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Web Server Hardware and
Lecturer, P.G Dept. of Commerce
What is WEB
Server refers to a computer or device on
a network that manages network resources. There
are many different types of servers. For example:
◦ File server: a computer and storage
device dedicated to storing files. Any user on the network
can store files on the server.
◦ Print server: a computer that manages one or
more printers, and a network server is a computer that
manages network traffic.
◦ Database server: a computer system that
processes database queries.
Web server can refer to either the hardware (the
computer) or the software (the computer
application) that helps to deliver web content that
can be accessed through the Internet.
Web servers are computers that deliver Web pages.
Every Web server has an IP address and possibly
a domain name.
For example, if you enter
the URL http://www.pcwebopedia.com/index.html in
your browser, this sends a request to the Web
server whose domain name is pcwebopedia.com.
The server then fetches the page
named index.html and sends it to your browser.
What is required for a Web
Any computer can be turned into a Web server by
installing server software and connecting the
machine to the Internet.
There are many Web server software applications,
including public domain software from NCSA and
Apache, and commercial packages
from Microsoft, Netscape and others.
Software for Web servers.
Computer software, or just software, is any set of
machine-readable instructions (most often in the
form of a computer program) that directs a
computer's processor to perform specific
Software is a general term. It can refer to all
computer instructions in general or to any specific
set of computer instructions. It is inclusive of
both machine instructions (the binary code that the
processor understands) and source code (more
human-understandable instructions that must be
rendered into machine code
by compilers or interpreters before being
Web server software....
Web server software includes a series of complex tools
and programs that come together to create and manage
a Web server. These tools range from programming
language protocols to file transfer protocol programs,
which allow programmers to customize their Web
servers and provide unique experiences for their users
from each of their Web pages.
Web server software is used to edit and create Web
pages along with various other HTTP formatted
Few famous web server software
Percentage of Websites using
various web sites.
Apache 62.3% Microsoft-IIS
Nginx 15.7% LiteSpeed1.9%
Google Servers1.4% Tomcat 0.7%
Lighttpd 0.5% IBM Servers
Yahoo Traffic Server 0.2%
Oracle Servers 0.2% Zope 0.1%
Apache HTTP Server:-
Often referred to as simply Apache, a public-
domain open source Web server developed by a
loosely-knit group of programmers. The first version
of Apache, based on the NCSA httpd Web server,
was developed in 1995.
Core development of the Apache Web server is
performed by a group of about 20 volunteer
programmers, called the Apache Group. However,
because the source code is freely available, anyone
can adapt the server for specific needs, and there is
a large public library of Apache add-ons. In many
respects, development of Apache is similar to
development of the Linux operating system.
The original version of Apache was written for UNIX,
but there are now versions that run
under OS/2, Windows and other platforms.
The name is a tribute to the Native American
Apache Indian tribe, a tribe well known for its
endurance and skill in warfare. A common
misunderstanding is that it was called Apache
because it was developed from existing NCSA code
plus various patches, hence the name a patchy
server, or Apache server.
for Internet Information Server, Microsoft's Web
server that runs on Windows NT platforms. In fact,
IIS comes bundled with Windows NT 4.0. Because
IIS is tightly integrated with the operating system, it
is relatively easy to administer.
However, currently IIS is available only for the
Windows NT platform, whereas Netscape's Web
servers run on all major platforms, including
Windows NT, OS/2 and UNIX.
Nginx (pronounced engine-x) is a free,
open-source, high-performance HTTP
server and reverse proxy, as well as an
IMAP/POP3 proxy server. Igor
Sysoev started development of Nginx in
2002, with the first public release in 2004.
Nginx now hosts nearly12.18% of active
sites across all domains. Nginx is known
for its high performance, stability, rich
feature set, simple configuration, and low
Nginx is one of a handful of servers written to
address the C10K problem. Unlike traditional
servers, Nginx doesn't rely on threads to handle
requests. Instead it uses a much more scalable
event-driven (asynchronous) architecture. This
architecture uses small, but more
importantly, predictable amounts of memory under
Why does web server hardware
◦ It is need to be ensured that HTTP requests
are serviced with a minimum response time.
◦ It's considered to be rude if service provider
makes his customers wait, especially on the
Measuring web server response
The most important factor to look at is high
water mark of HTTP requests per second
and end-to-end response time during high-
This response time is the total elapsed
time between receipt of the request and
the end of sending the requested
HTML. (Some use the "Time To First
Byte"(TTBF) metric to measure webserver
For a real measure of end-to-end
response time, one can
use open gateway proxy web servers and
see how fast pages load from anywhere in
What is Web Server System??
Companies use a wide variety of computer
brands, types, and sizes to host electronic
commerce operations. Some small
companies can run Web sites on desktop
PCs. Most electronic commerce Web sites
are operated on computers designed for site
Web server computers generally have more
memory, larger (and faster) hard disk drives,
and faster processors than the typical
desktop or notebook PCs with which we are
Many Web server computers use multiple
processors, very few desktop PCs have more
than one processor.
Because Web server computers use more
capable hardware elements and more of these
elements, they are usually much more
expensive than workstation PCs.
Things need to be considered for
best webserver configuration:-
Disk placement counts and disk latency.
Web Servers are not CPU intensive.
RAM matters most
Choosing web server hardware
Depending on you tolerance for 404 timeouts
and response time during peak usage times,
one can choose webserver hardware to
minimize disk latency (caching) while
ensuring that availability of enough CPU and
RAM for the OS.
Most companies choose Intel-based web
server hardware on a server with high-
channel disks (to support high volume disk
reads) and expandable RAM to cache the
most frequently requested pages and images.
One should choose a server that has
expandable RAM capacity, at least 4 GB with
expansion to 16 GB, depending on the size of
working set of frequently-referenced pages and
If less than a million page views a month, one
can buy powerful 64-bit PC's for webserver
hardware, install Red Hat Linux advanced
server with Squid and have a 1.5 GB web cache
for super-fast web page delivery. Dell also
offers higher volume webservers at reasonable
For larger webserver traffic volumes,
many web hosting companies offer larger
◦ EX:- Dual Xeon EM64T 3.2GHz with 2GB RAM
and two 200GB SATA drives in a RAID All for only
$275.00 a month. The only setback is that the max
bandwidth on that is 1TB per month.
If user want even cheaper than that, we got
Dual Xeon 2.8GHz EM64T with 2GB RAM
and two 80GB SATA RAID-1 drives for only
$210 a month.
For cheaper servers, we got non-RAID.
There's a dual core Athlon X2 3800 with
1GB RAM and an 80GB hard drive for only
$160 a month. User can upgrade the RAM
for only a little more.