Educating for Culture of Peace-II
The role of Peace education in developed and
developing countries - Adoption of peace
education in curriculum at various level
At the end of the course the student teacher will
1. Understand the concept of peace education.
2. Understand the dynamics of transformation of
violence into Peace.
3. Understand the nature of conflicts and their
4. Imbibe the knowledge, attitudes and skills
needed to achieve and sustain a global culture
5. Adopt peace education in the curriculum.
Unit – 7:
Educating for Culture of Peace-II
• 7.1 Social justice and civic responsibility (ages
• 7.2 Leadership and global citizenship (ages -
16+) - knowledge, attitude and skills to be
learnt - classroom activities
• 7.3 The role of Peace education in developed
and developing countries - Adoption of peace
education in curriculum at various level.
Unit – 7:
Educating for Culture of Peace-II
7.3 The role of Peace education in
developed and developing countries -
Adoption of peace education in
curriculum at various level.
The role of Peace education in
developed and developing
Definition of Developed Countries
• Developed Countries are the countries
which are developed in terms of
economy and industrialization.
• The Developed countries are also
known as Advanced countries or the
first world countries, as they are self-
• Human Development Index
(HDI) statistics rank the
countries on the basis of their
• The country which is having a high
standard of living, high GDP, high child
welfare, health care, excellent medical,
transportation, communication and
educational facilities, better housing
and living conditions, industrial,
infrastructural and technological
advancement, higher per capita income,
increase in life expectancy etc. are
known as Developed Country.
• These countries generate more
revenue from the industrial
sector as compared to service
sector as they are having a post-
The following are the names of some developed
• United States.
Definition of Developing Countries
• The countries who are going through the
initial levels of industrial development along
with low per capita income are known as
Developing Countries. These countries come
under the category of third world countries.
They are also known as lower developed
• Developing Countries depend
upon the Developed
Countries, to support them in
establishing industries across
• The country has a low Human Development
Index (HDI) i.e. the country does not enjoy
healthy and safe environment to live, low
Gross Domestic Product, high illiteracy rate,
poor educational, transportation,
communication and medical facilities,
unsustainable government debt, unequal
distribution of income, high death rate and
birth rate, malnutrition both to mother and
infant which case high infant mortality rate,
poor living conditions, high level of
unemployment and poverty.
The following are the names of some
• Sri Lanka,
Basis for Comparison Developed Countries Developing Countries
A country having an effective rate of
industrialization and individual
income is known as Developed
Developing Country is a country
which has a slow rate of
industrialization and low per capita
Infant mortality rate, death rate and
birth rate is low while the life
expectancy rate is high.
High infant mortality rate, death rate
and birth rate, along with low life
Living conditions Good Moderate
Industrial sector Service sector
Growth High industrial growth.
They rely on the developed countries
for their growth.
Standard of living High Low
Effectively utilized Ineffectively utilized
Differences Between Developed and
• The countries which are independent and
prosperous are known as Developed
Countries. The countries which are facing the
beginning of industrialization are called
• Developed Countries have a high per capita
income and GDP as compared to Developing
• In Developed Countries the literacy rate
is high, but in Developing Countries
illiteracy rate is high.
• Developed Countries have good
infrastructure and a better environment
in terms of health and safety, which are
absent in Developing Countries.
• Developed Countries generate revenue
from the industrial sector. Conversely,
Developing Countries generate revenue
from the service sector.
• In developed countries, the standard of
living of people is high, which is
moderate in developing countries.
• Resources are effectively and efficiently
utilized in developed countries. On the
other hand, proper utilization of
resources is not done in
• In developed countries, the birth rate
and death rate are low, whereas in
developing countries both the rates are
Curriculum adopted in developed countries
• Canada – Human Rights Education
• Japan – Value Education
• Pinland – Peace and Culture
• Brazil – Value Education
• Netherland – Human Rights Education
• USA – Peace Education
Curriculum adopted in developing countries
• China – Discipline Education
• India – Value Education
• Sri Lanka – Value Education
• Indonesia – Peace Education
• Nepal – Culture and Tradition
• Pakistan – Value Education
To Promote Peace Education…
• Peace education models/programmes
on conflict resolution education, ethnic
and cultural difference, ecology and
social justice, human right and peace
pedagogy should be incorporated into
the school curriculum to discourage
violence among students.
