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  1. 1. PROJECT REPORT ON “FOUR WHEEL ATV MODEL ” For the partial fulfillment for the award of Bachelor Of Technology in Mechanical engineering DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SSIET DINANAGSubmitted To: Submitted bEr.GURIQBAL SINGH VIKAS RATHORE 1
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTAs is the case in all the seminars that have been accomplished there has not been one successfulwithout an Acknowledgement for those who showed the light towards success of the seminar.Therefore we take the opportunity to thank all the persons who helped us during the completionof our project.We would like to start with our seminar coordinator Er. AMRITPAL SINGH who guided usindeed tactfully and because of whom we could successfully implement our report 2
  3. 3. CERTIFICATECertified that this project report FOUR WHEEL ATV MODEL is the bonafide work of ―VIKASRATHORE, AMRITPAL SINGH ,NAVEEN PANKAJ, ABHINAV SHARMA, TUSHARSHARMA,ANURAG SHARMA ,ASHU DHIMAN ‖ who carried out the project work under mysupervision.SIGNATURE SIGNATUREHEAD OF THE DEPARTMENTSUPERVISOR 3
  4. 4. CONTENTS1. INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………52. MOTIVATION 2.1 SIX-WHEELERS ATV……………………………………………………….....6 2.2 THREE-WHEELERS ATV……………………………………8 2.3 FOUR-WHEELERS ATV……………………………………………………10-12 2.4 RACING MODELS ATV………………………………………………………133. METHODOLOGY 3.1 CENTER FRAME SUPPLIES/STARTUP PAGE………………………….14-15 3.2 FORWARD FRAME…………………………………………………………16 3.3: UPPER FRAME……………………………………………………………….17 3.4: A-ARMS……………………………………………………..……………….18-19 3.5 SPINDLE BRACKET………………………………………………………….20 3.6 SUSPENSION SYSTEM……………………………………………………..21-22 3.7:RARE TRUNION………………………………………………………………234. ENGINE SPECIFICATIOS…………………………………………………………245. STEERING SYSTEM………………………………………………………………….256. BRAKES:……………………………………………………………………26-29 6.1. DRUM BRAKES……………………………………………………….26 6.2. COMPONENTS OF BRAKES……………………………………….26 6.2.1. BACK PLATE……………………………………………………….26 6.2.2. BRAKE DRUM……………………………………………….27 4
  5. 5. 6.2.3. WHEEL CYLINDER…………………………………………….27 6.2.4. BRAKE SHOE……………………………………………….28 6.2.5. AUTOMATIC SELF-ADJUSTER………………………………………..297.POWER TRANSMISSION ………………………………………………………….307. DETAIL DRAWINGS OF PARTS……………………………………………8. CONCULSION:……………………………………………………………………. 5
  6. 6. INTRODUCTIONAn all-terrain vehicle (ATV), also known as a quad, quad bike, three-wheeler, or four-wheeler, isdefined by the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) as a vehicle that travels on low-pressure tires, with a seat that is straddled by the operator, along with handlebars for steeringcontrol. As the name implies, it is designed to handle a wider variety of terrain than most othervehicles. Although it is a street-legal vehicle in some countries, it is not street legal within moststates and provinces of Australia, the United States, Canada, or the United Kingdom. In the UK,a recent variant class of ATV is now road-legal, but there are few models available in this class.By the current ANSI definition, ATVs are intended for use by a single operator, although somecompanies have developed ATVs intended for use by the operator and one passenger. TheseATVs are referred to as tandem ATVs.The rider sits on and operates these vehicles like a motorcycle, but the extra wheels give morestability at slower speeds. Although equipped with three (or typically, four) wheels, six-wheelmodels exist for specialized applications. Engine sizes of ATVs currently for sale in the UnitedStates, (as of 2008 products), range from 49 to 1,000 cc (3 to 61 cu in) 6
  7. 7. 2 MOTIVATION2.1 SIX WHEEL ATV Fig.1 Six Wheel ATVsThe term "ATV" was originally coined to refer to non-straddle ridden six-wheeled amphibiousATVs such as the Jiger produced by the Jiger Corporation, the Amphicat produced by MobilityUnlimited Inc, and the Terra Tiger produced by the Allis-Chalmers Manufacturing Company inthe late 1960s and early 1970s. With the introduction of straddle ridden ATVs, the term AATVwas introduced to define the original amphibious ATV category. 7
