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Compost 101 - ENGLISH TEMPLATE

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Compost 101 - ENGLISH TEMPLATE

  1. 1. Compost 101 Location Date , 2016 Presented by: Speaker #1 Speaker #2 Environmental concerns The process: composting The product: compost Composting at home
  2. 2. Presentation outline Compost 101 and Composting at home ● Environmental concerns linked to organic waste management ● The process of composting organic waste ● Compost as an end result, a product ● Composting at home, outside and inside
  3. 3. Environmental concerns 1.0
  4. 4. Landfilling organic waste ● Leachate ● Water table and nearby rivers ● Watershed scale ● Greenhouse gas emissions ● Alternative: Make better use of organic “resources” 1.1
  5. 5. Agricultural land issues ● Use of biocides ○ Pesticides ○ Herbicides ○ Fungicide ● Use of synthetic fertilizers ○ Algae bloom ● Watershed scale impacts ● Concentration effect ● Solution: use of compost 1.2
  6. 6. Urban land issues ● Contaminated land ○ Illegal dumping ● Degraded land ● Construction sites ● Abandoned land ● Solution: use of compost 1.3
  7. 7. The Process of Composting 2.0
  8. 8. Soil food web ● Organic waste / resource ○ All organic matter ● Microfauna ● Microflora ● Fauna ● Flora ● Nutrient cycling 2.1
  9. 9. Modern composting ● Composting: Managed process of bio-oxidation of a solid heterogeneous organic substrate, including a thermophilic phase ● Improved technology ● Targeting conditions favorable to composting ● Scale of composting ○ Domestic ○ Farm ○ Commercial ○ Industrial 2.2
  10. 10. 2.3 Time °C 45°C Larger scale composting
  11. 11. 2.4
  12. 12. Compost: the end product 3.0
  13. 13. Compost: the end product ● Components ○ Sand / Silt / Clay ○ Water ○ Carbon & Nitrogen ○ Other Essential Nutrients (Potassium, Phosphorus, Calcium, Magnesium, Iron, etc) ○ Biota ● Physical properties ○ Porosity ○ Water retention capacity ○ 45-65% water (should be damp but not wet) ● Chemical properties ○ pH ○ C:N, other nutrients ○ Cation exchange capacity (CEC) 3.1
  14. 14. Benefits of adding compost to your garden PHYSICAL: ● Improves structure - both immediate and long term ○ Enhances aggregation in sandy soils ○ Reduces compaction in clay and clay-loam soils ○ Increases porosity for easier access to roots by water and gasses ● Helps soil retain, distribute and manage moisture content CHEMICAL: ● Modifies, stabilizes and buffers pH levels ● Increases Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) of soils ○ Reduces nutrient leaching ○ Facilitates slow release of nutrients to soil and plants 3.2
  15. 15. Benefits of adding compost to your garden BIOLOGICAL: ● Adds life to soil ○ Bacteria, protozoa, actinomycetes, fungi ○ Sufficient organic matter promotes earthworm proliferation, which helps with soil aeration and water filtration ● Suppresses plant diseases ○ … But, if it is homemade, ensure it is mature, has achieved the necessary temperatures for the inputs that went in, and has a good C:N ratio. 3.3
  16. 16. Benefits of adding compost to your garden ADDITIONAL: ● Binds contaminants (including heavy metals) ● Degrades compounds (including petrochemicals) ● Wetland restoration ● Erosion control ● Weed control ● Filtration capacities (sediment barrier) 3.4
  17. 17. Composting at home 4.0
  18. 18. Backyard composting 4.1 ● Outdoors ● Larger volume ○ 4-5 persons ● Seasonal ○ Less active during winter ● Varied inputs ● Needs space ○ In contact with the soil ● Easy management
  19. 19. Worm composting 4.2 ● Indoors ● Smaller volume ○ 1-2 persons ● All year round ● Selected inputs ● Needs very little space ○ Cupboard, underneath sink ● Slightly technical ○ Basic knowledge is required
  20. 20. Rules of thumb ● Humidity: wrung out sponge ● Odor: earthy smell ● Size: 1 cubic meter ● Aeration: once a month ● Location: covered ● Inputs: smaller is better 4.3 ● Humidity: slight condensation ● Odor: earthy smell ● Size: 2 shoe boxes or more ● Aeration: leave open for the night if condensation happens underneath the lid ● Location: stable ● Inputs: smaller is better Backyard composting Worm composting
  21. 21. Useful tools ● Gloves ● Fork ● Shovel ● Lock and chain ● Trowel ● Weeding fork / cultivator ● Extra carbon material 4.4
  22. 22. Troubleshooting ● Odors ● Pest (squirrels, raccons) ● Soggy compost ● Weeds ● Ants ● maggots 4.5 ● Odors ● Flies ● Waterlogged ● Small insects taking over the bin ● Roaming behavior Backyard composting Worm composting
  23. 23. Inputs and Foods ● Balance Carbon and Nitrogen (C:N) ● Water content ● Required composting conditions ● Impact on composting conditions 4.6
  24. 24. Inputs and Food Activity
  25. 25. Q&A
  26. 26. Thank you ! Thomson House, McGill March 30th, 2016 Presented by: Vincent Beaudoin Cameron Stiff Environmental concerns The process: composting The product: compost Composting at home

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