• Violence should be addressed from
different angles in classes on all the
• Teachers and staff should have
mandatory training on different forms
of societal violence and ways of
combating such violence.
• Schools should organize voluntary
programmes with parents, the police
force, the army, the youth, communities
and various organizations to sensitize
them on the need for non-violent
conflict resolution through the use of
video, films, television, print media etc.
• Start by defining the word "peace" with your
• You can ask children what they think it
means. Peace may look a little different to
everyone. To me, it doesn’t mean the
absence of conflict. That would be an
idealized world in which none of us live.
Rather, it’s learning conflict resolution skills
that stress respect for the individual and the
• Declare your classroom a “peace zone”.
• Do not tolerate any kind of bullying.
Lay down ground rules at the
beginning of the year that are
posted for everyone to see.
• Teach conflict resolution skills.
• One way is through role-playing.Role-
play different situations that you notice
amongst the children. Talk about
peaceful ways to resolve the conflict.
You can define and
discuss compromise, taking turns,
and listening skills.
• Choose "Peace" as the theme for an
annual event, like a poetry recitation, a
musical, or other performance.
Challenge the children to find stories,
poems, and songs about peace. They
may also want to draw or paint pictures
of “peace” and what it means to them.
• Peace education can vary by age;
• older children will naturally be able to
get into the history of peace and conflict
by studying different countries and
cultures. They can participate at a
higher level by researching and writing
about peace and peace education
• Have children participate in the care of their
environment, showing respect for the
materials, pets, plants, and other children.
• Emphasize respect for the diversity of
traditions and customs found around the
world when studying geography, history, and
• Consider having your school named an
international peace site.
• The World Citizen organization heads up that
project, and they have information about
peace education as well.
• Be a good example.
• Don’t argue with parents, or other teachers
in front of the children. Speak respectfully
about other people. Don’t gossip. Show
kindness. It can be easy to forget that
children are watching your every move, and
learn more from what you do than what you
• Establish special holidays and rituals for your
school or classroom.
• These can include joyful celebrations as
well as sad occasions (like the loss of a
pet). Everyone can share in the
planning, decorating, and celebrating.
6. Education Reduces Poverty
7. Education Increases Political
8. Education Reduces Support of
Terrorism & Militancy
9. Education Builds Empathy & Tolerance
10. Education Cultivates Respect
Cultures of Peace
• The expression “Culture of Peace”
began to take form in the late 1980s,
and was a concept UNESCO adopted
that “presumes peace [as] a way of
being, doing and living in a society that
can be taught, developed, and best of
all, improved upon.”
• Since its creation in 1945, UNESCO’s mission has
been to contribute to the building of peace,
poverty eradication, lasting development and
intercultural dialogue, with education as one of
its principal activities to achieve this aim.
• The Organization is committed to a holistic and
humanistic vision of quality education
worldwide, the realization of everyone’s right to
education, and the belief that education plays a
fundamental role in human, social and economic
• Peace and security are fundamental to
human dignity and development.
• The sustainable development of any culture
is always endangered insecurity and conflict.
• Human tragedies result in overwhelmed
health systems, the destruction of homes,
schools and often whole communities, and
increased numbers of displaced people and
• Education for Sustainable Development plays
a key role in promoting values for peace.
• A global citizenship identity contains first, the
recognition that conflict and peace are rarely
confined to national boundaries, and second,
that even stable societies are implicated in
wars elsewhere, whether by default
(choosing not to intervene) or actively in
terms of aggression and invasion.
• A third or middle dimension to the usual
phrase needs to be added: “act locally,
analyze nationally, and think globally.”
• How robust is our acceptance of ‘multiple
identities’ and “dynamic cultures”?
• How far are we prepared to take action to
defend the rights of those whom others see
as threatening the local culture and
• Who counts as a citizen in our own backyard
or local school?
• These questions might be the true tests of a
vibrant global citizenship education.