  8. 8. 2.2 THREE-WHEELERS Fig.2 Three Wheeler ATVAn early Honda US90Honda made the first three-wheeled ATVs in 1970, which were famously portrayed in the JamesBond movie, Diamonds Are Forever and other TV shows such as Magnum, P.I. and Hart to Hart.Dubbed the US90 and later—when Honda acquired the trademark on the term—the ATC90 (AllTerrain Cycle), it was designed purely for recreational use. Clearly influenced by earlier ATVs,it featured large balloon tires instead of a mechanical suspension.By the early 1980s, suspensionand lower-profile tires were introduced. The 1982 Honda ATC200E Big Red was a landmarkmodel. It featured both suspension and racks, making it the first utility three-wheeled ATV. Theability to go anywhere on terrain that most other vehicles could not cross soon made thempopular with US and Canadian hunters, and those just looking for a good trail ride. Soon othermanufacturers introduced their own models. 8
  9. 9. Sport models were also developed by Honda, which had a virtual monopoly in the market due toeffective patents on design and engine placement. The 1981 ATC250R was the first high-performance three-wheeler, featuring full suspension, a 248 cc two-stroke engine, a five-speedtransmission with manual clutch, and a front disc brake. For the sporting trail rider, the 1983ATC200X was another landmark machine. It used an easy-to-handle 192 cc four-stroke that wasideal for new participants in the sport.Over the next few years, all manufacturers except Suzuki, developed high performance two-stroke machines, but did not sell as many due to the reputation already secured by Honda. Thesemodels were the Yamaha Tri-Z YTZ250 with a 246 cc two-stroke engine and a manual five- orsix-speed gearbox and the Kawasaki Tecate KXT250 with a 249 cc two-stroke with a five-speedgearbox. Other smaller or lesser known companies, such as Tiger ATV, Franks, and Cagiva,produced racing three-wheelers, but in much smaller numbers. Few of these machines are knownto exist today and are highly sought by collectors. There is a fan base for three-wheelers.Production of three-wheelers ceased in 1987 due to safety concerns three-wheelers were moreunstable than four-wheelers (although accidents are equally severe in both classes).A ban onsales of new or used three-wheelers and a recall of all remaining three-wheelers has beenproposed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. 9
  10. 10. 2.3 FOUR-WHEELERS ATV: Fig.3 FourWheel AtvSuzuki was a leader in the development of four-wheeled ATVs. It sold the first model, the 1982QuadRunner LT125, which was a recreational machine for beginners. Suzuki sold the first four-wheeled mini ATV, the LT50, from 1984 to 1987. After the LT50, Suzuki sold the first ATVwith a CVT transmission, the LT80, from 1987 to 2006.In 1985 Suzuki introduced to the industry the first high-performance four-wheel ATV, theSuzuki LT250R QuadRacer. This machine was in production for the 1985-1992 model years.During its production run it underwent three major engineering makeovers. However, the corefeatures were retained. These were: a sophisticated long-travel suspension, a liquid-cooled two-stroke motor and a fully manual five-speed transmission for 1985–1986 models and a six-speedtransmission for the 87–92 models. It was a machine exclusively designed for racing by highlyskilled riders.Honda responded a year later with the FourTrax TRX250R—a machine that hasnot been replicated until recently. It currently remains a trophy winner and competitor to big-bore ATVs. Kawasaki Heavy Industries responded with its Tecate-4 250.In 1987, Yamaha MotorCompany introduced a different type of high-performance machine, the Banshee 350, whichfeatured a twin-cylinder liquid-cooled two-stroke motor from the RD350LC street motorcycle. 10
