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Educating for Culture of Peace-II


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The role of Peace education in developed and developing countries - Adoption of peace education in curriculum at various level

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Educating for Culture of Peace-II

  1. 1. Educating for Culture of Peace-II The role of Peace education in developed and developing countries - Adoption of peace education in curriculum at various level By M.VIJAYALAKSHMI Assistant Professor
  2. 2. Objectives At the end of the course the student teacher will 1. Understand the concept of peace education. 2. Understand the dynamics of transformation of violence into Peace. 3. Understand the nature of conflicts and their resolution. 4. Imbibe the knowledge, attitudes and skills needed to achieve and sustain a global culture of peace. 5. Adopt peace education in the curriculum.
  3. 3. Unit – 7: Educating for Culture of Peace-II • 7.1 Social justice and civic responsibility (ages 14+) • 7.2 Leadership and global citizenship (ages - 16+) - knowledge, attitude and skills to be learnt - classroom activities • 7.3 The role of Peace education in developed and developing countries - Adoption of peace education in curriculum at various level.
  4. 4. Unit – 7: Educating for Culture of Peace-II 7.3 The role of Peace education in developed and developing countries - Adoption of peace education in curriculum at various level.
  5. 5. The role of Peace education in developed and developing countries
  6. 6. Definition of Developed Countries • Developed Countries are the countries which are developed in terms of economy and industrialization. • The Developed countries are also known as Advanced countries or the first world countries, as they are self- sufficient nations.
  7. 7. • Human Development Index (HDI) statistics rank the countries on the basis of their development.
  8. 8. • The country which is having a high standard of living, high GDP, high child welfare, health care, excellent medical, transportation, communication and educational facilities, better housing and living conditions, industrial, infrastructural and technological advancement, higher per capita income, increase in life expectancy etc. are known as Developed Country.
  9. 9. • These countries generate more revenue from the industrial sector as compared to service sector as they are having a post- industrial economy.
  10. 10. The following are the names of some developed countries: • Australia, • Canada, • France, • Germany, • Italy, • Japan, • Norway, • Sweden, • Switzerland, • United States.
  11. 11. Definition of Developing Countries • The countries who are going through the initial levels of industrial development along with low per capita income are known as Developing Countries. These countries come under the category of third world countries. They are also known as lower developed countries.
  12. 12. • Developing Countries depend upon the Developed Countries, to support them in establishing industries across the country.
  13. 13. • The country has a low Human Development Index (HDI) i.e. the country does not enjoy healthy and safe environment to live, low Gross Domestic Product, high illiteracy rate, poor educational, transportation, communication and medical facilities, unsustainable government debt, unequal distribution of income, high death rate and birth rate, malnutrition both to mother and infant which case high infant mortality rate, poor living conditions, high level of unemployment and poverty.
  14. 14. The following are the names of some developing countries: • China, • Colombia, • India, • Kenya, • Pakistan, • Sri Lanka, • Thailand, • Turkey, • U.A.E.
  15. 15. Comparison Chart Basis for Comparison Developed Countries Developing Countries Meaning A country having an effective rate of industrialization and individual income is known as Developed Country. Developing Country is a country which has a slow rate of industrialization and low per capita income. Unemployment and Poverty Low High Rates Infant mortality rate, death rate and birth rate is low while the life expectancy rate is high. High infant mortality rate, death rate and birth rate, along with low life expectancy rate. Living conditions Good Moderate Generates more revenue from Industrial sector Service sector Growth High industrial growth. They rely on the developed countries for their growth. Standard of living High Low Distribution of Income Equal Unequal Factors of Production Effectively utilized Ineffectively utilized
  16. 16. Differences Between Developed and Developing Countries • The countries which are independent and prosperous are known as Developed Countries. The countries which are facing the beginning of industrialization are called Developing Countries. • Developed Countries have a high per capita income and GDP as compared to Developing Countries.
  17. 17. • In Developed Countries the literacy rate is high, but in Developing Countries illiteracy rate is high. • Developed Countries have good infrastructure and a better environment in terms of health and safety, which are absent in Developing Countries.
  18. 18. • Developed Countries generate revenue from the industrial sector. Conversely, Developing Countries generate revenue from the service sector. • In developed countries, the standard of living of people is high, which is moderate in developing countries.
  19. 19. • Resources are effectively and efficiently utilized in developed countries. On the other hand, proper utilization of resources is not done in developing countries. • In developed countries, the birth rate and death rate are low, whereas in developing countries both the rates are high.
