Air related disasters
(Cyclones, tornadoes,
hurricanes,
Cloudburst and air
accidents)
Cyclone
 Cyclone is a region of low atmospheric pressure
surrounded by high atmospheric pressure resulting
in swirling at...
Cyclone formation
General Characteristics
 Cyclones in India are moderate in nature.
Some of the general characteristics of a
cyclone are:
...
Fully matured
 Fully mature tropical cyclone is a spiral pattern of
highly turbulent giant cumulus thundercloud
bands. Th...
Cyclones are known by different names
in different parts of the world
 ¨Typhoons in the Northwest Pacific Ocean west of t...
 ¨ Severe cyclonic storm” (the North Indian
Ocean)
 ¨ Tropical cyclone (the Southwest Indian
Ocean)
 ¨ Willie-Willie in...
Fig .Orissa Super
Cyclone
29th October 1999, Super-
cyclone with wind speed of
260-300 km/hour hit the 140
km coast of Or...
Indian Cyclones
 Cyclones vary in frequency in various parts of the world
 The 7516.6 km long Indian coastline is the ea...
Death associate with noteworthy Tropical
Cyclones (1970 – 2005)
Safe Construction Practices
Mangrove plantation on the coastal belt
A shelter with special feature to withstand cyclones and floods.
Traditional homes can be improved by building in disaster...
Coastal belt plantation
Tornadoes
Tornado Nicknames
Twisters
Funnel cloud
Waterspout
 A tornado is a violently rotating column of air extending
from a thunderstorm to the ground
 Change in wind direction
...
Category Damage Wind
F0 light 40–72 mph
F1 moderate 73–112 mph
F2 significant 113–157 mph
F3 severe 158–206 mph
F4 devasta...
A lower cloud base in the center of the
photograph identifies an area of
rotation known as a rotating wall
cloud. This are...
Where is the safest place to go
during a tornado?
Basement Ditch Shower Inner Hallway Center of Room
Safest Places
During ...
Hurricanes
 Violent cyclonic storm that develops in the
tropical region
 Wind speeds are > 74 mph
 Rotation and Pressure
In which ...
When is Hurricane Season?
June 1st
through
November
31st
What is the role of the National Weather
Service during hurricane season?
 Provides weather information, such as data
fro...
Watch vs. Warning
 What is the difference between a Hurricane
Watch and a Hurricane Warning?
 Watch – Tropical storm pos...
What conditions must be present for a
hurricane to develop?
 Warm ocean temperatures
(>80˚ F) up to 60m deep
 Little to ...
What is the major source of energy
fueling a hurricane?
Heat Energy evaporating from the ocean
surface
Hurricane Anatomy
Tropical Storm
Shower and thunderstorm
moves over closed circulation,
winds greater than 39 mph
Hurrican...
By what two factors is hurricane
strength measured?
 Wind Speed
 Barometric Pressure
What is the Scale Used to Categorize
Hurricanes?
 Saffir-Simpson Scale
Category Max Wind Speed
(mph)
Min. Surface
Pressur...
What causes the damage in a hurricane?
 Winds
 Flooding
 Storm Surge
How has a hurricane affected you
personally?
 Damage to your house from wind?
 Damage from flooding?
 Destroyed vacatio...
Cloudburst
A cloudburst is an extreme amount of
precipitation, sometimes with hail and thunder,
which normally lasts no lo...
 The cloud burst in India occurs during
monsoon season over the orographically
dominant regions like Himalayan region,
No...
Cloudbursts are associated with intensive heating of air
masses, its rapid rising, and formation of thunderclouds.
Interac...
July 26, 2005 deluge, the dreadful memories of “Black Tuesday” return to
haunt the mind as soon as a few heavy showers hit...
Forecast
issued by
IMD
Leh (Jammu &
Kashmir)
3 feared killed, 16
commercial
structures, vehicles
washed away in
J&K cloud burst
Air accidents
Air Traffic Growth
 The air traffic has amazingly increased between the
beginning of aviation and 2001.
 But after the W...