  11. 11. Heavier and more difficult to ride in the dirt than the 250s, the Banshee became a popularmachine with sand dune riders thanks to its unique power delivery. The Banshee remainspopular, but 2006 is the last year it was available in the U.S. (due to EPA emissions regulations);it is still available in Canada, however.Shortly after the introduction of the Banshee in 1987, Suzuki released the LT500R QuadRacer.This unique quad was powered by a 500 cc liquid cooled two stroke engine with a five-speedtransmission. This ATV earned the nickname "Quadzilla" with its remarkable amount of speedand size. While there are claims of 100+ mph stock Quadzillas, it was officially recorded by 3&4Wheel Action magazine as reaching a top speed of over 79 mph (127 km/h) in a high speedshootout in its 1988 June issue, making it the fastest production ATV ever produced. Suzukidiscontinued the production of the LT500R in 1990 after just four years.At the same time, development of utility ATVs was rapidly escalating. The 1986 HondaFourTrax TRX350 4x4 ushered in the era of four-wheel drive ATVs. Other manufacturersquickly followed suit, and 4x4s have remained the most popular type of ATV ever since. Thesemachines are popular with hunters, farmers, ranchers and workers at construction sites.Safety issues with three-wheel ATVs caused all ATV manufacturers to upgrade to four-wheelmodels in the late 1980s, and three-wheel models ended production in 1987, due to consentdecrees between the major manufacturers and the Consumer Product Safety Commission—theresult of legal battles over safety issues among consumer groups, the manufacturers and CPSC.The lighter weight of the three-wheel models made them popular with some expert riders.Cornering is more challenging than with a four-wheeled machine because leaning into the turn iseven more important. Operators may roll over if caution isnt used. The front end of three-wheelers obviously has a single wheel, making it lighter, and flipping backwards is a potentialhazard, especially when climbing hills. Rollovers may also occur when traveling down a steepincline. The consent decrees expired in 1997, allowing manufacturers to, once again, make and 11
  12. 12. market three-wheel models, though there are none marketed today. Recently the CPSC hassucceeded in finally banning three-wheeled ATVs with attachments to bill HR4040. Manybelieve this is in response to Chinese manufacturers trying to import three-wheeled ATVs. TheJapanese manufacturers were also behind this legislation, as they have been held responsible foryears to provide ATV Safety training and to apply special labels and safety equipment to theirATVs while Chinese manufacturers did not.Models continue, today, to be divided into the sport and utility markets. Sport models aregenerally small, light, two-wheel drive vehicles that accelerate quickly, have a manualtransmission and run at speeds up to approximately 80 mph (130 km/h). Utility models aregenerally bigger four-wheel drive vehicles with a maximum speed of up to approximately 70mph (110 km/h). They have the ability to haul small loads on attached racks or small dump beds.They may also tow small trailers. Due to the different weights, each has advantages on differenttypes of terrain.Six-wheel models often have a small dump bed, with an extra set of wheels at the back toincrease the payload capacity. They can be either four-wheel drive (back wheels driving only), orsix-wheel drive. 12
  13. 13. 2.4 Racing models:Sport models are built with performance, rather than utility, in mind. To be successful at fasttrail riding, an ATV must have light weight, high power, good suspension and a low center ofgravity. These machines can be modified for such racing disciplines as motocross, woods racing(also known as cross country), desert racing (also known as Hare Scrambles), hill climbing, iceracing, speedway, Tourist Trophy (TT). Fig4. Racing model 13
  14. 14. 3.1:Center Frame supplies/startup page:A universal front and rear equipment mount for an ATV includes a telescoping central framemember with telescoping front and rear mounting arms extending therefrom for connection toindependent axle structures of the ATV, front and rear angled hitch brackets, each with upturnedtabs having aligned holes to receive a hitch pin, and front and rear angled pulley brackets havingpulleys mounted thereon for routing a winch cable of a winch mounted either on the front or rearof the vehicle or on the front or rear pulley brackets. An implement can be hitched either to thefront or rear hitch bracket, and the implement can be raised or lowered by use of the winch,which has its cable routed over selected pulleys and connected to a hitch tongue or other part ofthe implement.We started with the center frame sectionThis was a good place to start because the welding waspretty simple - we had warping problems,and we later found out that one of the frame framesupports was in the way of an engine mountingbolt. We ended up welding a second support on,and then cutting out the first one. It is used to bear the whole load of the vehical. The designingof the central frame is such that it can easily bear heavy shocks with out any breakage.The Original: With Two supports corrected version 14
