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Training Report on PLC SCADA and AUTOMATION


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Training Report on PLC SCADA and AUTOMATION

  2. 2. 2 INDEX Serial No. Caption Page No. 1 Acknowledgement 3 2 Company profile 4 3 Introduction to automation 6 4 Advantage/Disadvantage 8 5 Limitation of automation 9 6 PLC 10 7 Architecture of PLC 12 8 Ladder Diagram 14 9 Programming by Ladder Diagram 15 10 Programming and Operation in PLC 25 11 Application of PLC 30 12 SCADA 31 13 SCADA Software 33 14 Architecture 34 15 INTOUCH SCADA Software 38 16 Application of SCADA 44 17 Conclusion 47
  3. 3. 3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I feel profound happiness in forwarding this industrial training report as an image of sincere efforts. It is almost inevitable to ensure indebtedness to all who generously helped by sharing their valuable experience & devoting their precious time with us, without whom this seminar report would have never been accomplished. First & foremost I extend my thanks & gratitude to the entire unit of “KAIZEN ROBEONICS PVT.LTD. JAIPUR” along with “Mr. Manoj Sharma (DIRECTOR)”,“SMr. Amit Kumar (Assistant Professor)” whose guidance, teaching and invaluable suggestions provided me a deep insight in my chosen field of technology, enhanced my knowledge and supported in widening my outlook towards the communication industry. I am also very thankful to all the engineers of the department for their kind support throughout the training.
  4. 4. 4 COMPANY PROFILE Kaizen is a Japanese term for improvement. More than a word it is the philosophy that focuses upon the continuous improvement in any process. It can be applied to any field in the world – from self improvement to business processes and from scientific research to education. Kaizen aims at improving the activities and process thus eliminating waste. Robeonics–We believe that Robeonics is not a subject or a hobby or a cliché science. Robeonics is in itself a complete science. Robeonics has many dimensions which deal with the theoretical, practical, educational, technological and scientific aspects. Robotics combined with different branches of science and engineering like electronics, electrical, mechanical and computer programming. Their overall combination with robotics is called as Robeonics, which is a complete science in itself. Kaizen Robeonics Research Pvt. Ltd. is an original manifestation of Kaizen and Robeonics which combines and fulfil the meaning of both together. Continuous development and innovation in the field of science and technology and in all the aspects of engineering is the goal of Kaizen Robeonics Research Pvt. Ltd.. Kaizen Robeonics
  5. 5. 5 Research Pvt. Ltd. accomplish this task by providing education in Robeonics and carrying out research and development activities in the field for the overall development of science and technology. Kaizen Robeonics Research Pvt. Ltd. is also aimed to continuously improve its processes in education and research. Kaizen Robeonics Research Pvt. Ltd. strives for achieving perfection and aligning us to the changing world and minds. For our success we believe upon our ability to creatively and effectively serve our clients, students and stakeholder’s and we continue to improve ourselves through our capabilities and resources, making Kaizen Robeonics Research Pvt. Ltd. a rewarding place to work and innovate. Kaizen Robeonics Research Pvt. Ltd. is more than an organization it is a dream of passionate and ambitious technocrats. It was started with the name Kaizen Robeonics in 2008, with the dream of an entrepreneurial engineering graduate and electronics genius – Manoj Sharma. With a deep desire to spread practical technological education and the lack of resources and support to robotics enthusiast in India, Manoj took the initiative to do it himself. Today, Kaizen Robeonics Research Pvt. Ltd. is a heaven for many robeonics enthusiasts.
  6. 6. 6 INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMATION Automation is the use of control systems such as computers to control industrial machinery and process, reducing the need for human intervention. In the scope of industrialization, automation is a step beyond mechanization. Whereas mechanization provided human operators with machinery to assist them with physical requirements of work, automation greatly reduces the need for human sensory and mental requirements as well. Processes and systems can also be automated. Automation Impacts: 1. It increases productivity and reduce cost. 2. It gives emphasis on flexibility and convertibility of manufacturing process. Hence gives manufacturers the ability to easily switch from manufacturing products. 3. Automation is now often applied primarily to increase quality in the manufacturing process, where automation can increase quality substantially. 4. Increase the consistency of output. 5. Replacing humans in tasks done in dangerous environments. Advantages of Automation: 1. Replacing human operators in tasks that involve hard physical or monotonous work. 2. Performing tasks that are beyond human capabilities of size, weight, endurance etc. 3. Economy improvement: Automation may improve in economy of enterprises, society or most of humanity. Disadvantages of Automation: 1. Technology limits: Current technology is unable to automate all the desired tasks.
