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Comparative Analysis of Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism.pptx

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COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF
THERAVADA AND MAHAYANA
BUDDHISM
ORIGIN
Both the Buddhist schools originated in India. In
Buddhism (Mahayana and Theravada), dharma is an integral
concept. Dharma (Sanskrit) or dhamma (Pali) is a word
Buddhists use often.
The word dharma comes from the ancient religions of
India and is found in Hindu and Jain teachings, as well as
Buddhist. Its original meaning is something like "natural law."
Its root word, dham, means "to uphold" or "to support."
DHAMMA IN THERAVADA
BUDDHISM
• Dhamma is the nature of what-is; the truth of what the Buddha
taught. In Theravada Buddhism, as in the quote above, it is
sometimes used to indicate all the factors of existence.
DHARMA IN MAHAYANA BUDDHISM
Dharma in Mahayana Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism
generally uses the word dharma to refer to both the
teachings of the Buddha and the realization of
enlightenment. More often than not, use of the word
incorporates both meanings at once. Mahayana texts
sometimes use the word dharma to mean something
like "manifestation of reality.”
THE DHARMA BODY
Both Theravada and Mahayana Buddhists speak of the
"dharma body" (dhammakaya or dharmakaya). This is also
called the "truth body."
In Theravada Buddhism, a Buddha (an enlightened
being) is understood to be the living embodiment of
dharma. This does not mean that a Buddha's physical body
(rupa-kaya) is the same thing as dharma, however. It's a bit
closer to it to say that the dharma becomes visible or
tangible in a Buddha
In Mahayana Buddhism, the dharmakaya is one of the
three bodies (tri-kaya) of a Buddha. The dharmakaya is the
unity of all things and beings, unmanifested, beyond
existence and non-existence.

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Comparative Analysis of Theravada and Mahayana Buddhism.pptx

  • 1. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF THERAVADA AND MAHAYANA BUDDHISM
  • 2. ORIGIN Both the Buddhist schools originated in India. In Buddhism (Mahayana and Theravada), dharma is an integral concept. Dharma (Sanskrit) or dhamma (Pali) is a word Buddhists use often. The word dharma comes from the ancient religions of India and is found in Hindu and Jain teachings, as well as Buddhist. Its original meaning is something like "natural law." Its root word, dham, means "to uphold" or "to support."
  • 3. DHAMMA IN THERAVADA BUDDHISM • Dhamma is the nature of what-is; the truth of what the Buddha taught. In Theravada Buddhism, as in the quote above, it is sometimes used to indicate all the factors of existence.
  • 4. DHARMA IN MAHAYANA BUDDHISM Dharma in Mahayana Buddhism Mahayana Buddhism generally uses the word dharma to refer to both the teachings of the Buddha and the realization of enlightenment. More often than not, use of the word incorporates both meanings at once. Mahayana texts sometimes use the word dharma to mean something like "manifestation of reality.”
  • 5. THE DHARMA BODY Both Theravada and Mahayana Buddhists speak of the "dharma body" (dhammakaya or dharmakaya). This is also called the "truth body." In Theravada Buddhism, a Buddha (an enlightened being) is understood to be the living embodiment of dharma. This does not mean that a Buddha's physical body (rupa-kaya) is the same thing as dharma, however. It's a bit closer to it to say that the dharma becomes visible or tangible in a Buddha
  • 6. In Mahayana Buddhism, the dharmakaya is one of the three bodies (tri-kaya) of a Buddha. The dharmakaya is the unity of all things and beings, unmanifested, beyond existence and non-existence.
  • 7. MORALITY The two major schools of Buddhism, the Theravada and Mahayana sects, follow the “Four Noble Truths” and the “Noble Eightfold Path.”
  • 8. PURPOSE • In Theravada Buddhism, the monastic way of life ensures the path toward enlightenment. For the Buddhist laity, they must first be reborn as monks for them to be eligible for enlightenment. As members of the laity perform good deeds, positive karma may bring forth a pleasant condition in the next life. • Mahayana Buddhism offers enlightenment to anyone, not only for the members of the monastic order, but also for those with families and secular careers. Moreover, the Mahayana branch of Buddhism attracts followers because it offers a faster route to enlightenment than the Theravada sect.
  • 9. DESTINY Buddhism holds that no soul is being reborn because there is no permanence in anything (Bowker 1997). The Buddha preached to his followers to achieve their own salvation conscientiously because external forces have no control over their life and circumstances. They control their own fate as they are bound to the law of causality. Buddhist destiny, therefore, is the direct result of natural law or dharma and one’s accumulated deeds or karma. Here lies the glaring difference of Buddhism as a dharmic religion when compared to other world religions that teach the concept of fate or predestiny. For Buddhist followers, life and events are not controlled by an all- powerful creator or universal force.
  • 10. In contrast to Hinduism and other religions, the Buddhist goal is neither absorption into Brahman nor union with God. Instead, Buddhists aspire to reach nirvana or the extinguishing of fires of longing and suffering (Bowker 1997). When one has achieved nirvana, one has attained the state of perfect peace wherein attachment, aversion, and ignorance have ceased once and for all.
  • 11. In the Theravada school of Buddhism, the trainings on the development of ethical conduct, meditation, and insight assist in eradicating all forms of evil in order to acquire goodness and purify the mind. All worldly things are momentary and impermanent. By following the “Middle Path” and practicing the basic doctrines of Buddhism, there is a realization that desire can be terminated and suffering reduced. In the end, a perfected state of insight can be accomplished. A person who has 9 attained this position is called an arhat or a “worthy person” who must be emulated by Theravada Buddhists. Adherents can reach an enlightened status through their own ways without any assistance from any divine beings, such as gods or goddesses. With the help of Buddha’s teachings, the journey toward nirvana becomes possible.
  • 12. The Mahayana sect devotes much attention to the bodhisattvas or “enlightened beings” who delay their own enlightenment for them to benevolently aid other beings to reach their ultimate end. All beings can follow the path of the bodhisattvas which is the ideal way for all Buddhists to live. Well-known in the Mahayana sect are Avalokitesvara, Manjusri, Ksitigarbha, and Samantabhadra. The Theravada sect only accepts Maitreya as bodhisattva.
  • 13. VIEWS ON WOMEN Women have enjoyed considerable freedom in their religious life in Buddhism as compared to Hinduism. The Buddha himself allowed the full participation of women in all major Buddhist rites and practices. For so long, a time when women’s duties were confined to household and kitchen duties, Buddha radically changed this when he allowed women to join the monastic order and attain enlightenment in equal footing with men. In the past, learned women members of sangha include Dhammadinna, Khema, and Uppalavanna. Fully-ordained Buddhist female monastic members are bhikkunis.
  • 14. For the Buddha, men are not always wise and women can also be wise. In Buddhism, women should not be treated as inferior to men because both are equally valuable in society. Women as wives and mothers have roles to fulfill in the family and society. Husbands and wives must equally share responsibilities in the family with the same zeal. Wives must also familiarize themselves in trade and business dealings so that they can also handle these affairs. Men and women have equal status in Buddhist societies.