Major disasters
 September 11 terror attacks
 Tenerife
 JAL Flight 123
 Other crashes with high death tolls
Nearly 3000 people died on September 11, 2001
The probable cause of airplane accidents
Human Error
Technical
Environment
Three key stages of activities that are taken up within disaster risk management are-
1. Before a disaster (pre-disaster) ...
Air related disaters
Air related disaters
Air related disaters
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Air related disaters

  1. 1. Air related disasters (Cyclones, tornadoes, hurricanes, Cloudburst and air accidents)
  2. 2. Cyclone  Cyclone is a region of low atmospheric pressure surrounded by high atmospheric pressure resulting in swirling atmospheric disturbance accompanied by powerful winds blowing in anticlockwise direction in the Northern Hemisphere and in the clockwise direction in the Southern Hemisphere  They occur mainly in the tropical and temperate regions of the world.
  3. 3. Cyclone formation
  4. 4. General Characteristics  Cyclones in India are moderate in nature. Some of the general characteristics of a cyclone are:  1. Strong winds  2. Exceptional rain  3. Storm surge
  5. 5. Fully matured  Fully mature tropical cyclone is a spiral pattern of highly turbulent giant cumulus thundercloud bands. These bands spiral inwards and form a dense highly active central cloud core which raps around a relatively calm zone.  This is called the “eye” of a cyclone.  The eye looks like a black hole or a dot surrounded by thick clouds. The outer circumference of the thick cloud is called the „eye wall‟.
  6. 6. Cyclones are known by different names in different parts of the world  ¨Typhoons in the Northwest Pacific Ocean west of the dateline  ¨Hurricanes in the North Atlantic Ocean, the Northeast Pacific Ocean east of the dateline, or the South Pacific Ocean.  ¨Tropical cyclones - the Southwest Pacific Ocean and Southeast Indian Ocean.
  7. 7.  ¨ Severe cyclonic storm” (the North Indian Ocean)  ¨ Tropical cyclone (the Southwest Indian Ocean)  ¨ Willie-Willie in Australia  ¨ Tornado in South America
  8. 8. Fig .Orissa Super Cyclone 29th October 1999, Super- cyclone with wind speed of 260-300 km/hour hit the 140 km coast of Orissa with a storm surge created in the Bay-of-Bengal with water level 9 metres higher than normal. Within a period of 36 hrs ravaged more than 200 lakh hectares of land, devouring trees and vegetation, leaving behind a huge trail of destruction. The violent cyclone was broke the backbone of Orissa’s economy and killed
  9. 9. Indian Cyclones  Cyclones vary in frequency in various parts of the world  The 7516.6 km long Indian coastline is the earth‟s most cyclone battered stretch of the world. Around 8 per cent of the total land area in India is prone to cyclones.  About two-third of the cyclones that occur in the Indian coastline occur in the Bay of Bengal.  The states which are generally affected in the east coast are West-Bengal, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh; Tamil Nadu and on the west coast Gujarat, Maharashtra, Goa, Karnataka and Kerala.