  7. 7. 7 2. Unpredictable development costs: The research and development cost of automating a process may exceed the cost saved by the automation itself. 3. High initial cost: The automation of a new product or plant requires a huge initial investment in comparison with the unit cost of the product. Applications  Automated video surveillance: Automated video surveillance monitors people and vehicles in real time within a busy environment. Existing automated surveillance systems are based on the environment they are primarily designed to observe, i.e., indoor, outdoor or airborne, the amount of sensors that the automated system can handle and the mobility of sensor, i.e., stationary camera vs. mobile camera. The purpose of a surveillance system is to record properties and trajectories of objects in a given area, generate warnings or notify designated authority in case of occurrence of particular events.  Automated manufacturing: Automated manufacturing refers to the application of automation to produce things in the factory way. Most of the advantages of the automation technology has its influence in the manufacture processes. The main advantages of automated manufacturing are higher consistency and quality, reduced lead times, simplified production, reduced handling, improved work flow, and increased worker morale when a good implementation of the automation is made.
  8. 8. 8  Home automation: Home automation designates an emerging practice of increased automation of household appliances and features in residential dwellings, particularly through electronic means that allow for things impracticable, overly expensive or simply not possible recent past decades.  Industrial automation: Industrial automation deals with the optimization of energy- efficient drive systems by precise measurement and control technologies. Nowadays energy efficiency in industrial processes are becoming more and more relevant. Semiconductor companies like Infineon Technologies are offering 8-bit microcontroller applications for example found in motor controls, general purpose pumps, fans, and e- bikes to reduce energy consumption and thus increase efficiency. Limitations to automation: Current technology is unable to automate all the desired tasks. As a process becomes increasingly automated, there is less and less labour to be saved or quality improvement to be gained. This is an example of both diminishing returns and the logistic function. Similar to the above, as more and more processes become automated, there are fewer remaining non-automated processes. This is an example of exhaustion of opportunities.
  9. 9. 9 PROGRAMMABLE LOGIC CONTROLLER HISTORY OF PLC: In the 1960's Programmable Logic Controllers were first developed to replace relays and relay control systems. Relays, while very useful in some applications, also have some problems. The primary reason for designing such a device was eliminating the large cost involved in replacing the complicated relay based machine control systems for major U.S. car manufacturers. These controllers eliminated the need of rewiring and adding additional hardware for every new configuration of logic. These, along with other considerations, led to the development of PLCs. plc was more improved in 1970’s. In 1973 the ability to communicate between PLCs was added. This also made it possible to have the controlling circuit quite a ways away from the machine it was controlling. However, at this time the lack of standardization in PLCs created other problems. This was improved in the 1980's.The size of PLC was also reduced then, thus using space even more efficiently. The 90's increased the collection of ways in
  10. 10. 10 which a PLC could be programmed (block diagrams, instruction list, C, etc.). INTRODUCTION OF PLC:  A programmable logic controller (PLC) is an industrial computer control system that continuously monitors the state of input devices and makes decisions based upon a custom program to control the state of output devices.  It is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact.  They are used in many industries such as oil refineries, manufacturing lines, conveyor systems and so on, wherever there is a need to control devices the PLC provides a flexible way to "soft wire" the components together.  The basic units have a CPU (a computer processor) that is dedicated to run one program that monitors a series of different inputs and logically manipulates the outputs for the desired control. They are meant to be very flexible in how they can be programmed while also providing the advantages of high reliability (no program crashes or mechanical failures), compact and economical over traditional control systems.
