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Lean manufacturing assignment i

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Lean manufacturing assignment i

  1. 1. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FASHION TECHNOLOGY, CHENNAI LEAN MANUFACTURING Department of Fashion Technology Semester- VII Assignment I: Essay Writing on LEAN Management Practice in Business Environment Submitted to: Submitted by: Dr. D. Samuel Wesley Shaheen Sheikh Associate Professor Shruti Gera Department of Fashion Technology Vijayshree DFT VII
  2. 2. 2 ABOUT THE COMPANY Texport Syndicate (I) Limited is a firm leader in the Apparel export space in India over the past 30 years and is well equipped to handle woven and knit products under one umbrella. ESTABLISHED 1978 DIVISION WOVEN KNITTED CORPORATE HEADQUARTERS NEW YORK, USA MUMBAI, INDIA MANUFACTURING UNITS BANGALORE, INDIA TIRUPUR, INDIA MUMBAI, INDIA AREA 197*161 SQ YARDS WORKFORCE 9000+ SKILLED WORKERS 300+ ADMINS & QASS STAFF APPARELS CATEGORY SHIRTS BLOUSES SHORTS TROUSER TURNOVER ABOVE 75$ MILLION COMPANY LABEL SEPIA IN-HOUSE PRODUCTION 9 MILLION (WOVEN) 12 MILLION (KNITTED) CERTIFICATION ISO Export Oriented Business (EOB) CLIENTS MOTHER CARE MATALAN GEORGE TESCO BARSHIKA H&M ZARA MARKS & SPENCERS PRIMARK DEBENHAMS HURLEY CATO KEY APPARELS MACHINES USED JAPANESE MACHINES SPECIALISED ANCILLARY MACHINES SUPPORTED WITH MODERN FINISHING UNITS INVESTONICA SYSTEM FOR PATTERN GRADING 114 HEADS OF BURDEN MULTIHEAD EMBROIDERY MACHINE
  3. 3. LEAN MANUFACTURING 3 Introduction Lean Manufacturing Management (LMM) is a buzz word in the business community in India. It was originally practiced as a Toyota Production System (TPS) conceptualized by Toyota Motor Corporation in Japan. After 2005, with the removal of Multi-Fibre Agreement, many a garment manufacturing firm commenced practicing lean manufacturing system to reduce the lead time and cost of manufacturing. Though the lean manufacturing system highlights the importance of making an organization lean, it doesn't properly address the issue of assessing the degree of leanness in business organizations. In order to study the issue, one factory from a leading garment manufacturing was selected and studied the processes where lean practices have been implemented. Data was collected through the senior managers of the factories who are directly involved with implementation of lean manufacturing systems. Findings of the study revealed that a variation of implementation of lean manufacturing system is significant. Further it was found that the level of knowledge about lean practices is also in varying degrees. Hence it is important to explore ways and means of improving the lean implementation in a holistic approach instead of piecemeal approach, which is the norm of this factory in the study. The objective of implementing lean practices in this factory is to achieve the following:  To meet customers demand on time by elimination non value added work from the process  To minimize the work in process inventory  To create flexibility of style changeover  To reduce waste percentage
  4. 4. LEAN IMPLEMENTATION IN THE ORGANISATION Autonomous Maintenance Implementation  The operators have been trained for maintaining their own machines for smaller issues like tension change, needle change, threading, cleaning, SPI, bobbin changing etc.  Unlike traditional maintenance programs where the operators run the machines until they break or become due for maintenance and then hand them to the maintenance department, autonomous maintenance has the operators performing the simpler (and safe) maintenance routines such as lubrication, bolt tightening, cleaning and also inspection and monitoring.  Earlier for every small repair the mechanic was called and as there are less mechanics, the attending time used to be high due to which production was being hampered.  Instruction sheets for autonomous maintenance have been put on machine so that operators can follow the processes of the maintenance. Before After 4
  5. 5. 5 GSD Card Flagging  GSD card is an instruction sheet that includes the standard of procedure of an operation.  It consists of modes, with standard working methods written in it step by step, to be followed by the operators.  Whenever operators are in doubt about the piece handling and operation sequences, they can refer the GSD card put on their machine.  This reduces the wastage of time and in case of doubt operators need not to contact their supervisor every time for the material handling and operation sequences. Before After
  6. 6. Flagging of Critical Operation on Machine  On the basis of pitch time determined from GSD, critical operations have been identified.  In layout, they have been flagged on the machine so that they can be highlighted easily 6 and quickly for observation purpose.  It becomes easy for everyone to take care of critical operations and analyse them for further improvement to make them non-critical operations.  Critical operations need more attention as compared to other operations, so flagging helps the supervisor and the operators to identify such operations and give proper attention to such operations so that there are lesser bottlenecks. Before After
  7. 7. 7 Quality Specification Sheet Flagging  Quality Specification Sheet consists of Samples of parts which the operator’s stitched garment part should match.  Operators should refer this QSS to check the quality of their work.  These have been installed as reference for operators in self-checking of the piece which is an important aspect of lean manufacturing.  This leads to reduction in rework resulting into better efficiency.  Operators need to be trained properly regarding the importance of quality and Quality Specification Sheet. Before After
  8. 8. 8 Skill Matrix Chart  Skill Matrix Chart shows the grading of operators as “A” grade, “B” grade etc. based on their skill sets.  Grading is done on the basis of number of operations an operator knows and does with quality and good efficiency.  This chart can be referred by the supervisors to place the operators at right place so that critical operations can be balanced according to the takt time.  It is easy to decide the salary of operators on the basis of their skill sets given in skill matrix chart.  Operators go through the test for finalising the skill matrix grade and they have to sign the form for it. Once signed, they can’t deny doing the operations which come under their skill set.  File for every individual operator is maintained.  Skill Matrix charts has been put on sewing floor so that it can be referred in case of absenteeism to place the operators on the basis of toughness and ease of operations.
