Classical Management began in the late 1800’s. It has three subfields; Scientific Management, Bureaucratic Organizations and Administrative Principals.
Frederick Taylor was the first to scientific methods such as standard times to the management process.
Although Taylor’s approach was a major improvement, the Scientific approach is often criticized for being to mechanistic.
The intent was good. Unfortunately, bureaucratic organizations have not lived up to expectations.
And the guidelines were excellent. But, today’s bureaucratic organizations are terribly inefficient. So, what happened? The answer – poor implementation.
Mary Parker Follett was well ahead of her time in the field of management theory. Many of her ideas were not implemented until decades later.
Henri Fayol’s five duties were very close to the modern management functions of planning, leading, organizing and controlling.
The idea that employee’s should own a share of the business is one of the most powerful employee motivators.
Behavioral management theory brought the human side of employees into management considerations regarding productivity.
“ People given special attention are likely to perform as expected .” “ People given special attention are likely to perform as expected .”
The studies grew out of preliminary experiments at the plant from 1924-1927 on the effect of light and productivity. Those experiments showed no clear connection between productivity and the amount of illumination but researchers began to wonder what kind of changes would influence output.
Telephone relays - a small mechanism of about forty parts which had to be assembled and dropped in a chute when completed. Changes made were temperature and humidity of the rooms, hours worked in a week and in a day, the number of breaks they received, and when they ate their lunch.
By adding a pay system this centralized the girls’ financial interest on the study. The two added rest pauses were at 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. They then were given a light lunch in the pauses.
which ran through the summer of 1928. Introduction of five day week lasted through the summer of 1928.
As the girls went from one phase to the next, output rate increased. At a forty eight hour week, the girls produced 2,400 relays a week each.
The girls complained that the six five minutes pauses interrupted their work rhythm. Once they were put back to normal working hours and everything, the highest output was recorded, averaging 3000 relays a week.
The need for recognition, security and sense of belonging is more important in determining workers’ morale and productivity than physical conditions of the work place.
Changing from an established society in the home to an adaptive society in the work plant resulting from the use of new techniques tends to disrupt the social organization of a work plant and industry. Group collaboration must be planned and developed. If it is achieved the human relations within a work plant may reach a cohesion which resists the disrupting effects of adaptive society.
Workers have a strong need for cooperation and communication with coworkers, by first recognizing this, the organization can then brainstorm ideas in order to rearrange/reorganize the job functions in such a way that workers feel that they are working with a team.
Interviewing was due to the development of two things; the need for closer attention to employee-supervisor relations and the training of supervisors.
By redefining the role of the supervisors, researchers felt that it would increase employee moral and hence production. By training supervisors the goal is to transform the relationships of power and subordination.
By gaining the support and participation of workers, then management won’t have to worry so much about their workforce becoming unionized and slowing down production. With implementing teamwork, it allows better communication and cooperation. Workers are able to have a sense of feeling that they are achieving something as a whole and are able to put in their insights into the project.
With implementing teamwork, it allows better communication and cooperation. Workers are able to have a sense of feeling that they are achieving something as a whole and are able to put in their insights into the project.
In trying to implement the aspects of the Hawthorne Studies, the relationship between workers and management has to be looked at. Once this is done, then ways to motivate the employees can be brought into play. If there is motivation then productivity should increase.
Workers are the ones who are actually performing the jobs, therefore they may have some very good insights in which to improve the quality and rate of production of the product. Once management entrusts their workers with some power to make decisions, then workers feel they are helping the process more. When managers know their employees, then it should be easier to create some motivation.
Different motivations can involve an increase in pay, benefits, rewards, or even recognition of a job well done. If motivation can be achieved then productivity can increase, allowing the company to make a better profit, which they can then share with the employees, allowing them to see what their efforts have accomplished.
The Hawthorne Studies involved many aspects of an organization. Elton Mayo concentrated on the human relations aspect of a work environment. Through studies such as the Relay Assembly Test and others he came to the conclusion that by increasing communication and cooperation among coworkers it will increase the productivity level.
With feeling like they are working towards something, such as an incentive or feeling like they are part of a team can increase one’s level of output. By allowing workers to be involved in making decisions they will feel that they are part of the production process and not just a tool. When they feel that they have done a job well done, they will be satisfied and want to achieve that feeling of accomplishment once again.
MANAGEMENT LEARNING “Good things grow from small foundations” •What can we learn from classical management thinking? •What is unique about the behavioral management approaches? •What are the foundations of the modern management approaches?
MANAGEMENT LEARNINGClassical ManagementMODULE GUIDE 3.1 Taylor’s scientific management sought efficiency in job performance. Weber’s bureaucratic organization is supposed to be efficient and fair. Administrative principles describe managerial duties and practices.
CLASSICAL MANAGEMENTScientific ManagementScientific Management Emphasizes careful selection and training of workers and supervisory support Described by Frederick Taylor’s “Principals of Management” in 1911.
CLASSICAL MANAGEMENTScientific Management Taylor’s Four Principles of Scientific Management 1. Develop a “science” for each job—rules of motion, standard work tools, proper work conditions. 2. Hire workers with the right abilities for the job. 3. Train and motivate workers to do their jobs according to the science. 4. Support workers by planning and assisting their work by the job science.
CLASSICAL MANAGEMENTBureaucracy Bureaucratic Organizations Defined by Max Weber in late 19th century Focused on definitions of authority, responsibility and process Intended to address the inefficiencies of organizations at that time
CLASSICAL MANAGEMENTBureaucracy Characteristics of an Ideal Bureaucracy Clear division of labor Jobs are well defined, and workers become highly skilled at performing them. Clear hierarchy of authority and responsibility are well defined, and each position reports to a higher-level one. Formal rules and procedures Written guidelines describe expected behavior and decisions in jobs; written files are kept for historical record. Impersonality Rules and procedures are impartially and uniformly applied; no one gets preferential treatment. Careers based on merit Workers are selected and promoted on ability and performance; managers are career employees of the organization.
