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Profiles saltex revised


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To reduce intake of Common Salt in foods

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Profiles saltex revised

  1. 1. SALTEX COMMONSALT REPLACEMENT ABOUT COMMON SALTBlood pressure (BP) is the pressure exerted by circulatingblood upon the walls of bloodvessels, and is one of the principal vital signs. During each heartbeat, BP variesbetween a maximum (systolic) and a minimum (diastolic) pressure. The mean BP, dueto pumping by the heart and resistance to flow in blood vessels, decreases as thecirculating blood moves away from the heart through arteries. Blood pressure dropsmost rapidly along the small arteries and arterioles, and continues to decrease as theblood moves through the capillaries and back to the heart through veins. Gravity, valvesin veins, and pumping from contraction of skeletal muscles, are some other influenceson BP at various places in the body.The term blood pressure usually refers to the pressure measured at a persons upperarm. It is measured on the inside of an elbow at the brachial artery, which is the upperarms major blood vessel that carries blood away from the heart. A persons BP isusually expressed in terms of the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure (mmHg), forexample 120/80.Hypertension has emerged as a major public health problem in India and manydeveloping countries. There is sufficient clinical and epidemiological evidence that
  2. 2. hypertension is increasing in India. It has been reported that hypertension prevalence inIndia quadrupled in urban as well as rural populations over a 50-year period from early1950s to late 1990s. The prevalence of hypertension (blood pressure 160/ 95 mmHg)in urban populations increased from 2–4% in mid-1950s to 10–15% at the end of 20thcentury. In rural populations, the prevalence increased from 1–2% to 4–8%. The GlobalBurden of Diseases study has reported that by the year 2025, cardiovascular diseaseswould be the major cause of death all over the world including the developing countries.In India, cardiovascular diseases would result in a loss of 18.4 million disability adjustedlife years (DALYs), which is comparable to established market economies (19.4), formersocialist economies (26.1), China (16.3), other Asian countries (15.6), Latin America(13.2), and the middle eastern crescent (17.7). High blood pressure (BP) is directlyrelated to about 40% of this cardiovascular disease burden.Increasing hypertension in India and other developing countries has been related tosedentary lifestyle, excess dietary salt, calorie and alcohol intake, increasing generalizedand central obesity, and stress of migration and urbanization.Ahlawat et al reported trends in hypertension in an urban north Indian population over a30-year period. Prevalence of hypertension in 1968 was 19.9% in men and 24.8% inwomen and increased to 43.7% in men and 45.8% in women in 1997. Changes in meanBP levels were not reported. In Delhi, mean systolic BP increased in men aged 40–49years from 123.4 11 mmHg in 1959 to 128.8 17 mmHg in 1995. This was associatedwith increase in the prevalence of hypertension from 6.3 to 26.4%. Ezzati et al havereported results of global disease burden in the year 2000 (GBD-2000). In the GBD-2000 study, hypertension has been projected as the most important risk factoraccounting for 7.14 million deaths of a total of 55.8 million (12.8%) worldwide. This ismore than deaths caused by underweight (3.75 million), high cholesterol (4.42 million),tobacco (4.91 million), unsafe sex (2.89 million) and other risk factors.
