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The project was done as part of my summer internship at University of Applied Sciences, Western Switzerland (HES-SO) under the guidance of Prof.(Dr.) Florian Evequoz. The objective of project was to on the design an E-Government Application called CARES( Computer-Aided Requirements Engineering Software).It is a cloud-based requirements engineering (RE) tool allowing Swiss public administrations to create WTO-conform procurement documents towards their business processes.
With CARES, authorities will be able to:

• Document and model their business processes (BP) as recommended by Swiss E-Government standards
• Use the BP represented in BPMN as a basis for Requirements Engineering (RE)
• Enrich the process documentation in case BPMN would not be sufficient for RE
• Generate a complete requirements report that can be published as a request for proposal

Following a UX design lifecycle literature and online study was done and comparative analysis of the related software (Signavio) in the domain was performed. Next user interviews and contextual inquiry were carried out by travelling to Swiss cities and meeting the users from Swiss IT companies, public administrations etc. The interviews were recorded and documented. Affinity analysis of the user interviews was done and several ideas and insights were generated through Brainstorming .New goals were defined, two user personas were identified and information architecture was build. Finally prototypes were made in form of high fidelity wireframes and visuals

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  1. 1. CARES An application for Requirement Specification through BPMN Design Process and Results By Vikas Luthra Bachelor’s of Design, Department of Design, Indian Institute of Technology, Guwahati Under the Guidance of Professor Florian Evequoz Hesso Valais
  2. 2. Overview Introduction Design Process Prototypes Conclusion Future works My experience and learnings start end
  3. 3. Introduction-Background Concept of Cares comes from the Master Thesis done by Daniel Hadrian under Professor Florian Hesso, Valais, Switzerland. In his thesis he had proposed a methodology to enhance the business process diagrams in BPMN with requirements thus allowing to generate a consistent requirement specification CARES is an E-GOV application for public administration of Switzerland which aims to improve the process of requirement specification during WTO Procurement by using this methodology
  4. 4. Introduction-Initial Design Brief In Switzerland there are clearly defined Business Processes for doing a particular government activity, work, tasks. The country also follow the WTO guidelines for documenting their processes. The aim of this project was to design an application which assists the government in procurement of software requirements from the processes expressed in Business Process Management Notation(BPMN v-2.0) and these requirements have to be gathered and produced according to prescribed guidelines of WTO. Government Organization Investigation of Needs Requirement Specification Weighted Requirement Lists Request for Proposal Continuing process CARES
  5. 5. Design Process Prototype Analyze and Ideate Research Evaluate
  6. 6. Research Secondary Research Primary Research Literature study Comparative analysis User Interviews Contextual Inquiries
  7. 7. Literature Study Goals To acquire understanding related to area of Requirement specification and Requirement Engineering To know more about BPMN modelling notation and its advantages as well disadvantages To know about the other works done related to area of requirement specification through processes To understand the process of WTO procurement and guidelines
  8. 8. Literature Study-BPMN Business Process Modeling Notation . Developed by Business Process Management Initiative (BPMI), and is currently maintained by the Object Management Group since the two organizations merged in 2005 Supports business process management for technical and business users Bridge communication gap between business process design and implementation Basic Elements-BPMN
  9. 9. Literature Study-Requirement Engineering Investigating Analyzing Documenting Administrating Requirements Validating Requirements Business User with Needs IT User fulfilling the needs Communicating your needs through process promote more effective and exact communication $ @ Requirements Functional Interface Related Business rule Related Non- Functional Etc…. Classification of Requirements
  10. 10. Comparative analysis
  11. 11. Comparative analysis
  12. 12. Contextual inquiry and User Interviews Goals or Key area of interest were: Work and Roles of the user Requirement specification and Request for proposal document Weighting of the requirements Collaboration between different stakeholder or people involved Use of BPMN and other modelling languages
  13. 13. Contextual inquiry and User Interviews Conduction of Interviews: Interviews of five users were conducted from people working both in private and public sectors across Switzerland Two Requirement and Process engineers were interviewed from public administration who are involved in WTO procurement Two business analyst were interviewed from an IT company who acts as a vendor for the public administration One user was the CEO of start up company involved in business consultancy for WTO procurement. The interviews were conducted like contextual enquiry where user shared information about their work and roles and the questions were asked related to their tasks. All the interviews were recorded for documentation
  14. 14. Analyze Ideate User Interview Analysis Affinity analysis and Diagram Proposed Solution New Design Brief Analyze and Ideate User Persona Information Architecture
  15. 15. User Interview Analysis Extraction of important user needs and problems: On completion of Interviews all recordings interviews were heard and user statements were divided into three categories: User Problems, General Important statements Process or work related terminologies
  16. 16. Affinity Analysis User Problems: Brainstorming A brainstorming session was conducted in a group where all the user problems were discussed in details and solutions to those problems were generated. Affinity Diagram: Finally an affinity diagram was prepared where every user problem was put under certain category with solutions and some of the system features were generated:
  17. 17. Affinity Diagram Requirement Gathering • Extract the information from interviews into user requirements • 60% time spent on requirement gathering Requirement Specification • Difficult to know exactly what they need and how to express it • Dealing with non functional requirements and how to relate them • Customers try to put processes that don’t understand correctly • Making user learn to use phrase pattern for requirement specification • Tracing and consolidating requirements coming from different requirements or sources Weighting of requirements • Difficult and time consuming to weight each requirement as many stakeholders are involved and negotiations take place • Many approvals and manual steps involved in weighting of each requirements • Weighting scale differs from project to project • A lot of time consumption in specifying a requirement in excel sheet in small phrase manner and working with large set of requirements in an excel sheet • Interviews, workshop other canton examples are looked upon for requirement gathering • Many similar projects are done within different cantons which could have same requirements. But due to non availability of communication channel between them these projects could not be searched upon easily
  18. 18. Affinity Diagram Request for Proposal • Too many appendix and Irrelevant information • No particular format for preparing a Request for Proposal document Evaluation of Proposal • Vendors are asked to evaluate their system by answering yes /no to questions • Evaluation is done on the basis of requirements, prices as well as presentation about how they are going to fulfil those requirements • Evaluation is filled manually by the vendors • EVAL+ is used sometimes in evaluating the proposal of vendors Modelling + Vendors • Where to attach requirements in a process • Business process by customers doesn’t show the reality for the vendors • Vendors prepare their own specification document which is more precise than requirement specification by customers • Problem is faced while merging requirement list from different vendors • Difficult to estimate cost of project • Request for proposal has the evaluation criteria as well as the guideline for presentation • All the requirements are framed as questions having YES/NO answer • Too many documents given by the customers and have to go through lot of documents to find out exact requirements • Teaching customers to model their process correctly • Customers know their process very well but they don’t know to express the requirement in an exact manner.
  19. 19. Proposed Solutions Solutions from affinity analysis • Specification of requirement through business process by each Public Department and promotion of collaboration among these departments during this process • Consolidation of those requirements at one place and tracing back each requirement source-workshop pictures, documents etc. by providing separate section for each requirement or group of Requirement • User being notified regularly about the changes being done in requirement of some business process. • User Provided with Business process examples of other cantons ,sample projects etc.. • To tackle the problem of requirement specification in an exact manner we proposed the use of phrase of pattern which would help user in a Specific way and it would be easier for user to comprehend their requirement..Though it is also proposed that user would get the option of blank text to write requirments in his own way. • Classification of requirments could be done based on user choice, functional non functional, interface related • To maintain three to four hundred requirements in one place we would provide him with different filters that could help him in working with large set of requirments • For tracing back requirements which have merged with two or three other requirement into one requirement reference numbers to be given as option of linking all these requirements
  20. 20. Use of Phrase Patterns for Requirement Specification The système -----------(blank) allows the <user> to Is capable of <process> object and complement Under which Circumstance Basic Phrase Pattern
  21. 21. Goals of Cares-New design brief Through Cares: • Reduction of time between need identification and request for proposal • Make users manage there requirements related to some business activity easily • Promote collaboration between different user regarding specification of requirements related to business process. • Generate a specification document File (.docx) and list of weighted requirements in an excel sheet..
  22. 22. User Persona “It is very difficult to write all the requirements in an exact manner, for a project that is going to be realized in two years ,which could be understand by all” Name :Andrew Cotting Age::52 yrs. Job: Process manager and Requirement Engineer Head in Swiss health service Experience::25 yrs. Motivation: “Andrew is a Process Manager and Requirement Engineer working for Swiss Public Health Service at the city of Zurich . Previously he has worked as a business analyst and process manager in many private IT companies. As a Requirement Manager his role is to gather requirements for building medical software for Swiss health service and prepare request for proposal and weighted requirement list. for WTO procurement. A typical project for him starts with gathering requirements through the interviews, workshops, other medical software examples, business consultant. About 60% of the time is spent for Andrew in Gathering Requirements from all sources .and after gathering these requirements Andrew specify all the requirement in a rough document which he then discusses with colleagues sometimes. After this Andrew prepare Request for proposal for vendors as well write requirements in Excel Sheet in which he faces difficulty in specifying Requirements in a small phrase manner which could be understood by vendors. Andrew also faces difficulty in weighting these Requirements as there are lot of manual work and negotiation is involved. He feels that some part of this process could be automated easily which would ease out his job
