NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, CHENNAI
Department of Fashion Technology
Assignment I: Essay Writing on LEAN Management Practice in
Submitted to: Submitted by:
Dr. D. Samuel Wesley Shaheen Sheikh
Associate Professor Shruti Gera
Department of Fashion Technology Vijayshree
ABOUT THE COMPANY
Texport Syndicate (I) Limited is a firm leader in the Apparel export space in India over the
past 30 years and is well equipped to handle woven and knit products under one umbrella.
CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS NEW YORK, USA
MANUFACTURING UNITS BANGALORE, INDIA
AREA 197*161 SQ YARDS
WORKFORCE 9000+ SKILLED WORKERS
300+ ADMINS & QASS STAFF
APPARELS CATEGORY SHIRTS
TURNOVER ABOVE 75$ MILLION
COMPANY LABEL SEPIA
IN-HOUSE PRODUCTION 9 MILLION (WOVEN)
12 MILLION (KNITTED)
CERTIFICATION ISO Export Oriented Business (EOB)
CLIENTS MOTHER CARE
MARKS & SPENCERS
MACHINES USED JAPANESE MACHINES
SPECIALISED ANCILLARY MACHINES
SUPPORTED WITH MODERN FINISHING
INVESTONICA SYSTEM FOR PATTERN
114 HEADS OF BURDEN MULTIHEAD
Lean Manufacturing Management (LMM) is a buzz word in the business community in India. It
was originally practiced as a Toyota Production System (TPS) conceptualized by Toyota Motor
Corporation in Japan. After 2005, with the removal of Multi-Fibre Agreement, many a garment
manufacturing firm commenced practicing lean manufacturing system to reduce the lead time
and cost of manufacturing. Though the lean manufacturing system highlights the importance of
making an organization lean, it doesn't properly address the issue of assessing the degree of
leanness in business organizations.
In order to study the issue, one factory from a leading garment manufacturing was selected and
studied the processes where lean practices have been implemented. Data was collected through
the senior managers of the factories who are directly involved with implementation of lean
manufacturing systems. Findings of the study revealed that a variation of implementation of lean
manufacturing system is significant. Further it was found that the level of knowledge about lean
practices is also in varying degrees. Hence it is important to explore ways and means of
improving the lean implementation in a holistic approach instead of piecemeal approach, which
is the norm of this factory in the study.
The objective of implementing lean practices in this factory is to achieve the following:
To meet customers demand on time by elimination non value added work from the
To minimize the work in process inventory
To create flexibility of style changeover
To reduce waste percentage
LEAN IMPLEMENTATION IN THE ORGANISATION
Autonomous Maintenance Implementation
The operators have been trained for maintaining their own machines for smaller issues
like tension change, needle change, threading, cleaning, SPI, bobbin changing etc.
Unlike traditional maintenance programs where the operators run the machines until they
break or become due for maintenance and then hand them to the maintenance department,
autonomous maintenance has the operators performing the simpler (and safe)
maintenance routines such as lubrication, bolt tightening, cleaning and also inspection
Earlier for every small repair the mechanic was called and as there are less mechanics,
the attending time used to be high due to which production was being hampered.
Instruction sheets for autonomous maintenance have been put on machine so that
operators can follow the processes of the maintenance.
GSD Card Flagging
GSD card is an instruction sheet that includes the standard of procedure of an operation.
It consists of modes, with standard working methods written in it step by step, to be
followed by the operators.
Whenever operators are in doubt about the piece handling and operation sequences, they
can refer the GSD card put on their machine.
This reduces the wastage of time and in case of doubt operators need not to contact their
supervisor every time for the material handling and operation sequences.
Flagging of Critical Operation on Machine
On the basis of pitch time determined from GSD, critical operations have been identified.
In layout, they have been flagged on the machine so that they can be highlighted easily
and quickly for observation purpose.
It becomes easy for everyone to take care of critical operations and analyse them for
further improvement to make them non-critical operations.
Critical operations need more attention as compared to other operations, so flagging helps
the supervisor and the operators to identify such operations and give proper attention to
such operations so that there are lesser bottlenecks.
Quality Specification Sheet Flagging
Quality Specification Sheet consists of Samples of parts which the operator’s stitched
garment part should match.
Operators should refer this QSS to check the quality of their work.
These have been installed as reference for operators in self-checking of the piece which is
an important aspect of lean manufacturing.
This leads to reduction in rework resulting into better efficiency.
Operators need to be trained properly regarding the importance of quality and Quality
Skill Matrix Chart
Skill Matrix Chart shows the grading of operators as “A” grade, “B” grade etc. based on
their skill sets.
Grading is done on the basis of number of operations an operator knows and does with
quality and good efficiency.
This chart can be referred by the supervisors to place the operators at right place so that
critical operations can be balanced according to the takt time.
