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Process of Curriculum Development

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Different Stages of Curriculum Development

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Process of Curriculum Development

  1. 1. M.Ed. 2015-16 Curriculum Design & Development Unit IV Process of Curriculum Development M.Vijayalakshmi Assistant Professor
  2. 2. Phases of Curriculum process: Need assessment, Formulation of aims, goals and objectives, Selection of content, Selection of learning experience – Vertical and horizontal organization of content and learning experience and Evaluation
  3. 3. Meaning of Curriculum • Latin word – Curricere/Currere – means – ‘A Race Course’ • In Education – ‘Work field of student’ • Course means curriculum • Race refers students experiences and activities
  4. 4. Concept of Curriculum • Curriculum is a tool in the hands of artist (teacher) to mould his material (pupil) according to his ideal (objectives) in this studio (school) - Cunningham
  5. 5. Phases of Curriculum Process II Selection of Learning Experiences III Selection of Content IV Organization & Integration of Learning Experiences & Content V Evaluation I Selection of Aims, Goals & Objectives
  6. 6. SELECTION OF AIMS, GOALS AND OBJECTIVES LEVEL OF OBJECTIVES ULTIMATE GOAL MEDIATE GOAL PROXIMATE GOAL
  7. 7. SELECTION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES
  8. 8. SELECTION OF CONTENT Level I General II III Specific Selection of Specific Content Items Selection of Basic Themes/Concepts Conceptual Framework for Content Area
  9. 9. ORGANISATION AND INTEGRATION OF LEARNING EXPERIENCES AND CONTENT •ENACTIVE MODE •ICONIC MODE •SYMBOLIC MODE
  10. 10. Organization & Integration of Learning Experiences & Content Available Learning Situations in School Inputs for Effective Classroom Interaction Developmental Level of Learners Principles of Learning
  11. 11. Evaluation Micro-level Macro-level
  12. 12. PROCESS OF CURRICULUM DEVELOPMENT • Assessment of educational needs • Formulation of objectives • Selection and Organization of Content • Selection and Organization of Learning Experiences • Evaluation
  13. 13. Needs Assessment Felt Needs Real Needs Observed Needs
  14. 14. Formulating Educational Objectives Matching Worth Wording Appropriateness Logical Grouping Revision
  15. 15. CRITERIA FOR CONTENT SELECTION Self Sufficiency Significance Validity Interest Utility Learnability Feasibility
  16. 16. ORGANISING THE CONTENT SEQUENCING CONTINUITY INTEGRATION
  17. 17. SELECTING LEARNING EXPERIENCES
  18. 18. Do the Learning Experiences … • Light the overall aims and the specific objectives of the curriculum ? • Apply the knowledge gained to practical situations ? • Feasible in terms of time, Staff expertise, resources, etc ? • Enable the students to develop thinking skills and rational powers ? • Stimulate -greater understanding – as a individual and as members of a group/society ? • Foster in students an openness to new experiences and a tolerance for diversity ? • Allow students to address their needs and interests ? • Cater to total development of students in cognitive, affective and psychomotor domains ?
  19. 19. Curriculum Organization Curriculum Organization Horizontal Organization Scope Integration Vertical Organization Continuity Sequence
  20. 20. Prof. Abdelmoneim Ahmad Hassan 20 Curriculum Organization • The aspect of curriculum organization that describe the correlation or integration of content taught concurrently is termed horizontal organization. The aspect of curriculum organization that describes the sequencing of content is termed vertical organization.
  21. 21. Prof. Abdelmoneim Ahmad Hassan 21 Horizontal and vertical organization Horizontal organization It is concerned with the concepts of scope and integration. That is the side-by-side arrangement of curriculum elements.
  22. 22. Horizontal Organization Scope Integration
  23. 23. Prof. Abdelmoneim Ahmad Hassan 23 Horizontal and vertical organization Vertical organization • It centers on the concepts of sequence and continuity. • It is concerned with the longitudinal placement of curriculum elements.
  24. 24. Vertical Organization Continuity Sequence
  25. 25. Prof. Abdelmoneim Ahmad Hassan 25 Organization Dimension Considerations • Scope deals with breadth and depth of the curriculum content. • Scope refers to all varieties and types of educational experiences (cognitive, affective , psychomotor, and spiritual) that are to be provided to the students through the school. Sometimes the scope of the curriculum is represented just simply as a listing of the key topics and activities to be considered.
  26. 26. Prof. Abdelmoneim Ahmad Hassan 26 Organization Dimension Considerations • Integration: - It refers to the linking of all types of knowledge and experiences contained within the curriculum plan. It emphasizes horizontal relations among various content topics and themes involving all domains of knowledge recognized.
  27. 27. Prof. Abdelmoneim Ahmad Hassan 27 Organization Dimension Considerations • Some curriculum specialists say that integration only occurs within the learner. Other specialists say that the integration of curriculum works to interrelate not only the basic ideas within subjects, but to point to the interrelationship with other subject • Ex: Whole language learning in elementary school • Students in secondary school combine science with social study.
  28. 28. Prof. Abdelmoneim Ahmad Hassan 28 Organization Dimension Considerations • Continuity: It deals with the vertical manipulation or repetition of curriculum components. Specialists indicated that if, for example, reading skills is an important objective, then “it is necessary to see that there is returning and continuing opportunity for these skills to be practiced and developed”. This means that over time the same kind of skills will be brought into continuing operation.
  29. 29. Prof. Abdelmoneim Ahmad Hassan 29 Organization Dimension Considerations • Sequence is related to continuity but goes beyond it. It is possible for a major curriculum element to recur again and again but merely at the same level so that there no progressive development of understanding or skill or attitude or some other factors. Sequence as criterion emphasizes the importance of having each successive experience builds upon the preceding one but to go more broadly and deeply into the matter involved.
  30. 30. Prof. Abdelmoneim Ahmad Hassan 30 Organization Dimension Considerations • Sequence is not just repetition of a skill or a concept but deepening of it, so that each successive encounter builds on the preceding one.
  31. 31. Prof. Abdelmoneim Ahmad Hassan 36 Organization Dimension Considerations • Sequence: There are five major principles for organizing curriculum units 1-World - related sequence 2-Concept - related sequence 3-Inquiry - related sequence 4-Learning - related sequence 5-Utilization - related sequence
  32. 32. Sequencing Principles Sequencing Principles Word Related Concept Related Inquiry Related Learning Related Utilization Related
  33. 33. Prof. Abdelmoneim Ahmad Hassan 38 1-World - related sequence Word related Space Closest to farthest Bottom to top East to west Time Earliest to the most recent Physical Attributes Size, shape, complexity etc
  34. 34. 2-Concept - related sequence Concept Related Class Relations sophistication Logical prerequisites Propositional Relations
  35. 35. Inquiry Related Logic of Inquiry Empirics of Inquiry 3-Inquiry - related sequence
  36. 36. 4-Learning - related sequence Learning Related Empirical prerequisites Familiarity Difficulty Interest Development Internalization
  37. 37. Utilization Related Procedures Anticipated frequency of use 5-Utilization - related sequence
  38. 38. EVALUATION AND THE CURRICULUM Relationship of Objectives with Evaluation Objectives Evaluation Activities
  39. 39. EVALUATION AND THE CURRICULUM • STUDENT EVALUATION • CURRICULUM EVALUATION
  40. 40. STUDENT EVALUATION • Oral, written or practical tests • Responses, discussions • Written products of different kinds
  41. 41. CURRICULUM EVALUATION Objectives Content Evaluation Methods

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