  23. 23. User Persona “Customers knows their business very well but it is very difficult for them to specify what they exactly want”” Name :Mary Whitman Age::32 yrs. Job: Business Analyst in Swiss IT firm Experience::8 yrs. Motivation: “Mary is a senior business analyst working in an IT company which specializes in providing business consultancy as well as real solutions to their customers. Mary start her day by taking calls of customers of her currrent projects and understanding about their needs. which she then documents into a specification document maintained for the developers as well as for the other teams.She also had to go through so many documents sent by the customer to understand their needs and Requirements. Mary feels that her customers generally know about their business very well but they don’t have the knowledge how to specify their requirments in an exact manner. Mary has also been involved in many business consulting projects for public administration in which she helped them in preparing request for proposal and weighted requirement list. In one of her project she also helped user in modelling their business process and specifying the requirements related to them. She thinks using BPMN for requirement specification could be a good way of reducing communication gap between customers and vendors and the requirements could be specified more consistently which could be understood by all
  24. 24. Home(login) Projects Requirement Manager Collaborator Learn Cares Trash My Projects Shared projects Project 1 Project 2New Cares Project Add New Files Process Files Requirement Files By default selectedRequirement Specification Project Details BPMN process with requirements specified Requirements in Tabular manner Folders Information Architecture
  25. 25. Home(login) Projects Requirement Manager Collaborator Learn Cares Trash By default selected Latest Projects All Requirements) Tabular View Graphical View Requirement Specification Filters Add/delete /search Edit Save/Print Customize Projects browser Information Architecture
  26. 26. Home(login) Projects Requirement Manager Collaborator Learn Cares Trash By default selected Latest working project Share Approval Comments Live discussion Customize Projects browser Information Architecture
  27. 27. Wireframes Visual Design Use Cases: User Cases: Creation of Requirement Table Prototype Requirement Specification Requirement Manager Collaborator
  28. 28. Use Case: Creation of new cares project showing requirement specification for processes Wireframe
  29. 29. Step 1-Home(My projects)
  30. 30. Step 2-Click on new project icon
  31. 31. Step 3 -Add information in new project dialogue box
  32. 32. Step 4 –All the uploaded models opens in separate tabs
  33. 33. Step 5-Hover on activity & click on requirement specification icon
  34. 34. Step 6-Specify the Requirements in the Requirement Specification
  35. 35. Step 7-An icon appears for showing the requirement specified
  36. 36. Step 7-An icon appears for showing the requirement specified
  37. 37. Use Case: Working with Requirement Manager Wireframe
  38. 38. Step 1-On Homepage Click on requirement manager icon
  39. 39. Step2-Requirement Manager opens with all requirements of last project
  40. 40. Step 3-Click on the row of table for selecting it
  41. 41. Step 4-The row of table is selected
  42. 42. Step 5-Click on column Requirement to edit text of requirement
  43. 43. Step 6-Click on Requirement Specification icon to make more changes
  44. 44. Step 7 –Make changes through Requirement Specifier
  45. 45. Use Case: Working with Collaborator Wireframe
  46. 46. Step 1-Click on collaborator icon in side navigation
  47. 47. Step 2-Colloborator window is opened
  48. 48. Use Case: Creating new requirement files for Requirements which could not be expressed through BPMN process Visual Design
  49. 49. Step 1-On home page click on any project
  50. 50. Step 2-Click on the new icon in the project folder
  51. 51. Step 3-New Files dialog box appears
  52. 52. Step 4-Click on the Type dropdown and select Requirement List
  53. 53. Step 5-Give the name to file and click done
  54. 54. Step 6- Requirement file list table is created
  55. 55. Conclusion • Through user interview and contextual inquiry we could conclude that business users face problems in specifying their problems in exact manner for a project of long duration. The vendors also face difficulty in understanding the requirement of customers. Thus there is a problem of Requirement Specification in exact manner which we have tried to combat through the use of phrase pattern in cares. • Customers also are very aware of their business process and it is easy for them for them to see their Requirements through the processes • The users also face difficulty while working with large set of requirements which was solved through the feature of requirement manager in our prototype. • There is also constant collaboration during the process of requirement specification which we tried to implement through the feature of collaborator in the prototype • Thus we could conclude through CARES the problems of requirement engineering in WTO procurement could be solved more effectively and still there is a scope of improvement in prototype and changes could be made in proposed methodology.
  56. 56. Future works and Ideas The evaluation and testing of prototype with users is one of the future steps needs to be taken As a future version of CARES some of ideas could be implemented.: • Evaluation of Proposal submit by the vendors • Modelling of Business processes in Cares itself • Extensive collaborative features in CARES like live discussion, chats • Graphical View of Seeing the list of Requirements. • Requirement Specification for the agile project management
  57. 57. My Experience and Learnings • This Internship is one memorable journey for me where I had many great experiences professionally and personally • Professionally I gained a lot of experience in conducting user interview in Business Domain by visiting the workplace of different user and gain interesting insights from them. • I also got a lot of Freedom and flexibility in doing my work and all my ideas were heard patiently and discussed upon. • I also received an abled guidance under Professor Florian and Learned a lot from him. • I also like to thank Daniel Hadrian and Alan Duc who took part in my discussions and shared their views to me politely and kindly. • Personally this is the most awesome internship I had. I got to visit so many awesome places all around Europe, have interaction with so kind and helpful Swiss people and got the chance to do many activities that I could not have thought otherwise. • Finally I learned to cook many Indian dishes so my mother would be so happy after this Internship 
  58. 58. MERCI Daniel Hadrian Alain Duc Mohit Yadav Prof. Alexandre Cotting