It is easy to decide the salary of operators on the basis of their skill sets given in skill
Operators go through the test for finalising the skill matrix grade and they have to sign
the form for it. Once signed, they can’t deny doing the operations which come under their
File for every individual operator is maintained.
Skill Matrix charts has been put on sewing floor so that it can be referred in case of
absenteeism to place the operators on the basis of toughness and ease of operations.
From Bundle System to Single Piece Flow System
Earlier, there was Bundle System in which bundles of cut pieces (bundle of 5, 10, 20 or
30 pieces) are moved manually to feed the line. Then inside the line an operator himself
drag the bundle from side table and transfer the bundle to the next operator after
completion of the work.
Now, Single Piece Flow system has been adopted to reduce the WIP. In this system, a
set of cut pieces for a single garment is loaded in a tray which is moved forward through
centre table and operations are carried out accordingly.
Bundle System (without Tray) Single Piece Flow (with Tray)
Bundle System Vs. Single Piece Flow System
Parameter Bundle System
Single Piece Flow System
-Pieces move in bundles
-Operators stop their work to fetch
-Less effective in terms of production
management. Resulted long response
In this system trays are used to
carry pieces to each work stations.
-Easier pick up and dispose at each
work station. Resulted quick response
Through put time
Through put time is longer in
Bundle. How much long will depend
on the bundle size and no. of
bundles kept in between two
-Through put time in single piece
flow system is less compare to
Through put time
-As a result of High Work In
Process (WIP) is required by sewing
section, cutting sections are required
to perform 60-70% more than actual
production can handle.
-Lower WIP results in less cutting
works. A balanced flow of material
established in between cutting and
-Due high WIP and higher cutting,
fabrics and trims need to stock in
-Less Inventory for fabric and
trims is required.
Traffic Rule System
Traffic rule system is a system of flagging traffic rule sheets on every machine for
monitoring the quality of work every 2 hours.
Supervisors monitor the operators for defective work and accordingly color the circles on
Zero Defect – Green
One Defect – Yellow
Two or more defects – Red
Flags are being installed on all the machines for flagging in different situations so that the
supervisor and other concerned people come to know about the problem from far away only.
• There is some problem in the machine.
• A call for the mechanic
• There is a quality issue.
• The problem is attended by the supervisor till the quality is perfect.
• Signifies absenteeism or operator is away from the machine.
• A signal for the supervisor to do the required.
• The work is in progress without any problem.
Siren in Lines
Siren has been installed in each line so that mechanic can be called easily in case of
It has been easy for operators, now they need not leave their seat to inform to the
mechanics or supervisors and thus it is time saving.
Steps have been taken to spread the awareness among employees and workers.
Motivational Posters have been put on sewing floor in local language.
1. Hourly production report: Every hour the production writer notes the production of
each line and compiles the report of production against the planned target. The
production is displayed on the floor on the production boars for each line so that
operators and supervisors get to know the actual production and the planned target. The
board will motivate the operators to work more to achieve the target.
2. Weekly progress report: Weekly progress graphs displaying the efficiency progress of
each line are displayed on the boards by the I.E.D for supervisors and operators to see
their progress. Green smiley is given to the line which is working on and near 60%
efficiency which signifies Better Performance and Red smiley is given to the line having
low efficiency signifying poor performance.
3. Quality Report: Hourly quality reports are compiled by the quality checker at the end
line checking. The operation having maximum reworks is analyzed by the quality
controllers on the floor and necessary measures are taken. The reports are made using
control charts using which the defects are easily identifiable.
4. Hourly Maintenance report: the report for hourly maintenance is compiled by the
mechanics which contains the time taken in repair, the type of problem, number of
problems etc. the report helps in the further maintenance works. The machine facing
maximum problems is given extra attention and immidiate actions are taken.
5. Non-Production Time Report: the report is compiled by the production writer for a day.
It consists of the detail of all the time when the production was stopped or hampered on
any machine along with the reasons and accurate time. It consists the maintenance time,
rework time, empty workstation time, idle time, etc. the report is used to calculate the
loss for everyday incurred due to non- production. The reports are then further analyzed
for checking the main reason for the loss and more attention is given to that area.
6. Roll Throughput Yield (RTY): RTY for each day is calculated by input and output.
Roll throughput yield is calculated by the cutting issued against the output received. This
percentage gives the exact picture of the production quality of the line. The RTY is
displayed everyday on the board. Higher is the RTY, better is the quality and lesser is the
wastage as well as defects.
7. DHU% Report: DHU= Defects per hundred garments. The percentage of defects per
100 pieces is calculated by the quality controllers on the floor to check the quality of the
garments. The reports are displayed on the boards for supervisors and operators to see
Project Reference: Increasing Efficiency in a Sewing Line Using Lean
Tools. (Apparel Internship Report by Ravi Aditya, 2010-2014)