  3. 3. Salt is a mineral that is composed primarily of sodium chloride. It is essential for animallife in small quantities, but is harmful to animals and plants in excess. Salt flavor is oneof the basic tastes, making salt one of the oldest, most ubiquitous food seasonings.Salting is an important method of food preservation.Salt for human consumption is produced in different forms: unrefined salt (such as seasalt), refined salt (table salt), and iodized salt. It is a crystalline solid, white, pale pink orlight gray in color, normally obtained from sea water or rock deposits. Edible rock saltsmay be slightly grayish in color because of mineral content.SynonymsCommon salt, halite, table salt, rock salt, saline, hyposaline, sodium monochloride, sodium chloric, saltexCAS number 7647-14-5 YesYPubChem 5234ChemSpider 5044RTECS number VZ4725000PropertiesMolecular formula NaClMolar mass 58.443 g/molAppearance Colorless/white crystalline solidOdor OdorlessDensity 2.165 g/cm3Melting point 801 °C, 1074 K, 1474 °FBoiling point 1413 °C, 1686 K, 2575 °FSolubility in water 356 g/L (0 °C) 359 g/L (25 °C) 391 g/L (100 °C)Solubility soluble in glycerol, ethylene glycol, formic acid insoluble in HClSolubility in methanol 14.9 g/LSolubility in ammonia 21.5 g/LAcidity (pKa) 6.7–7.3Refractive index (nD) 1.5442 (589 nm)StructureCrystal structure Face-centered cubicSpace group Fm3m, No. 225Lattice constant ` a = 564.02 pmCoordination Octahedral (Na+)Geometry Octahedral (Cl–)Flash point Non-flammableLD50 3000–8000 mg/kg (oral in rats, mice, rabbits)
  4. 4. ROLE OF SODIUM CHLORIDESODIUMSodium is one of the primary electrolytes in the body.Sodium is present as a constituent of various inorganic salts found in intestinal juices.It is also present as sodium chloride in the bodys red blood cells.Sodium content of the body is about 1.4 g/Kg.There are estimated to be approximately 120 grams of sodium in the adult human body.About 33% of total body sodium is found in the skeletal structureIt is an essential nutrient, and we need a certain amount for normal body function.It plays an important role in the absorption of other nutrients, such as glucose, aminoacids, and water.CHLORIDEChloride helps keep the amount of fluid inside and outside of cells in balance.It also helps maintain proper blood volume, blood pressure, and pH of body fluids.Chloride is a component of hydrochloric acid, an important part of gastric juice (an acidicliquid secreted by glands in the stomach lining) and aids in food digestion. It is alsoneeded to stimulate starch-digesting enzymesBlood serum contains 100 to 110 mmol/L of chloride ions.Chloride is the major extracellular anion and contributes to many body functionsincluding the maintenance of osmotic pressure, acid-base balance, muscular activity,and the movement of water between fluid compartments.It is associated with sodium in the blood and was the first electrolyte to be routinelymeasured in the blood. The amount of chloride decreases when the amount of sodium inthe blood decreases, and vice versa. The level of chloride in the blood is also related tothe level of bicarbonate. When the amount of bicarbonate decreases, the amount ofchloride normally increases, and vice versa.Chloride ions are secreted in the gastric juice as hydrochloric acid, which is essential forthe digestion of food.SODIUM CHLORIDE
  5. 5. Chloride and sodium ions, the two major components of salt, are needed by all knownliving creatures in small quantities.Salt is involved in regulating the water content (fluid balance) of the body. Potassiumand sodium act as cofactors for certain enzymes.Sodium rich foods:Cheese, bacon, ham, sausages, tinned meat egg.corned beef, meat + fish pastesalted butter & margarine, tinned vegetables, tinned & packet soups salted nuts & crisps,salty biscuits etc.Other sources of sodium:Effervescent pain-killers - may contain up to 20mmol sodium per tablet.Antacids and some other medicinesMore recently, it was demonstrated to attenuate nitric oxide production. Nitric oxide (NO)contributes to vessel homeostasis by inhibiting vascular smooth muscle contraction andgrowth, platelet aggregation, and leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium.The use of sodium salt, has long been suspected as a cause of health problems,particularly hypertension. Although a cause-effect relationship between excessivesodium ingestion and hypertension has apparently not been established, it is known thata reduction of sodium intake alone will accomplish a reduction in the hypertensive state.Too much or too little salt in the diet can lead to muscle cramps,dizziness, or electrolytedisturbance, which can cause neurological problems, or death. Drinking too much water,with insufficient salt intake, puts a person at risk of water intoxication (hyponatremia).Salt is sometimes used as a health aid, such as in treatment of dysautonomia.Excess salt consumption is linked with a number of conditions including: • Duodenal ulcers and gastric ulcers • Edema (oedema) • Gastric cancer (stomach cancer) • Heartburn. • Hyper natremia. • Hypertension (high blood pressure) • Left ventricular hypertrophy (cardiac enlargement): • Osteoporosis • Renal disease. • Stroke and cardiovascular disease.
