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how blood donation can save people.

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  3. 3. BLOOD Facts• Blood flows everywhere through the human body.• We cannot live without it.• The heart pumps blood to all our body cells, supplying them with oxygen and food.• Blood also carries proteins and cell fragments called platelets that let blood clot where there has been an injury. DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  4. 4. What makes up our blood?• RED BLOOD CELLS (Erythrocytes) – The most abundant cells in our blood; they are produced in the bone marrow and contain a protein called hemoglobin that carries oxygen to our cells.• WHITE BLOOD CELLS (Leukocytes) – They are part of the immune system and destroy infectious agents called pathogens.• PLASMA – This is the yellowish liquid portion of blood that contains electrolytes, nutrients and vitamins, hormones, clotting factors, and proteins such as antibodies to fight infection.• PLATELETS (Thrombocytes) – The clotting factors that are carried in the plasma; they clot together in a process called coagulation to seal a wound and prevent a loss of blood. DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  5. 5. Blood FactsThe average adult has about FIVE liters of blood inside oftheir body, which makes up 7-8% of their body weight.Blood is living tissue that carries oxygen and nutrients toall parts of the body, and carries carbon dioxide and otherwaste products back to the lungs, kidneys and liver fordisposal. It also fights against infection and helps healwounds, so we can stay healthy.There are about one billion red blood cells in two to threedrops of blood. For every 600 red blood cells, there areabout 40 platelets and one white cell. DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  6. 6. Genetics of Blood Types• Your blood type is established before you are BORN, by specific GENES inherited from your parents.• You inherit one gene from your MOTHER and one from your FATHER.• These genes determine your blood type by causing proteins called AGGLUTINOGENS to exist on the surface of all of your red blood cells. DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  7. 7. What are blood types? Blood TypesThere are 3 alleles or genes for bloodtype: A, B, & O. Since we have 2 genes, AA or AO =there are 6 possible combinations. Type A BB or BO = Type B OO = Type O AB = Type AB DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  8. 8. How common is your blood type? 46.1% 38.8% 11.1% 3.9% DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  9. 9. Rh Factors• Scientists sometimes study Rhesus monkeys to learn more about the human anatomy because there are certain similarities between the two species. While studying Rhesus monkeys, a certain blood protein was discovered. This protein is also present in the blood of some people. Other people, however, do not have the protein.• The presence of the protein, or lack of it, is referred to as the Rh (for Rhesus) factor. A+ A-• If your blood does contain the protein, your blood is said to be Rh positive (Rh+). If your B+ B- blood does not contain the protein, your blood AB+ AB- is said to be Rh negative (Rh-). O+ O- DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  10. 10. Did You Know? 450ml of blood can save as many as three lives. Every two seconds, someone in India needs blood. One out of every three of us will need blood in our life time. Even with all of today’s technology, there is no substitute for blood. Someone has to give blood in order for someone to receive blood. DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  11. 11. Blood TransfusionsA blood transfusion is a procedure in which blood is given to apatient through an intravenous (IV) line in one of the blood vessels.Blood transfusions are done to replace blood lost during surgery or aserious injury. A transfusion also may be done if a person’s bodycant make blood properly because of an illness. UniversalWho can give you blood? DonorPeople with TYPE O blood are calledUniversal Donors, because they can giveblood to any blood type.People with TYPE AB blood are calledUniversal Recipients, because they canreceive any blood type.Rh +  Can receive + or -Rh -  Can only receive - Universal DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS Recipient
  13. 13. Fact Sheet -1 Hospitals predict that the need for blood will increase 5% each year. Approximately only 5% of the eligible population in India donates blood. 75% of donors donate only ONCE per year.If they donated just two times per year there would never be any shortages. DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  14. 14. Fact sheet -2 A person has 5 litres of blood in their body. A person can donate blood every 90 days (3 months). Body recovers the Blood very quickly:  Blood plasma volume– within 24 - 48 hours  Red Blood Cells – in about 3 weeks  Platelets & White Blood Cells – within minutes DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  16. 16. Some Reasons to Donate Blood Blood is always needed for,  accident victims  cancer patients  blood disorder patients  surgery patients  Pre-mature, pre term babies  and many others……. 1 of out 10 hospital patients needs a blood transfusion 4.5 million Indians lives are saved by blood transfusions each year DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  17. 17. • Safety of Blood Donor & Blood Recipient (patient) because “Safe Blood” gives life, “Unsafe blood” gives infections• To ensure “Blood Safety”, – Strict “Donor Screening” at the Camp – “Testing” of collected blood to WHO specified standards – Strict “cross-matching” of blood samples to ensure safe transfusion to patient DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  18. 