Public adminstration


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Public adminstration

  2. 2. am vikas gupta, age 31 years . i start a gaming website which has PR4 and ratings below 4 lakh.i need here 1 help from you, as i have no money to promote my gaming site,iam running graphic shop with 1 PC (yes 1 PC :) think how i am surviving with 1PC and a family with 2 kids :P ), I do not know much about how to promote mywebsite, so i decided to talk with you friends to come and join my site and playall the games for free, all games are personally selected by me from thousandsof games.I am updating my website daily with lots of awesome games.You can playwithout register or register you id or you also can play with your facebookID.hope you all will like my site and play free online games there, and dontforgot to tell your friends about :)INTRODUCTION:-
  3. 3. project is on “accounts and audit “ as assigned by ourlecturer MsShveta . the aim of our project was to study the auditingprocess of accounts carried out in a particular governmentagency.It also aimed at gathering information through interaction withthe officials involved in such agencies.As public administration means the management of theactivities of different government agencies thus accounts andaudit are also part of such activities .Accounting and auditing are inter related. They basically dealwith the utilization of finance and assets efficiently andeffectively.Here we have tried our level best to do this project according tothe expectations of our lecturer. Hope she would like it.ACKNOWLEDGEMENT:-
  4. 4. project was not possible without the ableguidance of our lecturer Ms . It is only through theinspiration and motivation of our lecturer that wewere able to complete our project.Also we would like to thank for the very decentbehavior of the officials of PEDA as they spent theirvery valuable time for us. It was through their co-operation and the zeal through which theyinteracted with us that we were able to understandthe topic properly.
  5. 5. METHODOLOGY:- We found our material on our project through our deep study of accounting and auditing books in sector 34 library. We found some of the auditing methods from the office of PEDA. Other useful data came through interaction with our parents and siblings in the commerce sector. INTERNET was the primary source for the secondary data we collected. The following websites were quite useful:-   Britannica online encyclopedia .  Microsoft Encarta.    PEDA official site.
  6. 6. ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING.AUDITING:-The general definition of an audit is an evaluation of a person,organization, system, process, enterprise, project or product. Theterm most commonly refers to audits in accounting, but similarconcepts also exist in project management, quality management,and energy conservation.The Definition for Auditing and Assurance Standard (AAS)1 by ICAI - "Auditing is the independent examination of financialinformation of any entity, whether profit oriented or not, andirrespective of its size or legal form, when such an examination isconducted with a view to expressing an opinion thereon."Audits are performed to ascertain the validity and reliability ofinformation; also to provide an assessment of a systems internalcontrol. The goal of an audit is to express an opinion on theperson / organization / system (etc.) in question, under evaluationbased on work done on a test basis.Due to practical constraints, an audit seeks to provideonly reasonable assurance that the statements are free frommaterial error. Hence, statistical sampling is often adopted in
  7. 7. In the case of financial audits, a set of financial statementsare said to be true and fair when they are free of materialmisstatements - a concept influenced byboth quantitative (numerical) and qualitative factors. Auditing isdone by the auditor to find out whether the financial statementsare prepared by business concerns to know the result of thebusiness activity undertaken by them throughout the year. At theend of the business activity undertaken by them whole exercise ofaccounting. When financial statements are financial statementsshow true and fair view of the state of affairs of the business.Meaning of true and fair view “The financial statements wouldshow true and fair view regarding the business activities when allthe following features are present:All the transactions in the cource of business are recorded in thebooks of account and accurately.1. Transactions are recorded according of the acceptedaccounting principles.2. The financial statements are drawn in conformity with thebooks of account.3. Financial statements are prepared as per accepted rules andregulation of the companies act, 1956 and other legal provisions.4. When there are no errors and frauds presents in the books ofaccounts.