  11. 11. 11 In simple words, Programmable Logic Controllers are relay control systems put in a very small package. This means that one PLC acts basically like a bunch of relays, counters, timers, places for data storage, and a few various other things, all in one small package. ARCHITECTURE OF PLC: The PLC give output in order to switch things on or off. The PLC’s output is proportionally activated according on the status of the system’s feedback sensors and input terminal which is connected to PLC. The decision to activate output are based on logic programmes. The logic programme stored in RAM or ROM memory. The PLC also have same as computer, a CPU, data bus and address bus Fig : PLC internal architecture
  12. 12. 12 to communicate with external devices such as programmers, display monitor The next diagram shows a simplified diagram of PLC’s structure. The central processing unit control everything according to a programme stored in a memory (RAM/ROM ).Everything is interconnected by two buses ,the address bus and data bus . The system must be able and a/d converter. Fig : Simplified PLC structure
  13. 13. 13 Fig : Basic plc sections Ladder Diagram (LD): The Ladder Diagram is also a graphics oriented programming language which approaches the structure of an electric circuit. Ladder Diagram consists of a series of networks. Each network consists on the left side of a series of contacts which pass on from left to right the condition "ON" or "OFF" which correspond to the Boolean values TRUE and FALSE. To each contact belongs a Boolean variable. If this variable is TRUE, then condition pass from left to right.
  14. 14. 14 Fig : ladder diagram COMMUNICATION/PROGRAMMING WITH SOFTWARE RSLINX This chapter explains how to program the PLC. It describes how to write a program, how the program is structured and representation of the programming language. PROGRAMING BY LADDER DIAGRAM: Ladder logic is a method of drawing electrical logic schematics. It is now a graphical language very popular for programming Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). It was originally invented to describe logic made from relays. The name is based on the observation that programs in this language resemble ladders, with two vertical "rails "and a series of horizontal "rungs" between them. A program in the ladder logic, also called ladder diagram is similar to a schematic for a set of relay circuits.
  15. 15. 15 The Ladder Diagram is also a graphics oriented programming language which approaches the structure of an electric circuit. The Ladder Diagram consists of a series of networks. A network is limited on the left and right sides by a left and right vertical current line. In the middle is a circuit diagram made up of contacts, coils, and connecting lines. Each network consists on the left side of a series of contacts which pass on from left to right the condition "ON" or "OFF" which correspond to the Boolean values TRUE and FALSE. To each contact belongs a Boolean variable. If this variable is TRUE, then the condition is passed from left to right along the connecting line. Otherwise the right connection receives the value OFF. INPUT represented by I OUTPUT represented by O. Addressingmethod: 1 slot=32 bit=2 word (1 char./word=2 byte=16 bit) Input addressing: File letter:Slot number.Word number/Bit number For example I:2.1/1 Output addressing:
  16. 16. 16 File letter:Slot number.Word number/Bit number For example O:2.1/1 GENERALLY USED INSTRUCTIONS & SYMBOL FOR PLC PROGRAMMING: Input Instruction: 1. --[ ]-- This Instruction is Called XIC or Examine If Closed. ie; If a NO switch is actuated then only this instruction will be true. If a NC switch is actuated then this instruction will not be true and hence output will not be generated. 2. --[]-- This Instruction is Called XIO or Examine If Open ie; If a NC switch is actuated then only this instruction will be true. If a NC switch is actuated then this instruction will not be true and hence output will not be generated. Output Instruction: 1. --( )-- This Instruction Shows the States of Output(called OTE). ie; If any instruction either XIO or XIC is true then output will be high. Due to high output a 24 volt signal is generated from PLC processor. 2. --(L)-- Output Latch (OTL)
  17. 17. 17 OTL turns a bit on when the rung is executed, and this bit retains its state when the rung is not executed or a power cycle occurs. 3. --(U)-- Output Unlatch(OTU) OTU turns a bit off when the rung is executed, and this bit retains its state when the rung is not executed or when power cycle occurs. Rung: Rung is a simple line on which instruction are placed and logics are created E.g.; --------------------------------------------- Timer: Timer has three bit:  EN: Enable bit : The Timer Enable (EN) bit is set immediately when the rung goes true. It stays set until the rung goes false.  TT: Timer timing bit : The Timer Timing (TT) bit is set when the rung goes true. It stays set until the rung goes false or the Timer Done (DN) bit is set (i.e. when accumulated value equals preset value).  DN: Done bit:
  18. 18. 18 The Timer Done (DN) bit is not set until the accumulated value is equal to the preset value. It stays set until the rung goes false. Timer is three type: 1. TON 2. TOF 3. RTO 1. TON: Timer On Counts time base intervals when the instruction is true. Fig : Timer on 2. TOF: Timer off Delay Counts time base intervals when the instruction is false. Fig : Timer off 3. RTO: Retentive Timer This type of timer does NOT reset the accumulated time when the input condition goes false. Rather, it keeps the last accumulated time in memory, and (if/when the input goes true again) continues timing from that point.