18. Pre-Donation information• Blood is taken ONLY from Voluntary Donors• Using sterile, disposable blood bags & instruments• Donated Blood is tested and separated into components benefiting 3-4 patients• It is safe to donate every 3 months • It is quick and safe. • It doesn’t hurt. • It saves 3 to 4 lives. DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  19. 19. Procedure for Voluntary Blood DonationPre-Donation:1. Donor Screening2. Donor Eligibility criteria3. Deferral Criteria (Donor Consent Form)4. Medical examinationBlood Donation:5. Blood donation procedurePost donation6. Rest, advice & refreshment7. Donor Certificate, Donor ID card DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  20. 20. 1. Donor Screening• Safe Donor selection involves – 1. Identification of low risk populations 2. Donor education and recruitment 3. Encouraging self deferral based on “Deferral Criteria” 4. Medical Examination before donation• Voluntary Non-remunerated Repeat Donor (VNRD) is safest DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  22. 22. 2. Donor Eligibility Criteria Wt > 45 Kg• Who can donate? • Age: 18 - 60 years • Weight : > 45 kgs • Hemoglobin level: >12 gms/dl for men and 12.5 gms/dl for women • In good health DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  23. 23. Life long 1 year 6 Monthsх Abnormal bleeding o Surgery o Tattooing ordisorder body piercingх Heart, Kidney, Liver o TyphoidDisorder o Dentalх Thyroid disorder o Dog bite extractionх Epilepsy, Mentaldisorders o Unexplained o Root canal weight loss treatmentх Tuberculosis, Leprosy,х Asthma o Continuous o Malariaх Cancer low grade fever o Vaccinationх Insulin dependentdiabeticsх Uncontrolled High BP DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  24. 24. 3. Deferral Criteria… (Donor Consent Form)Postpone donation for 6 months if you have risk factors for HIV/AIDS , such as..• Having sex with more than one partner without using condom for vaginal, anal or oral sex• Intravenous drug abuse• Having sex with a person who could have the above risk factors DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  25. 25. 3. Deferral Criteria… (Donor Consent Form)Female donors cannot donate blood……• During pregnancy• After delivery for one year• When lactating• During menstrual period and for 7 days therafterMale donors cannot donate blood……• If cosumed Alcohol in the previous 24 hours DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  26. 26. 4. Medical Examination at camp • Blood test for: – Blood grouping – Hemoglobin • Blood pressure • Pulse • General physical examination DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  27. 27. 5. Blood Donation Procedure Remember! The Donor Must …. • have had good rest / sleep • have had light meal • be mentally prepared DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  28. 28. 5. Blood Donation Procedure Volume of blood collection Donor Blood Amount Used for Weight collected45 kgs -55 350ml Single bag Whole Blood kgs> 55 kgs 450 ml Double / Blood Triple bag Components DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  29. 29. Post Donation Advice• Drink lots of fluids for next 24 hours• Avoid smoking for one hour & alcohol till after a meal• Don’t use elevator to go up immediately after donation as it will make blood rush to your feet & make you dizzy!• Avoid highly strenuous exercises & games for a day• If you feel dizzy, lie down & put your feet up. You will be alright in 10-20 mins.• Remove band-aid after 4 hours. If it bleeds, apply pressure & reapply band-aid. If bruised and painful, apply cold-pack 4 to 5 times for 5 mins each. The bruise is due to blood seeping into the surrounding tissue. It will take a few days to get reabsorbed.• DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  30. 30. 6. Testing at Blood Bank for Transfusion Transmissible Infections (TTIs)Blood collected at the BDC is screened using highest quality screening tests for 6 TTIs• HIV 1• HIV 2• Hepatitis B• Hepatitis C• VDRL (syphilis)• Malaria DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  31. 31. Counselling for “Reactive” donorsIf a blood sample tests positive for any TTI, then….• Tests are repeated in duplicate• Complete confidentiality is maintained about the test results• only the donor is informed, counseled & encouraged for further testing• Referrals to health experts are provided along with follow-ups DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  32. 32. 7. Blood Products / Components & their uses Blood collected is screened for TTIs (infections) & IF SAFE, is separated into components & stored for issue to patients.• Whole blood – For Exchange Transfusion in Babies – Accident Victims – Complicated Delivery cases – Some specific surgeries• Blood Components – Red Cells (for anemia) – Fresh Frozen Plasma (for clotting disorders, burns) – Platelets/Platelet rich plasma (for cancer, dengue) – Cryoprecipitate (for clotting disorders) – Cryo Poor Plasma (for burns) DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  33. 33. What can YOU do?• Make Blood Donation a HABIT• Donate regularly – every 3 months to commemorate special days like birthdays, anniversaries ….• Motivate others to donate• Refer your friends and relatives DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  34. 34. Benefits to Donor of blood donation Health benefits: Regular donation (2-3 times a year….) – Lowers cholesterol – Lowers lipid levels – Decreases incidence of heart attacks, strokes Donor is also eligible to receive BLESSINGS Spouse/ Child/ Parents, and – Even friends DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS
  37. 37. Thank You… DR.VINAMRA DHARIWAL MDS