CLASSICAL MANAGEMENTAdministrative Principals Administrative Principals Attempts to document the experiences of successful managers Analyzes organizations in their social context Two key contributors Henri Fayol Mary Parker Follett
CLASSICAL MANAGEMENTAdministrative Principals Henri Fayol – Administration Industrielle et Generale - 1916 Five Duties of Managers According to Henri Fayol 1. Foresight—complete a plan of action for the future. 2. Organization—provide and mobilize resources to implement plan. 3. Command—lead, select, and evaluate workers. 4. Coordination—fit diverse efforts together, ensure information is shared and problems solved. 5. Control—make sure things happen according to plan, take necessary corrective action.
CLASSICAL MANAGEMENTAdministrative Principals Mary Parker Follett – 1920’s Foresighted approach Advocated managers and workers work in harmony and employees should own a share of the business Forerunner of “managerial ethics” and “social responsibility”
MANAGEMENT LEARNINGBehavioral ManagementMODULE GUIDE 3.2 The Hawthorne studies focused attention on the human side of organizations. Maslow described a hierarchy of human needs with self-actualization at the top. McGregor believed managerial assumptions create self- fulfilling prophesies. Argyris suggests that workers treated as adults will be more productive.
BEHAVORIAL MANAGEMENTThe Hawthorne Studies Hawthorne Studies - 1924 Studies tried to determine how economic incentives and physical environment affected productivity Involved 21,000 people over 6 years Concluded that human needs were an important factor in increasing productivity Resulted in “The Hawthorne Effect”
Definition of Hawthorne Studies “The Hawthorne Studies were conducted from 1927-1932 at the Western Electric Hawthorne Works in Chicago, where Harvard Business School Professor Elton Mayo examined productivity and work conditions.”
Definition of Hawthorne StudiesCont. “Mayo wanted to find out what effect fatigue and monotony had on job productivity and how to control them through such variables as rest breaks, work hours, temperatures and humidity.”
Mayo’s Experiment Five women assembled telephone relays, one supplied the parts. Made frequent changes in working conditions with their consent. Records were kept of relays made, temperature and humidity of rooms, medical and personal histories, eating and sleeping habits, and bits of conversation on the job. No one supervised the girls. They were told to work as they felt and at a comfortable pace.
Mayo’s Experiment Cont. Productive capacity was measured by recording the girls’ output for two weeks before the study began. First five weeks, no changes were made. Third stage, a pay system was ensured allowing the girls’ to earn in proportion to their efforts. Eight weeks later, two five-minute rest pauses were added.
Mayo’s Experiment Cont. Eighth phase, workday ended a half-day early. Ninth phase, the girls finished an hour earlier than usual. Five-day week introduced. Girls went back to no breaks, lunches and a full work week, output declined for those twelve weeks.
Results Researchers found that output rates weren’t directly related to the physical conditions of the work. Output went up when: They were put on piece-work for eight weeks. Two five minute rest pauses were introduced for five weeks. Rest pauses were lengthened to ten minutes. A hot meal was supplied during first pause. They were dismissed at 4:30 p.m. instead of 5:00 p.m.
Results Cont. Output slightly fell when six five minute pauses were added. It remained the same when they were dismissed at 4:00 p.m. instead of 4:30 p.m. Mayo believes “what actually happened was that six individuals became a team and the team gave itself wholeheartedly and spontaneously to cooperation in the experiment. The consequence was that they felt themselves to be participating freely and without afterthought, and were happy in the knowledge that they were working without coercion from above or limitations from below.”
Conclusions Work is a group activity. Social world for an adult is primarily patterned about work. Need for recognition, security and sense of belonging. Complaints, commonly a symptom manifesting disturbance of an individual’s status position.
Conclusions Cont. Attitudes and effectiveness are conditioned by social demands. Informal groups at work are strong social controls over the work habits and attitudes of a worker. Change from established society to adaptive society. Group collaboration.
Brainstorming: How this can be used in organizationsCooperation and communication with coworkers.Rearrange/reorganize job functions.Create an atmosphere of working as a team.
Nuts and Bolts: Explanation of Topic Interviewing Provide insight to workers moral, their likes and dislikes and how they felt about their bosses.
Nuts and Bolts: Explanation of Topic Cont.Role of Supervisor Retained the responsibility of making sure that their workers reached production levels, should lead their workers.
Nuts and Bolts: Explanation of Topic Cont.Management Need to gain active support and participation from workers, while maintaining managerial control. Be patient with workers, listen to them, and avoid creating emotional upsets.
Nuts and Bolts: Explanation of Topic Cont.Teamwork Cooperation, communication, sense of belonging. “Man’s desire to be continuously associated in work with his fellows is a strong, if not the strongest, human characteristic. Any disregard of it by management or any ill-advised attempt to defeat this human impulse leads instantly to some form of defeat for management itself.”
How it Works in the Field Aspects of Hawthorne Studies Workers Management Motivation Productivity
How it Works in the Field Cont. Workers Insights, suggestions, likes and dislikes, moral, training. Management Transfer of power to workers, knowing their workers.
How it Works in the Field Cont. Motivation Incentives to increase productivity and quality. Productivity By increasing the output rate and keeping costs down, the company will be able to increase profits.
SummaryHawthorne Studies dealing with worker motivation and work productivity.Increase communication and cooperation among coworkers.
Summary Cont. Motivation can cause an increase in productivity Involve employees in decision making. Create a sense of belonging by creating teams.