  20. 20. Curriculum adopted in developed countries • Canada – Human Rights Education • Japan – Value Education • Pinland – Peace and Culture • Brazil – Value Education • Netherland – Human Rights Education • USA – Peace Education
  21. 21. Curriculum adopted in developing countries • China – Discipline Education • India – Value Education • Sri Lanka – Value Education • Indonesia – Peace Education • Nepal – Culture and Tradition • Pakistan – Value Education
  22. 22. To Promote Peace Education… • Peace education models/programmes on conflict resolution education, ethnic and cultural difference, ecology and social justice, human right and peace pedagogy should be incorporated into the school curriculum to discourage violence among students.
  23. 23. • Violence should be addressed from different angles in classes on all the school subjects. • Teachers and staff should have mandatory training on different forms of societal violence and ways of combating such violence.
  24. 24. • Schools should organize voluntary programmes with parents, the police force, the army, the youth, communities and various organizations to sensitize them on the need for non-violent conflict resolution through the use of video, films, television, print media etc.
  25. 25. • Start by defining the word "peace" with your students. • You can ask children what they think it means. Peace may look a little different to everyone. To me, it doesn’t mean the absence of conflict. That would be an idealized world in which none of us live. Rather, it’s learning conflict resolution skills that stress respect for the individual and the group.
  26. 26. • Declare your classroom a “peace zone”. • Do not tolerate any kind of bullying. Lay down ground rules at the beginning of the year that are posted for everyone to see.
  27. 27. • Teach conflict resolution skills. • One way is through role-playing.Role- play different situations that you notice amongst the children. Talk about peaceful ways to resolve the conflict. You can define and discuss compromise, taking turns, and listening skills.
  28. 28. • Choose "Peace" as the theme for an annual event, like a poetry recitation, a musical, or other performance. Challenge the children to find stories, poems, and songs about peace. They may also want to draw or paint pictures of “peace” and what it means to them.
  29. 29. • Peace education can vary by age; • older children will naturally be able to get into the history of peace and conflict by studying different countries and cultures. They can participate at a higher level by researching and writing about peace and peace education
  30. 30. • Have children participate in the care of their environment, showing respect for the materials, pets, plants, and other children. • Emphasize respect for the diversity of traditions and customs found around the world when studying geography, history, and other cultures.
  31. 31. • Consider having your school named an international peace site. • The World Citizen organization heads up that project, and they have information about peace education as well.
  32. 32. • Be a good example. • Don’t argue with parents, or other teachers in front of the children. Speak respectfully about other people. Don’t gossip. Show kindness. It can be easy to forget that children are watching your every move, and learn more from what you do than what you say.
  33. 33. • Establish special holidays and rituals for your school or classroom. • These can include joyful celebrations as well as sad occasions (like the loss of a pet). Everyone can share in the planning, decorating, and celebrating.
  34. 34. 1. Education Boosts Confidence & Hope 2. Education Promotes Independent Thinking 3. Education Inspires Problem Solving Skills 4. Education Builds Communication Skills 5. Education Opens Doors
  35. 35. 6. Education Reduces Poverty 7. Education Increases Political Involvement 8. Education Reduces Support of Terrorism & Militancy 9. Education Builds Empathy & Tolerance 10. Education Cultivates Respect
  36. 36. Cultures of Peace • The expression “Culture of Peace” began to take form in the late 1980s, and was a concept UNESCO adopted that “presumes peace [as] a way of being, doing and living in a society that can be taught, developed, and best of all, improved upon.”
  37. 37. • Since its creation in 1945, UNESCO’s mission has been to contribute to the building of peace, poverty eradication, lasting development and intercultural dialogue, with education as one of its principal activities to achieve this aim. • The Organization is committed to a holistic and humanistic vision of quality education worldwide, the realization of everyone’s right to education, and the belief that education plays a fundamental role in human, social and economic development.
  38. 38. • Peace and security are fundamental to human dignity and development. • The sustainable development of any culture is always endangered insecurity and conflict. • Human tragedies result in overwhelmed health systems, the destruction of homes, schools and often whole communities, and increased numbers of displaced people and refugees. • Education for Sustainable Development plays a key role in promoting values for peace.
  39. 39. • A global citizenship identity contains first, the recognition that conflict and peace are rarely confined to national boundaries, and second, that even stable societies are implicated in wars elsewhere, whether by default (choosing not to intervene) or actively in terms of aggression and invasion. • A third or middle dimension to the usual phrase needs to be added: “act locally, analyze nationally, and think globally.”