  15. 15. Fig 5 .Center Frame 15
  16. 16. 3.2 Forward Frame :The second section was the forward frame.It is used for mounting the suspension system andarms. It took a while to make and weld all the little tabs. It is also used for fixing spindalbrackets. The holes are made with the help of a 5/8 inch drill bitt. Fig.6.1 Forward Frame We inserted the rod prior to welding to ensure everything was lined up Fig.6.2 forward frame 16
  17. 17. 3.3 Upper Frame: The stearing handle is adjusted with the front portion of the upper frame.thesitting arrangement for the biker is also made on this upper frame. The fuel tank is also fixedwith the front-lower area of this upper frame. Fig7. Upper Frame 17
  18. 18. 3.4 A- Arms:In automotive suspension, an automobiles control arm or wishbone (aka. A-arm or A-frame) isa nearly flat and roughly triangular suspension member (or sub-frame), that pivots in two places.The broad end of the triangle attaches at the frame and pivots on a bushing. The narrow endattaches to the steering knuckle and pivots on a ball joint.The upper control arm can clearly be seen at the top portion of the suspension components in theattached photo, where it is the silver part horizontally attached to the frame inside the red bodyportion and connecting to the steering knuckle near the side of the tires wheel rim. Note theroughly A-shaped design with the top of the A near the tire and the bottom two points connectedto the frame inside the bodys space. In the photo, the A-shape is reinforced with a solidtriangular plate near the top of the A. Heres a picture of how it worked: Fig 8.1: A Arm 18
  19. 19. Here are the completed A-arms, with one tapedand ready for welding the shock mount tabs: Fig.8.2 A arms 19
  20. 20. 3.5 Spindle Brackets:Here are the spindle brackets, which attach to the end of the A-arms. It should be designed fromthe material which must be capable of holding whole of the weight of the vehicle. The kingpin isattached with this section. The material we use for making the spindle bracket is U-section ofmild steel. Figure 9 shows a spindle brackets: Fig.9. Spindle Brack 20
  21. 21. 3.6 Suspension System:The suspension system we used is Independent suspension. Independent suspension is a broadterm for any automobile suspension system that allows each wheel on the same axle to movevertically (i.e. reacting to a bump in the road) independently of each other. This is contrastedwith a beam axle, live axle or deDion axle system in which the wheels are linked – movement onone side affects the wheel on the other side. Note that ―independent‖ refers to the motion or pathof movement of the wheels/suspension. It is common for the left and right sides of thesuspension to be connected with anti-roll bars or other such mechanisms. The anti-roll bar tiesthe left and right suspension spring rates together but does not tie their motion together. Mostmodern vehicles have independent front suspension (IFS). Many vehicles also have anindependent rear suspension (IRS). IRS, as the name implies, has the rear wheels independentlysprung. A fully independent suspension has an independent suspension on all wheels. Some earlyindependent systems used swing axles, but modern systems use Chapman or MacPherson struts,trailing arms, multilink, or wishbones.Independent suspension typically offers better ride quality and handling characteristics, due tolower unsprung weight and the ability of each wheel to address the road undisturbed by activitiesof the other wheel on the vehicle. Independent suspension requires additional engineering effortand expense in development versus a beam or live axle arrangement. A very complex IRSsolution can also result in higher manufacturing costs.The key reason for lower unsprung weight relative to a live axle design is that, for driven wheels,the differential unit does not form part of the unsprung elements of the suspension system.Instead it is either bolted directly to the vehicles chassis or more commonly to a subframe.The relative movement between the wheels and the differential is achieved through the use ofswinging driveshafts connected via universal (U) joints, analogous to the constant-velocity (CV)joints used in front wheel drive vehicles 21