  19. 19. 19 Fig : Retentive Timer  Addressing of timer: Fig : Addressing of timer Table : Status of bits in timer
  20. 20. 20 Set When Accumulated value wraps around to +32,768 (from: 32 767) and Counter: Counter has three bit:  Count Up bit (CU): Set When Rung conditions are true and remains set till rung conditions go false or a RES instruction that has the same address as the CTD instruction is enabled.  Done bit ( DN): Set when the accumulated value is => the present value and remains set till the accumulated value becomes less than the present value.  Overflow ( OV): continues counting from there and remains set till a RES instruction that has same address as the CTD instruction is executed or the count is incremented greater than or equal to +32,767 with a CTU instruction. Counter is two type: 1. CTU 2. CTD CTU: Count Up
  21. 21. 21 Increments the accumulated value at each false-to true transition and retains the accumulated value when the instruction goes false or when power cycle occurs. Fig : Count Up CTD: Count Down Decrements the accumulate value at each false-to true transition and retains the accumulated value when the instruction goes false or when power cycle occurs. Fig: Count Down Addressing of counter: Fig: Addressing of timer
  22. 22. 22 RESET: --(RES)-- Reset the accumulated value and status bits of a timer or counter. A C5:0 -------[ ]---------------------(RES)-------------------------- When A is true than counter C5:0 is reset. BOOLEAN LOGIC DESIGN BY LADDER DIAGRAM: 1. AND logic: Y0=X0.X1 Fig 3.5: AND logic ladder diagram 2. OR logic: Y1=X0+X1
  23. 23. 23 Fig 3.6: OR logic ladder diagram 3. NOT logic: Y3=X0 Fig 3.7: NOT logic ladder diagram 4. NAND logic: Y0=X0.X1 Fig : NAND logic ladder diagram 5. NOR logic: Y1=X0+X1 Fig : NOR logic ladder diagram 6. X-OR logic: Y2=X0 + X1
  24. 24. 24 Fig : XOR logic ladder diagram 7. X-NOR logic: Y2=X0 + X1 Fig : X-NOR logic ladder diagram PROGRAMING AND OPERATIONS IN PLC: To understanding the programming and operation we consider a example . We have a car parking place which has five car parking capacity and we want to control the parking gate/light. We have one input sensor, one exit sensor, for power supply start stop push button, and for indication LED light Making programme: STEP: 1 Making start stop push button logic:
  25. 25. 25 Fig : Push button logic ladder diagram Here button a is start push button and b is stop push button and x is binary type output. STEP: 2 Making input side sensor logic: Fig : Input sensor logic ladder diagram Here we use one input sensor and one counter which is CTU (counter up) and take CTU preset value 5. STEP: 3 Making exit side sensor logic: Fig : Output sensor logic ladder diagram
  26. 26. 26 Here we use one Exit sensor and one counter which is CTD (counter down) and take CTD preset value 5. STEP: 4 Making parking light (LED) control logic: Fig : led light logic ladder diagram Here we take done bit (DN) of counter for controlling the led light . Operation: After program making ,it is download in plc. This program store in plc memory. When we push the start button than plc scan the input means input condition of button A is true(1).so the binary output is also true(1). Fig : operation of Push button logic(on pressing NO switch)
  27. 27. 27 When start button release than input condition of button A is false. But the start button and binary input both are in parellel. The address of binary output and binary input are same so we get continuous supply. Fig : operation of Push button logic (on releasing NO switch) Binary output we can use as a input in next step ,its status is true for sense the entering car we use a input sensor and for counting the car we use a CTU because accumulator value less than preset value. Similarly when fifth car enter than CTU count it’s accumulator value .Now counter done bit is true because CTU address is C5:0 and take its preset value 5 because parking place capacity is 5. When first car enter then input sensor status goes true . Due to this CTU count one in it’s accumulator value .but counter done bit does not true accumulator value equal to preset value.
