Meaning Of Research
According to Redman and Mory, “ Research
is a systematized effort to gain new
According to M. Stephenson, “Research is
the manipulation of things, concepts or
symbols for the purpose of generalizing to
extend, correct or verify knowledge, whether
that knowledge aids in construction of theory
or in the practice of an art.”
Objectives Of Research
To gain familiarity or achieve new insights on a
phenomena (exploratory/ formulative)
To portray characteristics of a situation/ group/ individual
To determine the frequency with which something occurs
or with which it is associated with something else
To test a hypothesis of a causal relationship between
given variables (Hypothesis-testing)
Motivation in Research
Desire to get a research degree along with its consequential
Desire to face the challenge in solving the unsolved problems.
Desire to get intellectual joy of doing some creative work.
Desire to be of service to society.
Desire to get respectability.
Types Of Research
Descriptive vs. Analytical
Applied vs. Fundamental
Quantitative vs. Qualitative
Conceptual vs. Empirical
One-time or Longitudinal
o Inferential Approach
o Experimental Approach
o Simulation Approach
Significance Of Research
It inculcates scientific and inductive thinking.
The role of research in several fields of applied
economics has greatly increased today.
It provides the basis for nearly all government policies
in our economic system.
It helps in solving various operational and planning
problems of business and industry.
It helps in studying social relationships.
Research Methods versus Methodology
Research methods refer to the methods the
researchers use in performing research operations
In Research methodology, we not only talk of the
research methods but also consider the logic behind
the methods we use in the context of our research
study and explain why we are using a particular
method or technique so that the results are capable
of being evaluated.
Importance of Knowing How
Research is Done
It helps in developing disciplined thinking or a ‘bent of
mind’ to observe the field objectively.
It will inculcate the ability to evaluate and use research
results with reasonable confidence.
It gives us the satisfaction of acquiring a new
intellectual tool which can become a way of looking at
the world and of judging everyday experience.
It helps us to take rational decisions.
Formulating the research problem
Extensive literature survey
Development of working hypothesis
Preparing the research design
Determining sample design
o Deliberate Sampling
o Simple random sampling
o Systematic sampling
o Stratified sampling
o Quota sampling
o Cluster sampling
o Multi-stage sampling
o Sequential sampling
Collecting the data
o By observation
o Through personal interview
o Through telephone interviews
o By mailing of questionnaires
o Through schedules (look up Appendix – 1)
Execution of the project
Analysis of data
Generalizations and interpretation
Preparation of the report or the thesis
o Summary of findings
o Main report
Criteria of Good Research
Clearly defined purpose
Procedure should be described in sufficient
Carefully planned design
Researcher should report with complete
Adequate analysis of data
Problems Encountered by Researchers in
Lack of scientific training
Lack of confidence
Overlapping research studies
No code of conduct for researchers
Difficulty of adequate and timely secretarial
Unsatisfactory library management and
functioning at many places
Difficulty of timely availability of published
Problem of conceptualization
Location Sector Number Back-up outlet
private 01 Main St.
Survey Area: Eastern Region
Sample schedule for data collection team