  22. 22. Fig.10 . Independent Suspension System 22
  23. 23. 3.7 Trunoin :The trunion used heavy duty 1 x 2 steel. We tried to avoid warping problems by spot welding ittogether first. We had trouble clamping it in place, so we used a little duct tape to help hold ittogether for welding.The bearing mounts were difficult to properly align – if we did it again, I would screw them ontoa 2x4 cut to the correct length, to hold them straight during welding.Ours also warped duringwelding, we should have clamped some 1x1 to them to keep them straight. Luckily, the bearingshave a lot of forgiveness built in,and we got the whole thing lined up pretty well: Fig.11 Trunion 23
  24. 24. 4. Engine Specification:Engine : Two-stroke/petrolTransmission : AutomaticEngine Displacement : 98ccTachometer : NoMax Power : 7.7bhp@5600rpmMax Torque : 1.0kgm@5000rpmWheel base : 1,215mmGround Clearance : N/AIgnition : ElectronicDry Weight : 99kgBattery : 12VF/R suspension : Bottom link hydraulic damperR/R suspension : Unit swing arm/ hydraulic damperMax Speed : 95kphFront Tyre size : 3.50x10.4 PrRear Tyre size : 3.50x10.4 Pr Table 1: Engine Specification 24
  25. 25. 5. STEERING SYSTEM:A rack and pinion is a type of linear actuator that comprises a pair of gears which convertrotational motion into linear motion. A circular gear called "the pinion" engages teeth on a linear"gear" bar called "the rack"; rotational motion applied to the pinion causes the rack to move,thereby translating the rotational motion of the pinion into the linear motion of the rack.For example, in a rack railway, the rotation of a pinion mounted on a locomotive or a railcarengages a rack between the rails and pulls a train along a steep slope.The rack and pinionarrangement is commonly found in the steering mechanism of cars or other wheeled, steeredvehicles. This arrangement provides a lesser mechanical advantage than other mechanisms suchas recirculating ball, but much less backlash and greater feedback, or steering "feel". The use of avariable rack (still using a normal pinion) was invented by Arthur Ernest Bishop, so as toimprove vehicle response and steering "feel" especially at high speeds, and that has been fitted tomany new vehicles, after he created a specialised version of a net-shape warm press forgingprocess to manufacture the racks to their final form, thus eliminating any subsequent need tomachine the gear teeth Fig.12 : Steering mechanisms 25
  26. 26. 6.BRAKES:6.1. Drum Brakes:A drum brake is a brake in which the friction is caused by a set of shoes or pads that pressagainst a rotating drum-shaped part called a brake drum. The term "drum brake" usually means abrake in which shoes press on the inner surface of the drum. When shoes press on the outside ofthe drum, it is usually called a clasp brake. Where the drum is pinched between two shoes,similar to a conventional disc brake, it is sometimes called a "pinch drum brake", although suchbrakes are relatively rare. A related type of brake uses a flexible belt or "band" wrapping aroundthe outside of a drum, called a band brake.6.2.Components Of Brake:6.2.1.Back plate:The back plate serves as the base on which all the components are assembled. It attaches to theaxle and forms a solid surface for the wheel cylinder, brake shoes and assorted hardware. Sinceall the braking operations exert pressure on the back plate, it needs to be very strong and wear-resistant. Levers for emergency or parking brakes, and automatic brake-shoe adjuster were alsoadded in recent years. Fig.13 Back Plate 26