  28. 28. 28 Fig : operation of input sensor logic When done bit goes true than LED output is true so parking light is on. Fig : operation of led with input sensor logic At exit side, one car is goes outside form parking place. Now four car is present in the parking place but CTU done bit is on so LED light is on. To remove this interlocking problem we use same address for both counter (CTU and CTD). Both counter have same address so CTU accumulator value and CTD accumulator value both are same. Fig : operation of exit sensor logic At exit side for sense the car we use a exit sensor .when one car is exit. Than exit sensor status is true and CTD count and update the accumulator value .
  29. 29. 29 Now both counter’s accumulator value less than preset value so done bit goes false and parking light off . Fig : programme on window APPLICATIONS OF PLC: 1. The PLC can be programmed to function as an energy management system for boiler control for maximum efficiency and safety. 2. In automation of blender recliners 3. In automation of bulk material handling system at ports. 4. In automation for a ship unloaded. 5. Automation for wagon loaders.
  30. 30. 30 6. For blast furnace charging controls in steel plants. 7. In automation of brick molding press in refractory. 8. In automation for galvanizing unit. 9. For chemical plants process control automation. 10. In automation of a rock phosphate drying and grinding system. 11. Modernization of boiler and turbo generator set. 12. Process visualization for mining application. 13. Criteria display system for power station.
  31. 31. 31 SCADA (SUPERVISORY CONTROL AND DATA ACQUISITION) INTRODUCTION SCADA stands for Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition. As the name indicates, it is not a full control system, but rather focuses on the supervisory level. As such, it is a purely software package that is positioned on top of hardware to which it is interfaced, in general via Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), or other commercial hardware modules. SCADA systems are used to monitor and control a plant or equipment in industries such as telecommunications, water and waste control, energy, oil and gas refining and transportation. These systems encompass the transfer of data between a SCADA central host computer and a number of Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) and/or Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), and the central host and the operator terminals. A SCADA system gathers information (such as where a leak on a pipeline has occurred), transfers the information back to a central site, then alerts the home station that a leak has occurred, carrying out necessary analysis and control, such as determining if the leak is critical, and displaying the information in a logical and organized fashion. SCADA systems consist of:
  32. 32. 32 1. One or more field data interface devices, usually RTUs, or PLCs, which interface to field sensing devices and local control switchboxes and valve actuators 2. A communications system used to transfer data between field data interface devices and control units and the computers in the SCADA central host. The system can be radio, telephone, cable, satellite, etc., or any combination of these. 3. A central host computer server or servers (sometimes called a SCADA Center, master station, or Master Terminal Unit (MTU) 4. A collection of standard and/or custom software [sometimes called Human Machine Interface (HMI) software or Man Machine Interface (MMI) software] systems used to provide the SCADA central host and operator terminal application, support the communications system, and monitor and control remotely located field data interface devices.