  40. 40. • How robust is our acceptance of ‘multiple identities’ and “dynamic cultures”? • How far are we prepared to take action to defend the rights of those whom others see as threatening the local culture and economy? • Who counts as a citizen in our own backyard or local school? • These questions might be the true tests of a vibrant global citizenship education.
  41. 41. • Thus, a global citizenship education for peace would be a highly political education, not simply a bland multiculturalism, unquestioning ‘tolerance’ or “being nice to each other”. • It has four interrelated components: knowledge, analysis, skills, and action (KASA).
  42. 42. • First, there is the knowledge of world current events, economics and in international relations. • Second is the capacity to critically analyze media, religious messages, dogma, superstition, hate literature, extremism, and fundamentalism.
  43. 43. • Third, it involves political skills, such as persuasion, negotiation, lobbying, campaigning, and demonstrating. • Fourth are dispositions for joint action, which these days include networking through communications technology, starting a website, or joining international forums of young people working for peace.
  44. 44. • Creating a world culture of peace requires the involvement of all parties in the society that together shape the world’s culture – institutions such as the United Nations system, governments, politicians, scientists, NGOs, the media, civil society, and especially teachers and parents.
  45. 45. • Although peace education is often based in schools and other learning environments, it should involve the entire community, as peace education is not only a necessity in areas where there are conflicts, but in all societies. • Parents are especially important: they must encourage strong family values that foster a culture of peace.
  46. 46. • The threat to peace stems from a multitude of causes including poverty, environmental deterioration and social injustice. • There are a variety of factors including economic, political, social, cultural and environmental grounds from which these causes are founded.
  47. 47. • Absence of certainty and security in terms of these factors makes it difficult to promote peace (Amamio: undated). • When discussing the need for a shift of mind set, we need to more closely examine the underlying causes that force people to resort to violence, both in order to understand its societal impact and to come up with the proper solutions to reduce its spread
  48. 48. Recent Researches…. Research 1…..
  49. 49. • We develop peace education materials and provide skills and networks for young people and former combatants, promoting peace- building through education in situations of both conflict and peace. • Developing a culture of peace is essential for a country where war and conflict has for so long been part of daily. • UNESCO’s activities are tailored for South Sudan, working with government, non-government and civil society groups to ensure a holistic approach that is both inclusive and collaborative.
  50. 50. • UNESCO has developed a Skills for Life curriculum with the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology and Education Cluster partners. • Teaching and learning materials provide lessons on psychosocial support, peace education, protection and life skills.
  51. 51. • Combined with temporary learning spaces and education- in-emergencies supplies, this project is reaching more than 34,000 students and educators in South Sudan. • The materials are being translated into Arabic and are also being provided to South Sudanese refugees in neighbouring countries, as well as other displaced groups in the region. • The project was funded by the UN Common Humanitarian Fund.
  52. 52. Research 2…..
  53. 53. • South Sudan has a population on 8.2 million, of whom 72 per cent are less than 30 years of age. • Working with The Whitaker Peace and Development Initiative (founded by UNESCO Goodwill Ambassador Forest Whitaker), we have established a network of youth engaged in conflict mediation and peace building who are keen to promote the benefits of alternatives to fighting.
  54. 54. • Eventually, we want to ensure that the network has a representative from every county in each of South Sudan’s 10 states. • The programme provides capacity development workshops and long-term support, including peer-to-peer learning activities and training in computer and technology skills.
  55. 55. • Our emergency activities address needs in both conflict and other areas. • In Jonglei, in February/March 2014, our team followed up 22 young men and women trained 12 months earlier in peace development and computer skills. • Due to insecurity, we are now focusing on introducing our program to Eastern Equatoria.
  56. 56. • Our team visited the region in March 2014 and selected 16 young people from different counties in the state who will be trained to roll out the program. • This strengthens our youth networks as we steadily move around the country to develop the full Youth Peacemakers Network.
  57. 57. Conclusion • There is a big difference between Developed Countries and Developing Countries as the developed countries are self-contained flourished while the developing countries are emerging as a developed country.
  58. 58. • Developing Countries are the one who experience the phase of development for the first time. • If we talk about developed countries, they are post-industrial economies and due to this reason, the maximum part of their revenue comes from the service sector.
  59. 59. • Developed Countries have a high Human Development Index as compared to Developing Countries. • The former has established itself in all fronts and made itself sovereign by its efforts while the latter is still struggling to achieve the same.
  60. 60. Adoption of peace education in curriculum at various level.