  27. 27. 6.2.2. Brake drum:The brake drum is generally made of a special type of cast iron which is heat-conductive andwear-resistant. It is positioned very close to the brake shoe without actually touching it, androtates with the wheel and axle. As the lining is pushed against the inner surface of the drum,friction heat can reach as high as 600 °F (316 °C).6.2.3. Wheel cylinder:One wheel cylinder is used for each wheel. Two pistons operate the shoes, one at each end of thewheel cylinder. When hydraulic pressure from the master cylinder acts upon the piston cup, thepistons are pushed toward the shoes, forcing them against the drum. When the brakes are notbeing applied, the piston is returned to its original position by the force of the brake shoe returnsprings. Fig.14 Wheel cylinder 27
  28. 28. 6.2.4.Brake shoe:Brake shoes are typically made of two pieces of sheet steel welded together. The friction materialis either rivetted to the lining table or attached with adhesive. The crescent-shaped piece is calledthe Web and contains holes and slots in different shapes for return springs, hold-down hardware,parking brake linkage and self-adjusting components. All the application force of the wheelcylinder is applied through the web to the lining table and brake lining. The edge of the liningtable generally has three ―V"-shaped notches or tabs on each side called nibs. The nibs restagainst the support pads of the backing plate to which the shoes are installed. Each brakeassembly has two shoes, a primary and secondary. The primary shoe is located toward the frontof the vehicle and has the lining positioned differently than the secondary shoe. Quite often thetwo shoes are interchangeable, so close inspection for any variation is important. Fig. 15 Brake ShoeLinings must be resistant against heat and wear and have a high friction coefficient unaffected byfluctuations in temperature and humidity. Materials which make up the brake shoe include,friction modifiers (which can include graphite and cashew nut shells), powdered metal such aslead, zinc, brass, aluminium and other metals that resist heat fade, binders, curing agents andfillers such as rubber chips to reduce brake noise. 28
  29. 29. 6.2.5. Automatic self-adjuster:The self-adjuster is used to adjust the distance between the brake shoe and the drumautomatically as brake shoes wear. Fig. 16 Sectional layout showing the push rods, nut adjuster and lever pawl. 29
  30. 30. 7. Power Transmission System:We use chain drive mechanism for power transmission. Chain drive is a way of transmittingmechanical power from one place to another. It is often used to convey power to the wheels of avehicle, particularly bicycles and motorcycles. It is also used in a wide variety of machinesbesides vehicles. Most often, the power is conveyed by a roller chain, known as the drive chainor transmission chain, passing over a sprocket gear, with the teeth of the gear meshing with theholes in the links of the chain. The gear is turned, and this pulls the chain putting mechanicalforce into the system. Another type of drive chain is the Morse chain, invented by the MorseChain Company of Ithaca, New York, USA.Sometimes the power is output by simply rotating the chain, which can be used to lift or dragobjects. In other situations, a second gear is placed and the power is recovered by attachingshafts or hubs to this gear. Though drive chains are often simple oval loops, they can also goaround corners by placing more than two gears along the chain; gears that do not put power intothe system or transmit it out are generally known as idler-wheels. By varying the diameter of theinput and output gears with respect to each other, the gear ratio can be altered, so that, forexample, the pedals of a bicycle can spin all the way around more than once for every rotation ofthe gear that drives the wheels. Fig. 17 chain drive mechanism for power transmission 30
  31. 31. CONCLUSION:-The model of atv that we made from the scrap material.The independentsuspension system is used for comfort riding. The steering system used in thisatv model is rack and pinion arrangement.For the safe turning we usedratchet system which will perform the function of the diffretial system. Thechain driveis used for transmitting the power to rare wheels. 31

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