  10. 10. Death associate with noteworthy Tropical Cyclones (1970 – 2005)
  11. 11. Safe Construction Practices
  12. 12. Mangrove plantation on the coastal belt
  13. 13. A shelter with special feature to withstand cyclones and floods. Traditional homes can be improved by building in disaster resistant features. Such homes could withstand cyclones with
  14. 14. Coastal belt plantation
  15. 15. Tornadoes Tornado Nicknames Twisters Funnel cloud Waterspout
  16. 16.  A tornado is a violently rotating column of air extending from a thunderstorm to the ground  Change in wind direction  Increase in wind speed  Increasing height  Rising air within a thunderstorm
  17. 17. Category Damage Wind F0 light 40–72 mph F1 moderate 73–112 mph F2 significant 113–157 mph F3 severe 158–206 mph F4 devastating 207–260 mph F5 incredible 261–318 mph
  18. 18. A lower cloud base in the center of the photograph identifies an area of rotation known as a rotating wall cloud. This area is often nearly rain- free. Note rain in the background. Moments later a strong tornado develops in this area. Softball- size hail and damaging "straight-line" winds can occur with this storm. Look out for: •Dark, often greenish sky •Wall cloud •Large hail •Loud roar; similar to a freight train Tornado Clues
  19. 19. Where is the safest place to go during a tornado? Basement Ditch Shower Inner Hallway Center of Room Safest Places During a Tornado
  20. 20. Hurricanes
  21. 21.  Violent cyclonic storm that develops in the tropical region  Wind speeds are > 74 mph  Rotation and Pressure In which direction does a hurricane rotate? COUNTERCLOCKWISE Is the barometric pressure inside the hurricane high or low? LOW
  22. 22. When is Hurricane Season? June 1st through November 31st
  23. 23. What is the role of the National Weather Service during hurricane season?  Provides weather information, such as data from satellites  Responsible for issuing watches and warnings to the media and general public
  24. 24. Watch vs. Warning  What is the difference between a Hurricane Watch and a Hurricane Warning?  Watch – Tropical storm poses a threat to coastal areas with 36 hours  Warning - Tropical storm conditions are expected in a coastal area within 24 hours
  25. 25. What conditions must be present for a hurricane to develop?  Warm ocean temperatures (>80˚ F) up to 60m deep  Little to no wind shear  Low pressure system at least 5˚ North or South of Equator  Rotation caused by winds
  26. 26. What is the major source of energy fueling a hurricane? Heat Energy evaporating from the ocean surface
  27. 27. Hurricane Anatomy Tropical Storm Shower and thunderstorm moves over closed circulation, winds greater than 39 mph Hurricane Eye is developed, winds > 74 mph
  28. 28. By what two factors is hurricane strength measured?  Wind Speed  Barometric Pressure
  29. 29. What is the Scale Used to Categorize Hurricanes?  Saffir-Simpson Scale Category Max Wind Speed (mph) Min. Surface Pressure (mb) Storm Surge m (ft) 1 74-96 > 980 1-1.7 (3-5) 2 97-111 979-965 1.8-2.6 (6-8) 3 112-131 964-945 2.7-3.8 (9-12) 4 132-155 944-920 3.9-5.6 (13-18) 5 > 155 < 920 > 5.7 (>19)
  30. 30. What causes the damage in a hurricane?  Winds  Flooding  Storm Surge
  31. 31. How has a hurricane affected you personally?  Damage to your house from wind?  Damage from flooding?  Destroyed vacation house?  Damage to family members’ homes?
  32. 32. Cloudburst A cloudburst is an extreme amount of precipitation, sometimes with hail and thunder, which normally lasts no longer than a few minutes but is capable of creating flood conditions Manali Cloud Burst Bridge
  33. 33.  The cloud burst in India occurs during monsoon season over the orographically dominant regions like Himalayan region, North-Eastern states and the Western Ghats  The associated convective cloud can extend up to a height of 15 km above the ground.
  34. 34. Cloudbursts are associated with intensive heating of air masses, its rapid rising, and formation of thunderclouds. Interaction with local topography results in upward motion, especially where the atmospheric flow is perpendicular to topographic features
  35. 35. July 26, 2005 deluge, the dreadful memories of “Black Tuesday” return to haunt the mind as soon as a few heavy showers hit the city. The rain pounded the city ruthlessly that day inundating it with 944 mm of rainfall and killing over 450 people.
  36. 36. Forecast issued by IMD Leh (Jammu & Kashmir)
  37. 37. 3 feared killed, 16 commercial structures, vehicles washed away in J&K cloud burst
  38. 38. Air accidents
  39. 39. Air Traffic Growth  The air traffic has amazingly increased between the beginning of aviation and 2001.  But after the World Trade Center attack, many airlines were in financial difficulty, and the air traffic started to decrease.  Two years later, the growth came back.
  40. 40. Major disasters  September 11 terror attacks  Tenerife  JAL Flight 123  Other crashes with high death tolls
  41. 41. Nearly 3000 people died on September 11, 2001
  42. 42. The probable cause of airplane accidents Human Error Technical Environment
  43. 43. Three key stages of activities that are taken up within disaster risk management are- 1. Before a disaster (pre-disaster) 2. During a disaster (disaster occurrence). 3. After a disaster (post-disaster)

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