Internet and its Applications
Introduction – History of the
Internet – Understanding WWW
– Web Browsers – Favourites and
Bookmarks – Kinds of
Information available – Parts of
Internet – Searching the net,
Researching on the net
• Internet is a system connecting
computers around the world
using TCP/IP, which stands for
Protocol/Internet Protocol, a set
of standards for transmitting and
receiving digital data.
• The Internet consists primarily of the
collection of billions of interconnected
web pages that are transferred using
HTTP (Hypertext Transfer Protocol), and
is collectively known as the World Wide
Web. The Internet also uses FTP (File
Transfer Protocol) to transfer files, and
SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) to
• Whenever you want to surf a particular
site you need to type at the URL bar
beginning with. http://www, i.e.
http://www.are standard rules and
remaining part is a specific desired type
• For Example
• The Internet thus is the
interconnected network of the
web pages which could be surfed
through different search engines
like, Google, Yahoo, Hotmail etc.
They are called Search Engines.
Historical Background of the
• The US department of Defence developed the
first version of Internet during 1970s to allow
quick communication among researchers working
on the department projects in about 30 locations.
The department also saw as a way to continue
communications among these important defence
sites in the event of a worldwide catastrophe
such as nuclear attack. Since these projects were
funded by the department‘s Advanced Research
Projects Agency(ARPA), the Network was
originally called ARPAnet.
• In the 1980‘s just as Desktop computers were
becoming common, the National Science
Foundation funded a high speed connection
among University centres based on the ARPAnet
• By connecting their individual network,
Universities could communicate and exchange
information in the same way. However, these
new connections had an additional, unexpected
• A person accessing a university network from
home or school could also get access to any site
connected to that network.
• This is how the Internet was born. It is also called
as information super highway or cyberspace.
Internet in Education
• Instructional materials can be made available to
students online. Written material, Various
presentations, assignments can be given to
students. Even the instructions too can be
conveyed to students via internet.
• The learner gets the scope of learning desired
course anywhere, anytime thereby making
learning more flexible, interesting and
• Internet also helps in removing the age
restrictions. The learner ranging from young lots
to the adults can enhance their learning as per
• Online conferences can be organised online for
the learners from distant places having common
interest. The learning that requires prior
preparations also can be provided through
internet with the loads of instructional material
• Research work also can be carried out by both
the learners as well as teachers with the help of
e-library, topical data bases on World Wide Web.
• Individualised as well as group methods can be
applied online with the help of varied internet
tools like e-mail, discussion forum, Chat rooms,
WWW etc. which are discussed in detail in the
next segment of this unit.
Applications of Internet
Yahoomail.com, Hotmail.com, Rediffmail.com
• Job searches
Naukri.com, monster.com, Summerjob.Com,
• Finding books and study material
• Health and medicine
Cricinfo.com, movies.com, espn.com
• Stock market updates
• Business use of internet
World Wide Web
• Open source information space
• Web resources – URLs, interlinked by
• Collection of internet resources
• Invented by English Scientist Tim Berners –
Lee in 1989
• First web browser – 1990
• Web pages – HTML
• Web – global set – documents, images and
• www browser software – Microsoft’s
Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Opera,
Apple’s Safari and Google Chrome
• Documents – Combination of computer data
– multimedia and interactive content
• Individuals and Large audience
• Advertising on popular web pages
• Software application for retrieving,
presenting and traversing information
• Literal meaning of the two terms , Web
implies “Network” and Browser means
“Look through”. In this context, Web
Browser together implies “looking
through the network of something”.
This meaning, if applied in the concept
of internet, then it roughly implies
looking through the network of the
information pages on available internet.
• A browser is an application that
provides a way to look at and interact
with all the information on the World
• Technically, a web browser uses HTTP
(Hypertext Transfer Protocol) to make
requests of web servers throughout the
Internet on behalf of the browser user.
• In other words, a web browser is a
software application that allows one to
view pages on the World Wide Web.
• It is a program installed on the personal
computers (PC) locally (e.g. firefox ,
safari, Internet explorer etc.) that is
used to access the Internet, to view =
what there is, as it were.
• A search engine is a program that in
varying ways aggregates reference data
so that when you type in a phrase it can
point you in the direction of a website
that relates to the words you type in.
• The browser is used to get to a
search engine (Which is described
later) such as typing
www.google.com that takes the
user to the google web page which
allows to enter information desired.
• It allows the reader to read encoded
document in the form suitable for
display on the world Wide web.
• A web browser such as Microsoft
Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox,
Apple Safari, Netscape, and Opera is
a software application that enables
a user to display and interact with
text, images, and other information
typically located on a web page at a
website on the World Wide Web or
a local area network.
• Web browsers allow a user to quickly and
easily access information provided on web
pages at websites by traversing these links.