  8. 8. AUDIT, or more accurately, an audit offinancial statements, is the review of the financial statements of acompany or any other legal entity (including governments),resulting in the publication of an independent opinion on whetherthose financial statements are relevant, accurate, complete, andfairly presented. Financial audits are typically performed by firmsof practicing accountants due to the specialist financial reportingknowledge they require. The financial audit is one of manyassurance or attestation functions provided by accounting andauditing firms, whereby the firm provides an independent opinionon published information. Many organisations separately employor hire internal auditors, who do not attest to financial reports butfocus mainly on the internal controls of the organization. Externalauditors may choose to place limited reliance on the work ofinternal auditors.Financial audits exist to add credibility to the implied assertion byan organizations management that its financial statements fairlyrepresent the organizations position and performance to thefirms stakeholders (interested parties). The principal stakeholdersof a company are typically its shareholders, but other parties suchas tax authorities, banks, regulators, suppliers, customers andemployees may also have an interest in ensuring that the financialstatements are accurate.The audit is designed to increase the possibility that a materialmisstatement is detected by audit procedures. A misstatement is
  9. 9. as false or missing information, whether caused by fraud(including deliberate misstatement) or error. "Material" is verybroadly defined as being large enough or important enough tocause stakeholders to alter their decisions.Audits exist because they add value through easing the cost ofinformation asymmetry, not because they are required by law(note: audits are obligatory in many EU-member states). Forexample, a privately-held company that does an issue securitieson a public exchange might engage a firm to audit its financialstatements in order to obtain more desirable loan terms from afinancial institution or trade accounts with its customers. Withoutthe audit, the lending party would not have assurance as towhether or not the companys financial position is accurate. Inturn, the lender could price protect against this informationasymmetry.The exact form and content of the "audit opinion" will varybetween countries, firms and audited organizations.In the US, the CPA firm provides written assurance that financialreports are fairly presented, in all material respects, in conformitywith generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP), where thethreshold for materiality is determined via auditors judgmentStages of an auditA financial audit is performed before the release of the financialstatements (typically on an annual basis), and will overlap theyear-end (the date which the financial statements relate to).
  10. 10. following are the stages of a typical auditTiming: before year-endPurpose:... To understand the business of the company and the environment in which it operates. [1] o What should auditors understand?  The relevant industry, regulatory, and other external factors including the applicable financial reporting framework  The nature of the entity  The entity’s selection and application of accounting policies  The entity’s objectives and strategies, and the related business risks that may result in material misstatement of the financial statements  The measurement and review of the entity’s financial performance  Internal control relevant to the audit To determine the major audit risks (i.e. the chance that the auditor will issue the wrong opinion). For example, if sales representatives stand to gain bonuses based on their sales, and they account for the sales they generate, they have both the incentive and the ability to overstate their sales figures, thus leading to overstated revenue. In response, the auditor would typically plan to
  11. 11. of auditorsAuditors of financial statements can be classified into twocategories: External auditor / Statutory auditor is an independent Public accounting firm engaged by the client subject to the audit, to express an opinion on whether the companys financial statements are free of material misstatements, whether due to fraud or error. For publicly-traded companies, external auditors may also be required to express an opinion over the effectiveness of internal controls over financial reporting. External auditors may also be engaged to perform other agreed-upon procedures, related or unrelated to financial statements. Most importantly, external auditors, though engaged and paid by the company being audited, are regarded as independent auditors. Internal auditors are employed by the organization they audit. They perform various audit procedures, primarily related to procedures over the effectiveness of the companys internal controls over financial reporting. Due to the requirement of Section 404 of the Sarbanes Oxley Act of 2002 for management to also assess the effectiveness of their internal controls over financial reporting (as also required of the external auditor), internal auditors are utilized to make this assessment. Though internal auditors are not considered independent of the company they perform audit procedures for, internal auditors of publicly-traded companies are required to report directly to the board of directors, or a sub-committee of the board of directors, and not to management, so to reduce