  9. 9. From Bundle System to Single Piece Flow System  Earlier, there was Bundle System in which bundles of cut pieces (bundle of 5, 10, 20 or 30 pieces) are moved manually to feed the line. Then inside the line an operator himself drag the bundle from side table and transfer the bundle to the next operator after completion of the work.  Now, Single Piece Flow system has been adopted to reduce the WIP. In this system, a set of cut pieces for a single garment is loaded in a tray which is moved forward through centre table and operations are carried out accordingly. Bundle System (without Tray) Single Piece Flow (with Tray) 9
  10. 10. Bundle System Vs. Single Piece Flow System Parameter Bundle System Single Piece Flow System 10 Transportation -Pieces move in bundles -Operators stop their work to fetch bundles. -Less effective in terms of production management. Resulted long response time In this system trays are used to carry pieces to each work stations. -Easier pick up and dispose at each work station. Resulted quick response time Through put time Through put time is longer in Bundle. How much long will depend on the bundle size and no. of bundles kept in between two operators. -Through put time in single piece flow system is less compare to Bundle system. Through put time -As a result of High Work In Process (WIP) is required by sewing section, cutting sections are required to perform 60-70% more than actual production can handle. -Lower WIP results in less cutting works. A balanced flow of material established in between cutting and sewing line Inventory level -Due high WIP and higher cutting, fabrics and trims need to stock in advance -Less Inventory for fabric and trims is required.
  11. 11. 11 Traffic Rule System  Traffic rule system is a system of flagging traffic rule sheets on every machine for monitoring the quality of work every 2 hours.  Supervisors monitor the operators for defective work and accordingly color the circles on the sheet.  Zero Defect – Green  One Defect – Yellow  Two or more defects – Red Before After
  12. 12. 12 Andon System Flags are being installed on all the machines for flagging in different situations so that the supervisor and other concerned people come to know about the problem from far away only. Red Flag: • There is some problem in the machine. • A call for the mechanic Blue Flag: • There is a quality issue. • The problem is attended by the supervisor till the quality is perfect. Yellow Flag: • Signifies absenteeism or operator is away from the machine. • A signal for the supervisor to do the required. Green Flag: • The work is in progress without any problem.
  13. 13. 13 Siren in Lines  Siren has been installed in each line so that mechanic can be called easily in case of machine problems.  It has been easy for operators, now they need not leave their seat to inform to the mechanics or supervisors and thus it is time saving. Lean Awareness  Steps have been taken to spread the awareness among employees and workers.  Motivational Posters have been put on sewing floor in local language.
  14. 14. 14 Reports: 1. Hourly production report: Every hour the production writer notes the production of each line and compiles the report of production against the planned target. The production is displayed on the floor on the production boars for each line so that operators and supervisors get to know the actual production and the planned target. The board will motivate the operators to work more to achieve the target. 2. Weekly progress report: Weekly progress graphs displaying the efficiency progress of each line are displayed on the boards by the I.E.D for supervisors and operators to see their progress. Green smiley is given to the line which is working on and near 60% efficiency which signifies Better Performance and Red smiley is given to the line having low efficiency signifying poor performance. 3. Quality Report: Hourly quality reports are compiled by the quality checker at the end line checking. The operation having maximum reworks is analyzed by the quality controllers on the floor and necessary measures are taken. The reports are made using control charts using which the defects are easily identifiable. 4. Hourly Maintenance report: the report for hourly maintenance is compiled by the mechanics which contains the time taken in repair, the type of problem, number of problems etc. the report helps in the further maintenance works. The machine facing maximum problems is given extra attention and immidiate actions are taken. 5. Non-Production Time Report: the report is compiled by the production writer for a day. It consists of the detail of all the time when the production was stopped or hampered on any machine along with the reasons and accurate time. It consists the maintenance time, rework time, empty workstation time, idle time, etc. the report is used to calculate the loss for everyday incurred due to non- production. The reports are then further analyzed for checking the main reason for the loss and more attention is given to that area. 6. Roll Throughput Yield (RTY): RTY for each day is calculated by input and output. Roll throughput yield is calculated by the cutting issued against the output received. This percentage gives the exact picture of the production quality of the line. The RTY is displayed everyday on the board. Higher is the RTY, better is the quality and lesser is the wastage as well as defects.
  15. 15. 7. DHU% Report: DHU= Defects per hundred garments. The percentage of defects per 100 pieces is calculated by the quality controllers on the floor to check the quality of the garments. The reports are displayed on the boards for supervisors and operators to see their quality. 15
  16. 16. BIBLIOGRAPHY  Project Reference: Increasing Efficiency in a Sewing Line Using Lean Tools. (Apparel Internship Report by Ravi Aditya, 2010-2014)  http://www.texportsyndicate.com/  http://www.inderscience.com/storage/f481151026917312.pdf  http://www.i-scholar.in/index.php/Imrj/article/view/51018 16

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