  6. 6. With growing consumer awareness and a more active presence by the FDA in thelabelling requirements for the use of sodium salts, private industry is now concerned withthe amount of sodium chloride they are adding to their food products. Presently manyfood product manufacturers are adding sodium chloride directly to their food system. Inaddition, a large percentage of the purchased ingredients used in formulating foodproducts also contains sodium chloride. In some instances, the sodium chloride contentcan be as high as 50% by weight on a dry solids basis of the food ingredient.(Hereinafter all references to weight, percent by weight or parts by weight will be on adry solids basis unless otherwise indicated.)To some degree the problem of high sodium levels in foods can be reduced by simplylowering the level of sodium chloride added to the food product formulations. Butunfortunately the level of sodium chloride in most cases cannot be lowered due topreservation requirements and the necessity of from 0.5% to 2.5% by weight of sodiumchloride in the food product for flavor requirements.The steady-state concentrations of sodium and chloride in mammalian skeletal muscleare 12 mmol perlitre and 3.8 mmol per litre in the intracellular fluid respectively and 145mmol per litre and 120 mmol per litre in the extra cellular fluid respectively. In nerves,depolarisation is a manifestation of Na+ influx. Serum sodium levels are well maintainedat approximately 140 mmol per litre even in studies involvinghigh or low salt diets andelderly subjectsUnder normal conditions, gastrointestinal and respiratory excretion of sodium isnegligible and sodium is excreted primarily by the kidneys. Chloride excretion is bypassive diffusion, but it also leaves the tubular lumen by active transport.High sodium chloride intakes increase calcium excretion and may increase the risk ofkidney stoneformation. However, there is no substantial evidence to suggest arelationship between excess sodiumchloride intake and reduced bone mineral density.A safe intake is considered to be between 0.9 and 2.3 grams of sodium per day,although in special circumstances, such as excessive sweating and diarrhoea, higherlevels may be needed."Normal" salt diet ... ... 1100 - 3300 mg/day"High" salt diet ... ... 4000 - 6000 mg/day"Low" salt diet ... ... 400 - 1000 mg/day
  7. 7. ABSORPTION OF SODIUMSodium absorption is rapid. It starts in 3-4 minutes after intake and completed well within3 hours.Sodium is absorbed passively from the lumen of the entire length of the intestine. Ionicsodium can also be absorbed actively from the lumen of the small intestine and colon.Once in the intestinal epithelium it is actively transported to the interstitial fluid.Chloride is also absorbed passively, but with decreasing efficiency along the length ofthe intestine and is not absorbed at all in the colonThe sodium concentration outside of the bodys cells is balanced by the concentration ofpotassium within the cell.CITATION:The major regulator of blood pressure homeostasis is the renin-angiotensis system.Angiotensinogen is digested by renin to produce angiotensin I (AGT I). AGT I is aninactive 10 amino-acid peptide that is further degraded to produce angiotensin II by theagiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE). Angiotensis II is the master regulator of bloodpressure increase acting on the heart, kidneys and blood vessels. Angiotensin II causesdirect constriction of the resistance vessels and stimulation of the adrenal cortex toincrease blood volume and sodium absorption. In 2000, Tipnis et al., discovered ACE 2a second carboxypeptidase that digests angiotensin. ACE is a di-peptidase, cleaving off2 peptides from the c-terminal end of angiotensin. ACE 2 only cleaves 1 amino acid to
  8. 8. produce angiotensin 1-9 (AGT 1-9) which has no identified function at this time. AGT 1-9is not converted to angiotensin II but further degraded by ACE to AGT 1-7, a vasodilator.It would appear that ACE 2 inhibits the formation of angiotensin and reduces bloodpressure increases. Crackower et al determined that ace2 -/- mice suffered significantheart defects at 6 months. Further deletion of ACE resulted in restored cardiac functions.(Kosi Gramatikoff, Ph.D; is absorbed readily in the intestine. Excretion is primarily via urine and isregulated by the hormone aldosterone. Aldosterone is released in response to the liver-produced enzymes angiotensin 1 and 2. These enzymes are in turn secreted uponstimulation of the liver by the enzyme renin, which is produced by the renal cortex upona decrease in sodium levels within the body. Aldosterone promotes the action of the"sodium pump" in actively pumping sodium from excretory fluids back into thebloodstream.SECRETINIt is produced by cells of the duodenum. It stimulates the pancreas to produce sodiumbicarbonate, which neutralizes the acidic chime. It also stimulates the liver to secrete thebile.Sodium bicarbonate acts within the blood to buffer high acid concentrations. Sodium isan important constituent of other buffering compounds, which act to maintain theacid/base balance of the blood plasma and body fluids. In the kidney, sodium from theurine is exchanged for acidic hydrogen ions formed by the epithelial cells. The sodiumbinds with bicarbonate ions and hence restores the buffering bicarbonate ion to theblood.
