this one?!"
  16. 16. How did it fare? Wrong/ untimely decisions! Far-from-the-field control E.g. $12.5M to buy ice for K's victims → unused/melted away
  17. 17. How did it fare? "Poor comm. among federal/ state/local entities" "Unadequate readiness" "Reduced effectiveness" Major reason?
  18. 18. Major reason: Institutional-only response! “[Responders] would have been able to do more if the tri-level system (city, state, federal) of emergency response was able to effectively use, collaborate with, and coordinate the combined public and private efforts. How to do so [...] is a central task of enhancing community CARRI 3 Tech Report resilience.”
  19. 19. Community Resilience • "A measure of the sustained ability of a community to utilize available resources to respond to, withstand, and recover from adverse situations." • Conjecture: three aspects. RAND 3 Tech Report
  20. 20. Three aspects 1) Organization Limited inter-circle interoperability Difficulty to propagate KW & share assets Individual-context worst-case dimensioning: Worst-case analysis done w/o considering collaborative sharing of resources among the participating circles
  21. 21. Three aspects 1) Organization Limited inter-circle interoperability Plastic, fragile organizations Difficulty to propagate KW & share assets Individual-context worst-case dimensioning: Worst-case analysis done w/o considering collaborative sharing of resources among the participating circles
  22. 22. Three aspects 1) Organization Limited inter-circle interoperability Expensive! Plastic, fragile organizations Difficulty to propagate KW & share assets Individual-context worst-case dimensioning: Worst-case analysis done w/o considering collaborative sharing of resources among the participating circles
  23. 23. Three aspects 2) Society Private circles: INACTIVE!
  24. 24. Three aspects 2) Society Private circles: INACTIVE! Waste of social energy
  25. 25. Pre-defined roles / behaviors Three aspects 3) Behavior
  26. 26. Private circles: DEMOTED! Pre-defined roles / behaviors Three aspects 3) Behavior
  27. 27. Private circles: DEMOTED! Pre-defined roles / behaviors Three aspects 3) Behavior Passive-behaviored components (objects!)
  28. 28. Centrifugal forces → Emergence failures Behavioral mismatches →
  29. 29. Centrifugal forces → Emergence failures Behavioral mismatches →
  30. 30. Conjecture 1 • Society must be part of "the solution" • Society ≡ abundant "pool" of mobile “resources” able to exercise complex action • Need: engineer ways to tap into the nearly unlimited sources of “social energy” of our societies.
  31. 31. Conjecture 2 • Fact: Organizational choices determine the features of our systems • Classic model (quasi-closed, hierarchical systems): incapable of any complex interoperability. • Need: open smart organizations – Self-optimizing – Inter-organizational collective strategies – Mutualistic relationships; collaborative sharing of data and resources, etc.
  32. 32. Conjecture 2 (cont.d) • Conjecture: Biologically inspired distributed organizations may play a key role in the emergence of collectively intelligent responses – Holarchies and fractal organizations – “Simultaneously a part & a whole, a container & a contained, a controller & a controlled” [Sousa et al., 2000] – Networks of peer-levels (members).
  33. 33. Conjecture 3 • A match should exist between the behaviors exercised by the societal nodes and those exercised and expected by the enrolling organization • Community resilience only emerges when this match is sustained.
  34. 34. Community Resilience • How? • Through sociotechnical organizations managing communities of participating members. • No preclusion (→ all society can contribute) • No constrain (→ behaviors are not pre-assigned) • Service-oriented communities, fractal social organizations.
  35. 35. Service-oriented Community • Sociotechnical organization built by explicitly addressing organization/society/behavior: –Node of a distributed organization –Taps into “social energy” –Supports complex resilient behaviours.
  36. 36. 37 Starting point: classical SOA model Service description Service provider Service requester Service registry Publish Discover Bind
  37. 37. 38 Service-oriented Community Local reasoning & coordination Service registry Service description Publish Publish Bind Member Member Individual & social concerns optimization Capabilities Policies Availability Location… Events People `Things’ Components... Member
  38. 38. Service-oriented Community BEHAVIOUR Reasoning & coordination Member w/ service & feature registry Service & feature Publish Publish Member Member Individual & social concerns optimization. Capabilities Policies Availability Location… Events People Devices Components SOCIETY ORGANIZATION Bind
  39. 39. SoC for Ambient Assistance: Mutual Assistance Community 40
  40. 40. Mutual Assistance Community • Aim: – Optimally orchestrate devices & beings – Complement existing healthcare orgs – Special purpose SoC: organize intelligent responses to AAL scenarios • Not just safety nets: – Reducing social isolation of elderly people – Reducing costs best utilizing the social resources.
  41. 41. Mutual Assistance Community • Self-serve paradigm (mutually satisfying requests).
  42. 42. SoC as a building block Local analysis and coordination Service and feature registry Publish Publish Service description Member Member Bind Intra-circle processing Capabilities Policies Availability Locations… Roles & situations People `Things’ Member MMeemmbbeerr MMeemmbbeerr SoC's … Inter-circle processing Exception → Event propagation
  43. 43. Fractal Social Orgs • Mathematical model: http://goo.gl/gvVGH5 • Geometrical and audio representations – Modularity – Self-similarity – Fractal dimension! http://goo.gl/vO8RKj
  44. 44. Elements of a Model Model of the collective behavior in a “flat” society of roles Society = multiset of roles (=integers) Example: S = {0,0, 1,1, 2, 3,3, 4,4} = 2 GPs 1 patient 2 nurses 2 sensors 2 cars
  45. 45. Elements of a Model Event: Condition c takes place (for instance, a patient has fallen) Response: Intervention of 1 GP and 1 nurse. Society S gets partitioned into two “blocks”: L = {0, 1, 2, 3, 3, 4, 4} and R = {0, 1, 2}.
  46. 46. 001122222222
  47. 47. 012345678
  48. 48. 001123344
  49. 49. Modularity • "Templates" that repeat at different scale –Blocks that represent other "sub-communities" (circles!) –Societal responses to sub-problems! • Fractal Social Organization: fractal organization of communicating & collaborating communities
  50. 50. A fractal organization of SoC’s 51 C I R C L E S
  51. 51. Layer 0 (Raw compo-nents) ...Upper layers... Layer 1 (Smart Rooms) Layer 2 (Smart Flats) Layer 3 (Smart Buildings) iMinds project “LittleSister”
  52. 52. Little Sister • Low-cost non-intrusive telemonitoring solution • System: multi-tier distributed architecture • Specially designed low-resolution sensors
  53. 53. Little Sister • Services structured within hierarchical federation reflecting structure of deployment environment • All resources wrapped as manageable web services
  54. 54. Little Sister : Resolving Resources • Seamless integration w/ external apps (layer 4) • Information exchange: pub-sub mechanism • Events “flow” upward — dedicated software component available at each service group
  55. 55. Conclusions • “We are confronted with a vast quantity of plastic..." organizations! • An organization "is like a parachute -- it doesn't work if it's not open" [ZAPPA!] → New models are needed! →...With new models... new challenges – A.o., how to guarantee the identity of the "system" – SoC and FSO: also tools to raise the attention and enhance awareness – Much to be done... we're on the move!
  56. 56. Thank you for your attention! vincenzo.deflorio@gmail.com @EnzoDeFlorio goo.gl/D9frjV

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