  33. 33. 33 Fig : Typical SCADA System
  34. 34. 34 ARCHITECTURE: Generally SCADA system is a centralized system which monitors and controls entire area. It is purely software package that is positioned on top of hardware. A supervisory system gathers data on the process and sends the commands control to the process. For example, in the thermal power plant the water flow can be set to specific value or it can be changed according to the requirement. The SCADA system allows operators to change the set point for the flow, and enable alarm conditions incase of loss of flow and high temperature and the condition is displayed and recorded. The SCADA system monitors the overall performance of the loop. The SCADA system is a centralized system to communicate with both wire and wireless technology to Clint devices. The SCADA system controls can run completely all kinds of industrial process. EX: If too much pressure in building up in a gas pipe line the SCADA system can automatically open a release valve. Hardware Architecture: The generally SCADA system can be classified into two parts:  Clint layer  Data server layer
  35. 35. 35 The Clint layer which caters for the man machine interaction. The data server layer which handles most of the process data activities. The SCADA station refers to the servers and it is composed of a single PC. The data servers communicate with devices in the field through process controllers like PLCs or RTUs. The PLCs are connected to the data servers either directly or via networks or buses. The SCADA system utilizes a WAN and LAN networks, the WAN and LAN consists of internet protocols used for communication between the master station and devices. The physical equipments like sensors connected to the PLCs or RTUs. The RTUs convert the sensor signals to digital data and sends digital data to master unit. Fig 5.5: Hardware Architecture
  36. 36. 36 Software Architecture: Most of the servers are used for multitasking and real time database. The servers are responsible for data gathering and handling. The SCADA system consists of a software program to provide trending, diagnostic data, and manage information such as scheduled maintenance procedure, logistic information, detailed schematics for a particular sensor or machine and expert system troubleshooting guides. This means the operator can sea a schematic representation of the plant being controlled. EX: alarm checking, calculations, logging and archiving; polling controllers on a set of parameter, those are typically connected to the server. Human machine interface: The SCADA system uses human machine interface. The information is displayed and monitored to be processed by the human. HMI provides the access of multiple control units which can be PLCs and RTUs. The HMI provides the graphical presentation of the system. For example, it provides the graphical picture of the pump connected to the tank. The user can see the flow of the water and pressure of the water. The important part of the HMI is an alarm system which is activated according to the predefined values.
  37. 37. 37 Fig : Human machine interface For example: The tank water level alarm is set 60% and 70% values. If the water level reaches above 60% the alarm gives normal warning and if the water level reach above 70% the alarm gives critical warning. Monitoring/Control: The SCADA system uses different switches to operate each device and displays the status at the control area. Any part of the process can be turned ON/OFF from the control station using these switches. SCADA system is implemented to work automatically without human intervention but at critical situations it is handled by man power.
  38. 38. 38 DESIGN SCADA WITH INTOUCH WONDERWARE SOFTWARE AND APPLICATION: SCADA is main interface between your control system and Operator. Maximum data and features available on SCADA give you better control and clarity about the system. SCADA needs to read data from various devices like:-  PLC/Controllers  RTU  Energy meters/Load managers/Data loggers  Field instruments like Flow meters and positioners Each of above data communicates with SCADA on various protocols . SCADA reads or writes the data in format of tags. INTOUCH WONDERWARE SCADA SOFTWARE: First we crate the animated object from “Wizard Selection” tool than specify tag name as require. We can create almost any screen animation effect imaginable. We can make objects change colour, size, location, visibility, fill level, and so on. Animation link selection dialog box are shown in fig
  39. 39. 39 Fig : Animation Link Selection Dialog Box TOUCH LINK A. User Input touch links: Discrete: Used to control the value of a discrete tagname. Analog: Used to input the value of an analog (integer or real) tagname. String: Used to create an object into which a string message may be input. B. Sliders touch links: Vertical& Horizontal: we can move the slider position horizontally or vertically. C. Touch Pushbutton links: Discrete Value:
  40. 40. 40 Used to make any object or symbol into a pushbutton that controls the state of a discrete tagname. Pushbutton actions can be set, reset, toggle, momentary on (direct) and momentary off (reverse) types. Action: Allows any object, symbol or button to have up to three different action scripts linked to it; On Down, While Down and On Up. Show Window: Used to make an object or symbol into a button that opens one or more windows when it is clicked or touched. Hide Window: Used to make an object or symbol into a button that closes one or more windows when it is clicked or touched. Fig : push button dialog box COLOR LINKS: Discrete: Used to control the fill, line and text colours attributes of an object or symbol that is linked to the value of a discrete expression. Analog:
  41. 41. 41 The line, fill, and text colour of an object or symbol can be linked to the value of an analog tag name (integer or real) or an analog expression. Five value ranges are defined by specifying four breakpoints. Five different colours can be selected which will be displayed as the value range changes. Discrete Alarm: The text, line, and fill colour of an object can all be linked to the alarm state of a tag name, Alarm Group, or Group Variable. This colour link allows a choice of two colours; one for the normal state and one for the alarm state of the tag name. This link can be used for both analog and discrete tag names. If it is used with an analog tag name, it responds to any alarm condition of the tag name Analog Alarm: The text, line, and fill colour of an object can all be linked to the alarm state of an analog tag name, Alarm Group, or Group Variable. Allows a specific colour to be set for the normal state as well as a separate colour for each alarm condition defined for the tag name. Fig : Fill colour dialog box
  42. 42. 42 OBJECT SIZE LINKS: We use Object Size links to vary the height and/or width of an object according to the value of an analog (integer or real) tag name or analog expression. Size links provide the ability to control the direction in which the object enlarges in height and/or width by setting the "anchor" for the link. Both height and width links can be attached to the same object. Fig : object height dialog box PERCENT FILL LINKS: We use Percent Fill Links to provide the ability to vary the fill level of a filled shape (or a symbol containing filled shapes) according to the value of an analog tag name or an expression that computes to an analog value. For example, this link may be used to show the level of liquids in a vessel. An object or symbol may have a horizontal fill link, a vertical fill link, or both.
  43. 43. 43 Fig : vertical fill dialog box LOCATION LINKS: We use Location Links to make an object automatically move horizontally, vertically, or in both directions in response to changes in the value of an analog tag name or expression Fig : horizontal location dialog box MISCELLANEOUS LINKS: There are four type of miscellaneous links. Visibility: Use to control the visibility of an object based on the value of a discrete tag name or expression.
  44. 44. 44 Blink: Used to make an object blink based on the value of a discrete tag name or expression. Orientation: Used to make an object rotate based on the value of a tag name or expression. Disable: Used to disable the touch functionality of objects based on the value of a tag name or expression. VALUE DISPLAY LINKS: Value Display Links provide the ability to use a text object to display the value of a discrete, analog, or string tag name. There are three types: Discrete : Uses the value of a discrete expression to display an On or Off user defined message in a text object. Analog: Displays the value of an analog expression in a text object. String: Displays the value of a string expression in a text object. APPLICATIONS OF SCADA: SCADA systems can be relatively simple, such as one that monitors environmental conditions of a small office building, or
  45. 45. 45 incredibly complex, such as a system that monitors all the activity in a nuclear power plant or the activity of a municipal water system. SCADA monitors and controls industrial, infrastructure, or facility-based processes, as described below: .  Infrastructure processes may be public or private, and include water treatment and distribution, wastewater collection and treatment, oil and gas pipelines, electrical power transmission and distribution, wind farms, civil defence siren systems, and large communication systems.  Facility processes occur both in public facilities and private ones, including buildings, airports, ships, and space stations. They monitor and control HVAC, access, and energy consumption. Industries that are catered to are:  Automotive  Building Automation  Cement & Glass  Chemical  Electronics  Food and Beverage  Machinery & Manufacturing  Aerospace & Defence  Metals & Mining
  46. 46. 46  Oil & Gas  Pharmaceutical  Power, Utilities & Generation  Transportation  Water & Wastewater ADVANTAGES:  The SCADA system provides on board mechanical and graphical information  The SCADA system is easily expandable. We can add set of control units and sensors according to the requirement.  The SCADA system ability to operate critical situations.
  47. 47. 47 CONCLUSION: With the speed of changing technology today it is easy to lose sight or knowledge of the basic theory or operation of programmable logic. Most people simply use the hardware to produce the results they desire. Hopefully, this report has given the reader a deeper insight into the inner workings of programmable logic and its role in mechanical operations. The idea of programmable logic is very simple to understand, but it is the complex programs that run in the ladder diagrams that make them difficult for the common user to fully understand. Hopefully this has alleviated some of that confusion. SCADA is used for the constructive working, using a SCADA system for control ensures a common framework not only for the development of the specific applications but also for operating the detectors. Operators experience the same ”look and feel” whatever part of the experiment they control. However, this aspect also depends to a significant extent on proper engineering.