  61. 61. • Education for peace is a conceptual framework from which schools may devise a programme comprising the transmission of Universal values and enduring attitudes, and the development of skills which enable our students to become active global citizen. • The implementation of this conceptual framework recognizes the practice of peaceful relations at all levels: personal, familial, communal, inter-cultural and global.
  62. 62. • It entails a process of knowledge acquisition and skill – building which affects the behaviour of individuals and groups and provides a model for the formal and informal curriculum of the school. • Education for peace is a process and condition which permeates all aspects of school life, with implications for learners, teachers and administrators and it extends beyond the school to society as a whole.
  63. 63. • Peace education is important for each and every individual at different stage. • The approach to peace education at early childhood, Elementary stage, secondary stage, Higher education stage and adult stage varies in different aspects.
  64. 64. Peace education approach to early childhood • Starting peace - building education in early childhood is of paramount importance. • In yearly years a child’s brain architecture is developing most rapidly, habits are formed, differences are recognized and emotional ties are build through social relationships and day-to-day in homes and neighborhoods.
  65. 65. • Parental practice and the environment that are most parental practice and the environment that are most proximal to children are key determinants of their physical, social and emotional development.
  66. 66. • Proximal contests, such as the home, family, early learning programmes and community protection programmes, play a key role in the children’s ability to manage conflicts, reduce violence and shape key characteristics of the Children’s moral behaviour therefore, the family members should create conclusive environment to enhance the above said behaviour among the children at early childhood stage.
  67. 67. Peace education approach to elementary • As children grow older and reach the Elementary school stage. • They begin to grasp abstract thoughts. • In a limited way they develop the capacity to think rationally and relationally about the various happenings in their surroundings. • A crucial issue for children at this stage is that of relating to other children and their environment.
  68. 68. • Since, the school brings together children from environment backgrounds, streets need to be equipped with cognitive competence to understand the values underlying hygiene both of the self and of the surroundings, respect for others and for elders, recognition of the dignity of labour, honesty, love, sharing and cooperation, tolerance, regularity, punctuality, responsibility etc.
  69. 69. • Therefore, the education for peace for primary school children is about helping then enjoy and celebrate diversity, beauty, and harmony in nature. • They must be encouraged to develop the skills it takes to be at home with others (especially the art of listening and with nature (aesthetic sensitivity and a sense of responsibility).
  70. 70. Peace education approach to secondary stage • In the secondary and senior secondary stage students gradually become aware of their identity. • They are on the threshold of becoming independent persons, though still deficient in maturity. • The resulting confusion leads to conflict with peers, parents, and teachers.
  71. 71. • During this phase, their skills for rational thinking, communication, and self discipline are tested. • They need training to resolve, through dialogue and negotiation, the conflicts they are sure to encounter in day-to-day interactions.
  72. 72. • They also need to develop awareness about inter – relationship and interdependence in the global and ecological contest, so that they can form a wider perspective on justice, peace, and non-violence. • It is important to enable them to be not only the recipients of peace but the active makers of peace, who can think for others and help then.
  73. 73. Peace education approach to Higher Education Stage • Educators at all levels generally agree that students should be taught about peace. • This is especially true in the current situation in the world. • Higher education is perceived as extremely important, and the students in the higher education should be inculcated the knowledge, attitude and competencies in the area of peace keeping.
  74. 74. • The teachers need to be aware of the effect of their behavior on students. • In this stage, the international understanding, universal brotherhood, human rights awareness, crisis and conflict management skills could be taught along with their other syllabus. • The special elective subjects and major branch of studies in peace education courses would be more benefit to the students at higher education level
  75. 75. • These students are going to become a national builders and role models of the society. • Therefore the students in the higher education should come out with all good entities of human beings. • Further, the role of the teachers in the higher education Is of paramount importance. • The higher education teachers to be a role model for their students.
  76. 76. Peace Education Approach to Adult Education stage • As society continue to learn and develop their competencies in relation to the new realities and challenges ahead. • This is where adult education plays a key role in meeting such demands in their more interconnected globalised world.
  77. 77. • Investment in adult education plays a critical role in supporting a society’s capacity for adaptability and change, and helps create a competitive workforce which is essential in competing in the global economy and international challenges. • Today we are living in the ever changing technology era with lot of human conflicts.
  78. 78. • The potential and capacity of adult education to enable people to realize their full human potential by drawing link between their individual experiences and relating it to wider structural factors around them. • Further, developing self-confidence, social awareness, cultural understanding, communal harmony and prosperity among adult education curriculum would help to inculcate peace in the minds of the adults.
  79. 79. Sources are taken from • •Web sources