• The history of the web browser can be traced
back to 1991, when a computer guru named
Tim Berners-Lee invented the very first web
browser. It premiered on February 26, 1991,
and ran on NeXSTEP. It was called World
Wide Web, but was later renamed Nexus in
an effort to avoid confusion with the World
• There are different web browsers that
are available and in use today and they
all come with a variety of features.
Some of the available web browsers
include iCab, Internet Explorer, Internet
Explorer for Mac, Lynx, Maxthon,
Mosaic, Mozilla, Mozilla Firefox,
Netscape, Safari, Opera etc. Most of
these web browsers are free.
• Used to design or Mark up web pages
• Include text, links, references to images and
other items, such as cascading style sheets and
• First Web Browser – Graphical user interface –
Mosaic – 1993
• Netscape Navigator
• Internet Explorer
• Firefox – develped by Mozilla
• Flock – based on Firefox
• Safari – Apple Computers
• Lynx – UNIX shell and VMS users
• Opera – fast and stable browser
• Some common features are spell checkers,
search engine toolbars, download managing,
password managing, bookmark managing, as
well as form managing.
• Accessibility features include page zooming,
ad filtering, pop-up blocking, tabbed
browsing, incremental finding, HTML access
keys, voice controls, mouse gestures, spatial
navigation, text to speech, and caret
• A web browser is a powerful tool, used for
personal computers. Today such web
browsers that can be used on mobile phones,
handheld game systems, as well as pocket PC.
• Web browsers can also be personalized to an
individuals needs by utilizing web browser
accessories that are not included with the
initial browser software. E.g. Adobe Acrobat
Reader which allows access to PDF files on
the World Wide Web.
Bookmarks and Favorites
• Return them quickly
• Similar procedure for all web browsers
• Ctrl + D – quick way to bookmark a page
• Internet Explorer
• Google Chrome
• Firefox and Netscape
Use of Bookmarks or Favourites
• Enable to store the URLs of websites
• Folders – e.g. Sports folders
• Change the title
• To return to a previously bookmarked
web site – selecting Favourites – clicking
the link to the sites
Kinds of information Available
• Business Information
• Libraries and Documentation Centres
• Private Persons
• International Organizations
• Government Information
• Societies, Action groups and Associations
Parts of an Internet Address
• URL address – e.g. http://www.oit.edu/ libraries
• http:// - type of protocol – need to visit – two
• E.g. ftp or telnet
• WWW – host - web page is stored
• Domain name – oit.edu - Oregon Institute of
Technology – Libraries – Oregon Tech Library
• Top level domain - .edu
• .edu – Educational Institution
• .com – Commercial Entity
• .org - Organization
• .net – Network Provider, etc
• .gov - Government
Parts of Internet
• URL – Universal Resource Locator – Web site
• Domain – Identity particular web pages
• E.g. - .gov, .net, .org
• Web Browser
• E.g. – Internet Explorer, Firefox, Safari
• Search Engine
• E.g. – Google, Bing, Yahoo
• Highlighted or underlined words or graphics –
• WWW – World Wide Web
• Bandwidth – how much data – measured in bits
• http – hypertext transfer protocol
• Home page – main page
• World wide web – electronic library – online
• Chat room
• Social Networking
• Subject Directories
• Free Web
Searching the Net
• Search Engines
• Getting Started
• Use of Phrases
• Punctuation and Capitalization
• Boolean Basics – AND, OR, AND NOT, BUT
• Quick Tips
• Use nouns as query keywords
• Never use articles (a, the), pronouns (he, it),
conjunctions (and, or) or prepositions (to, from)
• Use 6 to 8 keywords per query
• Combine keywords into Phrases by using
• Spell carefully and consider alternate spellings
• Avoid redundant terms
Researching on the Net
Don’t rely exclusively on Net resources
Narrow your research topic before logging on
Know your subject directories and search
Keep a detailed record of sites you visit and
the sites you use
Double-check all URLs that you put in your
• Who is the author?
• Is the author’s name given?
• Are her qualification specified?
• Is there a link to information about her and
• Is there a way to contact her?
• Have you heard of her elsewhere?
• Has the author written elsewhere on this
• Who is the sponsor of the web site?
• Is the author affiliated with a reputable
institution or organization?
• Does the information reflect the views of the
organization, or only of the author?
• What audience is the Web site
• Is the Web site current?
• Is the site dated?
• Is the date of the most recent update given ?
• Are all the links up-to-date and working?
• Is the material on the Web site reliable and
• Is the information factual, not opinion?
• Can you verify the information in print
• Is the source of the information clearly
• Whether original research material or
secondary material borrowed from
• How valid is the research that is the source?
• Does the material as presented have substance
• Where arguments are given, are they based on
strong evidence and good logic?
• Is the author’s point of view impartial and
• Is the author’s language free of emotion and
• Is the site free of errors in spelling or grammar
and other signs of carelessness in its
presentation of the material?