  12. 12. the risk that internal auditors will be pressured to produce favorable assessments. Consultant auditors are external personnel contracted by the firm to perform an audit following the firms auditing standards. This differs from the external auditor, who follows their own auditing standards. The level of independence is therefore somewhere between the internal auditor and the external auditor. The consultant auditor may work independently, or as part of the audit team that includes internal auditors. Consultant auditors are used when the firm lacks sufficient expertise to audit certain areas, or simply for staff augmentation when staff are not available. Quality auditors may be consultants or employed by the organization Audit of Government Companies (Commercial Audit) There is a special arrangement for the audit of companies where the equity participation by Government is 51 percent or more. The primary auditors of these companies are Chartered Accountants, appointed by the Comptroller and Auditor General of India, who gives the directions to the auditors on the manner in which the audit should be conducted by them. The Comptroller and Auditor General of India is also empowered to comment upon the audit reports of the primary auditors. In addition, the Comptroller and Auditor General of India conducts a test audit of the
  13. 13. accounts of such companies and reports the results of his audit to Parliament and State Legislatures. .ACCOUNTANCY:-Accountancy is the process of communicating financialinformation about a business entity to users such [1]as shareholders and managers. The communication is generallyin the form of financial statements that show in money termsthe economic resources under the control of management; the artlies in selecting the information that is relevant to the user and isreliable.Accountancy is a branch of mathematical science that is useful indiscovering the causes of success and failure in business.The principles of accountancy are applied to business entities inthree divisions of practical art, named accounting, bookkeeping,and auditing.
  14. 14. is called "the language of business" because it is thevehicle for reporting financial information about a business entityto many different groups of people. Accounting that concentrateson reporting to people inside the business entity iscalled management accounting and is used to provide informationto employees, managers, owner-managers and auditors.CAGs RoleThe Comptroller & Auditor General of India plays a key role in thefunctioning of the financial committees of Parliament and theState Legislatures. He has come to be recognised as a friend,philosopher and guide of the Committee. His Reports generallyform the basis of the Committees working, although they are notprecluded from examining issues not brought out in his Reports.He scrutinises the notes which the Ministries submit to theCommittees and helps the Committees to check the correctnesssubmit to the Committees and helps the Committees to check thecorrectness of facts and figures in their draft reports.The Financial Committees present their Report to the Parliament/State Legislature with their observations and recommendations.The various Ministries / Department of the Government arerequired to inform the Committees of the action taken by them onthe recommendations of the Committees (which are generallyaccepted) and the Committees present Action Taken Reports toParliament / Legislature.In respect of those cases in Audit Reports, which could not bediscussed in detail by the Committees, written answers areobtained from the Department / Ministry concerned and aresometimes incorporated in the Reports presented to theParliament / State Legislature. This ensures that the audit Reports
  15. 15. not taken lightly by the Government, even if the entire reportis not deliberated upon by the Committee.Role of the CAG in regard to auditThe Comptroller and Auditor General is the sole authorityprescribed in theConstitution entrusted with the responsibility of audit of accountsof the Union and ofthe States. It is the duty of the Comptroller and Auditor General toaudit receipts andexpenditure of the Union and each State and the Union TerritoryGovernments. Theaudit reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General are placedbefore Parliament orthe legislature of the State or the Union Territory, as the case maybe.The duties of the Comptroller and Auditor General also extend toaudit ofGovernment companies and corporations and bodies andauthorities in accordancewith the laws made by the legislature and rules made thereunder.
