Urbanization effects on Isopods in Denmark and Hungary

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The slideshow represents the main results of studies on urban Isopoda assemblages in Denmark and Hungary.

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Urbanization effects on Isopods in Denmark and Hungary

  1. 1. Abundance patterns of isopod assemblages under different urbanization stages in Hungary and Denmark Ferenc V ilisics 1 , E. Hornung 1 , Z. Elek 1,2 , G.L. Lövei 3 , T. Magura 4 & B. Tóthmérész 5 1 Szent István University (H); 2 CEMAGREF (F); 3 Aarhus University (DK); 4 Hortobágyi National Park (H); 5 Debrecen University (H)
  2. 2. Johannesburg, ZA Sao Paulo, BRA Kansas City, USA Kobe, JPN Key problem: Urbanization
  3. 3. <ul><li>Similarities in </li></ul>e.g. McKinney, ML (2006) Biol Cons FUNCTION industry, trade, education, culture etc. LAND MANAGEMENT habitat degradation, artificial surfaces, etc. STRUCTURE e.g. residential, industrial, commercial zones ENVIRONMENT e.g. heat island effect
  4. 4. Niemelä (1999) Urban Ecosyst <ul><li>Structure of cities is similar (GlobeNet): </li></ul>C I T I E S Densely built-in city core Suburban zone Rural area; woods
  5. 5. <ul><ul><li>Few taxa are well studied from cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- E.g. Carabidae, Aranei </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Urban soil decomposers </li></ul><ul><li>are not well known </li></ul>URBAN SOIL FAUNA Vilisics & Hornung (2009) Urban Ecosyst Szlávecz et al. 2008 URBIO Erfurt abstract Species introduction Biotic homogenization <ul><li>Dual effect of urbanizaton is detected: </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Sampling design, sampling localities and areas: GlobeNet protocol (Niemelä et al . 2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Observed towns: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- Debrecen: m edium size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>- Sorø : small town </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Different disturbance levels </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rural, forest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Suburban area forested areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Urban park </li></ul></ul>METHODS
  7. 7. R U R A L <ul><li>3 habitat types (areas) </li></ul><ul><li>4 replicates (sites) / areas , 50 m distance </li></ul><ul><li>10 pitfall traps, 10 m distance </li></ul><ul><li>Total : </li></ul><ul><li>120 pitfall traps (3*40) </li></ul><ul><li>Sampling periods: May – October </li></ul>SUBURBAN U R B A N METHODS
  8. 8. <ul><li>- Denmark </li></ul><ul><li>- Hungary </li></ul><ul><li>Sor ø </li></ul><ul><li>Debrecen </li></ul>LOCALITIES
  9. 9. Oak forest Suburban area Urban park <ul><li>Debrecen </li></ul>
  10. 10. Beech forest Suburb an area Urban park <ul><li>Sor ø </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><ul><li>Intermediate disturbance h. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Species richness is highest under intermediate disturbance level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing disturbance h. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- Species richness is highest under intermediate disturbance level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Species introduction h. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>- The number of introduced and synanthropic species is highest in the urbanized areas. </li></ul></ul>HYPOTHESES
  12. 12. RESULTS <ul><li>Debrecen (H) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>- 6 species, 9000 ind. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sorø (DK) </li></ul><ul><li>- 6 species, 99,569 ind. (2 species excuded) </li></ul>Porcellio scaber
  13. 13. Sor ø : Armadillidium vulgare Porcellio scaber Trachelipus rathkii Ligidium hypnorum Oniscus asellus Philoscia muscorum <ul><ul><li>High uniformity between cities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Native generalist, or cosmopolitan species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No exotic species </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No differences in species compositions among R – S - U areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in each town. </li></ul></ul>RESULTS Debrecen: Armadillidium vulgare Porcellio scaber Trachelipus rathkii Trachelipus ratzeburgii Porcellium collicola Cylisticus convexus
  14. 14. INDIVIDUALS / TRAP Egipigeic activity Debrecen , 2002 Sorø , 2004 Kruskal-Wallis test, p<0,01 Sorø (DK) Debrecen (H) No. of individuals/trap (+-SD) Rural Suburban Urban Rural Suburban Urban
  15. 15. ABUNDANCE OF SITES AND AREAS Nested ANOVA R = Rural , S = Suburb a n, U = Urb a n *<0,1 **<0,05 ***<0,001 <ul><ul><li>Significant differences among areas, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant differences among sites within each area </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(spatial aggregation of isopods) </li></ul></ul>    Df. F p Fisher LSD Debrecen Area 2 0,69 * R = S S < U R < U   Site ( Within area ) 9 4,43 ** Sorø Area 2 8,63 *** R < S R < U R < U   Site ( Within area ) 9 4,98 **  
  16. 16. SIMILARITY OF SITES AND AREAS C l u ster anal ysi s, Bray-Curtis, Ward m ethod Sorø (DK) Rural Suburban Urban Debrecen (H)
  17. 17. Rural Suburban Urban Debrecen Sor ø SPECIES FREQUENCY IN AREAS Epigeic activity Epigeic activity Rural Suburban Urban
  18. 18. RANK-ABUNDANCE OF ASSEMBLAGES Rural Suburban Urban Debrecen Sorø
  19. 19. SUMMARY For both towns: 1. Species richness: no differences among areas rural, suburban, urban. 2. No introduced, exotic species captured by pitfall traps. 3. The differences among areas were indicated by abundance patterns of species. 4. Rank-abundance of assemblages show unevenness regardless to level of urbanization.
  20. 20. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS We thank to all of those colleagues who helped in the field and the lab in Debrecen and Sorø. Grants: - Akademi Stilftelse & the Danish Institute for Agricultural Sciences - Hungarian National Research Fund (OTKA T 043508) - International School of Biodiversity Studies (ISOBIS) (Z. Elek) - Hungarian Scholarship Board (HSB, E ö tv ö s-grant, Z. Elek).
  21. 22. <ul><li>Appr. 4000 species world-wide </li></ul><ul><li>Soil and litter dwellers </li></ul><ul><li>Diverse morphology </li></ul><ul><li>Important role as decomposers </li></ul><ul><li>Hungary: Sporadic but regular samplings </li></ul><ul><li>Denmark: Data older than 50 years </li></ul>TERRESTRIAL ISOPODS (Crustacea, Isopoda, Oniscidea) Meinertz, T (1964) Vidensk Medd dansk Schmalfuss, H (2003) Stuttg Beitr Naturk Vilisics, F (2007) Folia Nat Hist Mus Matr <ul><ul><li>Hungary - 57 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denmark - 30 </li></ul></ul>

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