• Thus, a global citizenship education for
peace would be a highly political
education, not simply a bland
‘tolerance’ or “being nice to each
• It has four interrelated components:
knowledge, analysis, skills, and action
• First, there is the knowledge of world
current events, economics and in
• Second is the capacity to critically
analyze media, religious messages,
dogma, superstition, hate literature,
extremism, and fundamentalism.
• Third, it involves political skills, such as
persuasion, negotiation, lobbying,
campaigning, and demonstrating.
• Fourth are dispositions for joint action,
which these days include networking
through communications technology,
starting a website, or joining
international forums of young people
working for peace.
• Creating a world culture of peace
requires the involvement of all parties in
the society that together shape the
world’s culture – institutions such as the
United Nations system, governments,
politicians, scientists, NGOs, the media,
civil society, and especially teachers and
• Although peace education is often
based in schools and other learning
environments, it should involve the
entire community, as peace education is
not only a necessity in areas where
there are conflicts, but in all societies.
• Parents are especially important: they
must encourage strong family values
that foster a culture of peace.
• The threat to peace stems from a
multitude of causes including poverty,
environmental deterioration and social
• There are a variety of factors including
economic, political, social, cultural and
environmental grounds from which
these causes are founded.
• Absence of certainty and security in terms of
these factors makes it difficult to promote
peace (Amamio: undated).
• When discussing the need for a shift of mind
set, we need to more closely examine the
underlying causes that force people to resort
to violence, both in order to understand its
societal impact and to come up with the
proper solutions to reduce its spread
• We develop peace education materials and
provide skills and networks for young people
and former combatants, promoting peace-
building through education in situations of both
conflict and peace.
• Developing a culture of peace is essential for a
country where war and conflict has for so long
been part of daily.
• UNESCO’s activities are tailored for South Sudan,
working with government, non-government and
civil society groups to ensure a holistic approach
that is both inclusive and collaborative.
• UNESCO has developed a Skills for Life
curriculum with the Ministry of Education,
Science and Technology and Education
• Teaching and learning materials provide
lessons on psychosocial support, peace
education, protection and life skills.
• Combined with temporary learning spaces
and education- in-emergencies supplies, this
project is reaching more than 34,000
students and educators in South Sudan.
• The materials are being translated into Arabic
and are also being provided to South
Sudanese refugees in neighbouring countries,
as well as other displaced groups in the
• The project was funded by the UN Common
• South Sudan has a population on 8.2 million,
of whom 72 per cent are less than 30 years of
• Working with The Whitaker Peace and
Development Initiative (founded by UNESCO
Goodwill Ambassador Forest Whitaker), we
have established a network of youth engaged
in conflict mediation and peace building who
are keen to promote the benefits of
alternatives to fighting.
• Eventually, we want to ensure that the
network has a representative from every
county in each of South Sudan’s 10 states.
• The programme provides capacity
development workshops and long-term
support, including peer-to-peer learning
activities and training in computer and
• Our emergency activities address needs in
both conflict and other areas.
• In Jonglei, in February/March 2014, our team
followed up 22 young men and women
trained 12 months earlier in peace
development and computer skills.
• Due to insecurity, we are now focusing on
introducing our program to Eastern Equatoria.
• Our team visited the region in March 2014
and selected 16 young people from different
counties in the state who will be trained to
roll out the program.
• This strengthens our youth networks as we
steadily move around the country to develop
the full Youth Peacemakers Network.
• There is a big difference between
Developed Countries and Developing
Countries as the developed countries
are self-contained flourished while the
developing countries are emerging as a
• Developing Countries are the one who
experience the phase of development
for the first time.
• If we talk about developed countries,
they are post-industrial economies and
due to this reason, the maximum part
of their revenue comes from the service
• Developed Countries have a high
Human Development Index as
compared to Developing Countries.
• The former has established itself in all
fronts and made itself sovereign by its
efforts while the latter is still struggling
to achieve the same.
Adoption of peace education in
curriculum at various level.
• Education for peace is a conceptual
framework from which schools may devise a
programme comprising the transmission of
Universal values and enduring attitudes, and
the development of skills which enable our
students to become active global citizen.
• The implementation of this conceptual
framework recognizes the practice of
peaceful relations at all levels: personal,
familial, communal, inter-cultural and global.