  16. 16. broad objectives of audit are to ensure legality, regularity,economy, efficiencyand effectiveness of financial management and publicadministration mainly throughassessment as to:(1)whether the financial statements are properly prepared, arecomplete in allrespects and are presented with adequate disclosures (financialaudit);(2)whether the provisions of the Constitution, the applicable laws,rules andregulations made thereunder and various orders and instructionsissued bycompetent authority are being complied with (compliance audit);and(3)the extent to which an activity, programme or organisationoperateseconomically, efficiently and effectively (performance audit).No power of direction with the executive in relation to AuditIt is important for the independence of the Comptroller andAuditor General that thereis no power of direction by the executive in relation to theperformance of the audit
  17. 17. mandate. The Comptroller and Auditor General is not obliged to carry out, modify or refrain from carrying out an audit or suppress or modify audit findings, conclusions and recommendations in the light of any directions by the executive. This, however, does not preclude requests to the Comptroller and Auditor General by the executive proposing matters for audit. Decision in this regard shall rest finally with theComptroller and Auditor General.ABOUT Punjab Energy Development Agency : -was formed inSept. 1991 as a state nodal agency for promotion and developmentof renewable energy programmes/projects and energy conservationprogramme in the state of Punjab. PEDA is registered as a Societyunder the Societies Act of 1860The past three decades have seen a significant evolution in thescience, practices and impact of energy efficiency. Energyefficiency has gradually emerged from being an advocacysubject to a powerful, cost-effective, and environment-friendlypolicy tool to narrow the widening supply-demand gap facingthe nation today. As per the Integrated Energy Report, energyconservation programs, if designed and executed properly, canobviate the need for 25,000 MW additional generation capacity.Energy conservation potential for the economy as a whole hasbeen assessed as 23% with maximum potential in Industrialand Agricultural Sectors (Planning Commission, Govt of India,August 2006).Considering the vast potential of energy savings and benefitsof energy efficiency, the Government of India enacted theEnergy Conservation Act, 2001 in October 2001. The Energy
  18. 18. Act, 2001 became effective from 1st March, 2002.The Act provides for institutionalizing and strengtheningdelivery mechanism for energy efficiency programs in thecountry and provides a framework for the much-neededcoordination between various government entities. The Actalso provides legal framework, and a regulatory mechanism atthe Central and State Government levels.As per the EC Act, Government of India established Bureau ofEnergy Efficiency (BEE) with the Mission to develop policy andstrategies with a thrust on self-regulation and marketprinciples, within the overall framework of the EnergyConservation Act (EC Act), 2001 with the primary objective ofreducing energy intensity of the Indian economy. This will beachieved with active participation of all stakeholders, resultingin accelerated and sustained adoption of energy efficiency inall sectors. Among the key stakeholders are the StateDesignated Agencies (SDAs) established by StateGovernments in consultation with BEE with the responsibilityto implement the Act within the state through variousregulatory and promotional instruments.
  20. 20. It is the process of collecting ,recording and classifying aswell as interpreting the data and important facts related to theevents and transaction of business.2.WHAT IS AUDITING?ANS. The general definition of an audit is an evaluation of aperson, organization, system, process, enterprise, project orproduct. The term most commonly refers to audits in accounting,but similar concepts also exist in project management, qualitymanagement, and energy conservation.3.WHAT IS THE NEED OF AUDITING?ANS.- Auditing is a vital part of accounting. Auditing is needed to ascertain the validity and reliability ofinformation. The goal of an audit is to express an opinion on theperson / organization / system (etc.) in question, under evaluationbased on work done on a test basis. An audit seeks to provide only reasonable assurance that thestatements are free from material error.4. WHAT IS VOUCHING?
  21. 21. Voucher is a detailed statement of the daily expensesincurred by the company and the process of assembling differentvouchers related to different expenses is known as vouching.5. WHAT ARE THE PROCEDURES OR PROCESSESINVOLVED IN AUDITING?ANS. According to me , , a typical audit includes the followingsequential steps:Scheduling an opening conference to discuss the audit objectives,timing, and report format and distribution.Assessing the soundness of the internal controls or businesssystems and operations.Testing the internal controls to ensure proper operation.Discussing with management all preliminary observations.Discussing with management the draft audit report and theirresponses, if available, prior to release of the final audit report.Following up on critical issues raised in audit reports to determineif they have been successfully resolved.6. WHAT ARE DIFFERENT TYPES OF AUDITS?Types of Audits :-
  22. 22. 1. Financial Audits 2. Operational Audits 3. Department audits 4. Integrated Audits 5. Investigative Audits 6. Follow-up AuditsFinancial AuditA historically oriented, independent evaluation performed for thepurpose of attesting to the fairness, accuracy, and reliability offinancial data. CSULBs external auditors, KPMG, perform thistype of review. CSULBs Director of Financial Reportingcoordinates the work of these auditors on our campus.Operational AuditA future-oriented, systematic, and independent evaluation oforganizational activities. Financial data may be used, but theprimary sources of evidence are the operational policies andachievements related to organizational objectives. Internalcontrols and efficiencies may be evaluated during this type ofreview.Department ReviewA current period analysis of administrative functions, to evaluatethe adequacy of controls, safeguarding of assets, efficient use ofresources, compliance with related laws, regulations andUniversity policy and integrity of financial information.
  23. 23. AuditThis is a combination of an operational audit, department review,and IS audit application controls review. This type of reviewallows for a very comprehensive examination of a functionaloperation within the University.Investigative AuditThis is an audit that takes place as a result of a report of unusualor suspicious activity on the part of an individual or a department.It is usually focused on specific aspects of the work of adepartment or individual. All members of the campus communityare invited to report suspicions of improper activity to the Directorof Internal Auditing Services on a confidential basis.Follow-up AuditThese are audits conducted approximately six months after aninternal or external audit report has been issued. They aredesigned to evaluate corrective action that has been taken on theaudit issues reported in the original report. When these follow-upaudits are done on external auditors reports, the results of thefollow-up may be reported to those external auditors.7.What is the objective of Accounting Standards?ANS.Objective of Accounting Standards is to standarize thediverse accounting policies and practices with a view to eliminateto the extent possible the non-comparability of financialstatements and the reliability to the financial statements.
  24. 24. The institute of Chatered Accountants of India, recognizing theneed to harmonize the diversre accounting policies andpractices, constituted at Accounting Standard Board (ASB) on21st April, 1977 8. Please tell us about the types of auditors the firm has? ANS. There are three types of auditors :- (i) Internal auditors.- these are the auditors of the company that carry out audit on regular basis. (ii) External auditors.-these are the auditors appointed by CAGI and carry out audit annually . (iii) Concurrent auditors.9 . WHAT IS INTERNAL AUDIT? ANS. It is defined as the auditing which is done by auditors known as internal auditors. These auditors they usually work with the accounts and finance department of any company. They check some part of the accounts for any discrepancy or any illegality.
  25. 25. These auditors are paid and appointed by the company.10. WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN INTERNAL AUDITAND ANNUAL EXTERNAL AUDIT? ANS. The internal audit is carried out by the auditors who work in the company as a regular staff. It is the audit carried out on regular basis like within a week or a month. Whereas, the annual external audit is carried out by external auditors which are appointed by the COMPTROLLER AND AUDITOR GENERAL of INDIA (CAGI). This audit is carried out annually. Company doesn’t has any control over this auditing. 11.ROLE OF CAG IN ACCOUNTING? ANS. The duties and powers of the Comptroller and Auditor General in regard to the accounts of the Union and State Governments are laid down under Articles 149 and 150 of the Constitution of India and Sections 10 to 12 and 23 of the Act. Under Article 149 of the Constitution, the Comptroller and Auditor General
  26. 26. perform such duties and exercise such powers in relationto the accounts of theUnion and of the States and of any other authority or body asmay be prescribed by orunder any law made by Parliament.By virtue of the provisions of Article 150 of the Constitution, theaccounts ofthe Union and the States shall be kept in such form as thePresident may, on theadvice of the Comptroller and Auditor General, prescribe. Theword “form” used inArticle 150 has a comprehensive meaning so as to include theprescription not merelyof the broad form in which the accounts are to be kept, but alsothe basis for selectingthe appropriate heads under which the transactions are to beclassified.12.ROLE OF CAG in AUDITING?ANS. The Comptroller and Auditor General is the sole authorityprescribed in the
  27. 27. Constitution entrusted with the responsibility of audit of accounts of the Union and of the States. It is the duty of the Comptroller and Auditor General to audit receipts and expenditure of the Union and each State and the Union Territory Governments. The audit reports of the Comptroller and Auditor General are placed before Parliament or the legislature of the State or the Union Territory, as the case may be. The duties of the Comptroller and Auditor General also extend to audit of Government companies and corporations and bodies and authorities in accordance with the laws made by the legislature and rules made.13.WHY IS THE AUDIT BOARD FORMED ANNUALLY?ANS. the constitution of Audit Boards is for conductingcomprehensive audit appraisals of the working of Public SectorEnterprises engaged in diverse sectors of the economy.These Audit Boards associate with them experts in disciplinesrelevant to the appraisals. They discuss their findings andconclusions with the managements of the enterprises and their
  28. 28. ministries and departments of government to ascertaintheir view points before finalisation.14.What Does Accounting Principles Mean?ANS. The rules and guidelines that companies must followwhen reporting financial data. The common set of accountingprinciples is the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP).To remain listed on many major stock exchanges in the U.S.,companies must file regular financial statements reportedaccording to GAAP. Accounting principles differ around the world,and countries usually have their own, slightly different, versions ofGAAP.15.WHAT ARE AUDIT CONTROL PROCEDURES?ANS. Audit control procedures are the measures undertaken bythe company to keep a check on its internal auditors whether theyare maintaining proper records regarding the audits.CAGI keeps a check on the external auditors whether they arecarrying out their audit annually.