• It entails a process of knowledge acquisition
and skill – building which affects the
behaviour of individuals and groups and
provides a model for the formal and informal
curriculum of the school.
• Education for peace is a process and
condition which permeates all aspects of
school life, with implications for learners,
teachers and administrators and it extends
beyond the school to society as a whole.
• Peace education is important for each and
every individual at different stage.
• The approach to peace education at early
childhood, Elementary stage, secondary
stage, Higher education stage and adult stage
varies in different aspects.
Peace education approach to early childhood
• Starting peace - building education in early
childhood is of paramount importance.
• In yearly years a child’s brain architecture is
developing most rapidly, habits are formed,
differences are recognized and emotional ties
are build through social relationships and
day-to-day in homes and neighborhoods.
• Parental practice and the environment that
are most parental practice and the
environment that are most proximal to
children are key determinants of their
physical, social and emotional development.
• Proximal contests, such as the home, family,
early learning programmes and community
protection programmes, play a key role in the
children’s ability to manage conflicts, reduce
violence and shape key characteristics of the
Children’s moral behaviour therefore, the
family members should create conclusive
environment to enhance the above said
behaviour among the children at early
Peace education approach to elementary
• As children grow older and reach the
Elementary school stage.
• They begin to grasp abstract thoughts.
• In a limited way they develop the capacity to
think rationally and relationally about the
various happenings in their surroundings.
• A crucial issue for children at this stage is that
of relating to other children and their
• Since, the school brings together children
from environment backgrounds, streets need
to be equipped with cognitive competence to
understand the values underlying hygiene
both of the self and of the surroundings,
respect for others and for elders, recognition
of the dignity of labour, honesty, love,
sharing and cooperation, tolerance,
regularity, punctuality, responsibility etc.
• Therefore, the education for peace for
primary school children is about helping then
enjoy and celebrate diversity, beauty, and
harmony in nature.
• They must be encouraged to develop the
skills it takes to be at home with others
(especially the art of listening and with
nature (aesthetic sensitivity and a sense of
Peace education approach to secondary stage
• In the secondary and senior secondary stage
students gradually become aware of their
• They are on the threshold of becoming
independent persons, though still deficient in
• The resulting confusion leads to conflict with
peers, parents, and teachers.
• During this phase, their skills for rational
thinking, communication, and self discipline
• They need training to resolve, through
dialogue and negotiation, the conflicts they
are sure to encounter in day-to-day
• They also need to develop awareness about
inter – relationship and interdependence in
the global and ecological contest, so that
they can form a wider perspective on justice,
peace, and non-violence.
• It is important to enable them to be not only
the recipients of peace but the active makers
of peace, who can think for others and help
Peace education approach to
Higher Education Stage
• Educators at all levels generally agree that
students should be taught about peace.
• This is especially true in the current situation
in the world.
• Higher education is perceived as extremely
important, and the students in the higher
education should be inculcated the
knowledge, attitude and competencies in the
area of peace keeping.
• The teachers need to be aware of the effect
of their behavior on students.
• In this stage, the international
understanding, universal brotherhood,
human rights awareness, crisis and conflict
management skills could be taught along
with their other syllabus.
• The special elective subjects and major
branch of studies in peace education courses
would be more benefit to the students at
higher education level
• These students are going to become a
national builders and role models of the
• Therefore the students in the higher
education should come out with all good
entities of human beings.
• Further, the role of the teachers in the higher
education Is of paramount importance.
• The higher education teachers to be a role
model for their students.
Peace Education Approach to
Adult Education stage
• As society continue to learn and develop
their competencies in relation to the new
realities and challenges ahead.
• This is where adult education plays a key role
in meeting such demands in their more
interconnected globalised world.
• Investment in adult education plays a critical
role in supporting a society’s capacity for
adaptability and change, and helps create a
competitive workforce which is essential in
competing in the global economy and
• Today we are living in the ever changing
technology era with lot of human conflicts.
• The potential and capacity of adult education
to enable people to realize their full human
potential by drawing link between their
individual experiences and relating it to
wider structural factors around them.
• Further, developing self-confidence, social
awareness, cultural understanding,
communal harmony and prosperity among
adult education curriculum would help to
inculcate peace in the minds of the adults.
Sources are taken from