  29. 29. project was a great learning experience for us. We in our projectlearnt about the accounting and auditing techniques that are followedby various Government agencies in which we studied about theauditing and accounting procedures , their utilities and the wholegovernmental system as a whole.Accounting and auditing is done in order to keep a check on theaccounts of union and state governments as done by IA&AS (Indianaudits and accounts service) .The accounting is done by the principal accountants general andauditing is done by the accountants general of the particular state. Thusit helps to keep a transparency over the financial status of thegovernment.
  30. 30. is headed by the CAGI and he is further assisted by the Principalaccountant general .AUDITING SYSTEM :-In private companies different types of systems are followed butgovernment corporations a single system is followed throughout thecountry.That system comprises of the auditing to be done at the variousintervals by different people .These peoples involve the following people-  CAGI the comptroller and auditor general of INDIA is the most important and central person in the auditing system. He appoints various auditors to different public sector organizations.  Internal auditors keeps a check on the accounts of the company monthly or weekly.  External auditors (as mentioned above) keep a check on the accounts of the company annually.The various types of audits are-Types of Audits :- 7. Financial Audits 8. Operational Audits 9. Department audits
  31. 31. 10. Integrated Audits 11. Investigative Audits 12. Follow-up Audits  Accounting is the process of collecting ,recording and classifying as well as interpreting the data and important facts related to the events and transaction of businessIt is very much required in a governmental setup so as to keep a recordof the revenues and the expenditures that are carried out by thegovernment.Our experience:When we were assigned for the public administration project we chosethe topics of accounts and audit . I asked my friend GAURAV that howwe should begin this project. He suggested that we should first searchfor the secondary data on our project . then we went to the Library ofSector -34 of which I was a member. We found our material from thelibrary and internet.Our teacher asked us to take an interview of any official in thegovernment sector agency , then we decided to carry out the interviewof MR.O.N. SHARMA and Mr. C.R. thakur ,the officials in the finance
  32. 32. of PEDA (PUNJAB ENERGY DEVELOPMENTAL AGENCY) , thevery next day i.e 18th of april 2011 we went to their Office situated insector -33 chandigarh . we were a little nervous as it was the first of akind experience for us.Punjab Energy Development Agency : -was formed inSept. 1991 as a state nodal agency for promotion anddevelopment of renewable energy programmes/projectsand energy conservation programme in the state ofPunjab. PEDA is registered as a Society under theSocieties Act of 1860.We asked the peon for Mr.Sharma and Mr. Thakur. Then we went tothe finance department in the AUDITS ROOM.Then we told them about our project and asked them to spare sometime for the same. Then we asked them our questions and theyanswered accordingly and cleared our queries . Then we discussed some more about the auditing process carried outin Peda.They also offered us a cup of tea each and also interacted about ourcourses and our institute.It was a great learning experience .
  33. 33. that we compiled all our collected data .
  34. 34.