  9. 9. BILE SALTS:Bile salts depending on pH concentration and type, induce a luminally directedmovement of sodium and water. Failure to absorb sodium due to bile salts has beenattributed to secretion mediated by cyclic AMP. An alternate explanation for net fluxmovement of sodium into the colon has been direct mucosal damage by detergentaction of bile. Flux movement of sodium into the colon due to cell damage has beenlabeled a permeability effect and is associated with measurable losses of DNA frommucosal cells. PROBABLE SAFE ALTERNATE CANDIDATES AMMONIUM CHLORIDECAS number 12125-02-9ChemSpider 23807EC number 235-186-4RTECS number BP4550000PropertiesMolecular formula NH4ClMolar mass 53.491 g/molAppearance White solid hygroscopicOdor odorlessDensity 1.5274 g/cm3
  10. 10. Melting point 338 °C (decomposes)Solubility in water 29.7 g/100 mL (0 °C) 37.2 g/100 mL (20 °C) 77.3 g/100 mL (100 °C)Solubility in alcohol 0.6 g/100 mL (19 °C)Acidity (pKa) 9.245Refractive index (nD) 1.642ThermochemistryStd enthalpy of formation ΔfHo298 −314.55 kJ/moStandard molar entropy So298 94.85 J K−1 mol−1Flash point Non-flammableLD50 1650 mg/kg, oral (rat)In several countries ammonium chloride is known as sal ammoniac and used as foodadditive. The E number for ammonium chloride used as a food additive is E510.Sal ammoniac is used to spice up dark sweets called salty liquorice and in the flavouringSalmiakki Koskenkorva for vodkas.Sal ammoniac is also used in baking to give cookies a very crisp texture.CITATION:It has been demonstrated by a number of investigators that temporary pharmacological denervationof the autonomic nervous system may be produced through the use of the tetraethyl ammoniumion by means of its action at the autonomic ganglia (1 to 5). In the course of experimentsutilizing the tetraethyl ammonium ion in the study of neurogenic mechanisms in essentialhypertension, variation in blood pressure response to this drug both in a given individual and indifferent individuals suggested the necessity of determining whether increasing tolerance maydevelop during the test period and whether the basic tone (due to humoral and other intrinsicfactors) of the denervated arterial vascular tree is constant or varying. The results of numerousserial intravenous injections of tetraethyl ammonium chloride in 6 hypertensive patients are presentedas a preliminary answer to these questions.After entering the laboratory, these patients rested 30 minutes or more in the horizontal positionbefore 5 baseline blood pressure readings were made at minute intervals. Four cubic centimeters (400mgm.) of tetraethyl ammonium -chloride 2 were then injected into an arm vein and blood pressurereadings made at 30-second intervals for 5 minutes and thereafter at minute intervals for an additional5 minutes. The mean of the pressure readings made before the injection was taken as the baseline,the lowest systolic-diastolic reading made after the injection was taken as the endpoint (tetraethylammonium chloride floor). This procedure was repeated serially with each patient at intervals ofapproximately 24 hours for 7 to 15 days.Three hospital patients and 3 ambulatory patients were studied. Two of the patients were in-No tendency to develop a resistance to the depressor action of the drug was noted in any of thepatients during the period of testing. There was, however, considerable day to day variation in boththe magnitude of the depressor response and of the blood pressure "floor" reached. The minimumvariation of the depressor response (80/44 to 45/
  11. 11. Light vertical lines connect control systolic and diastolic blood pressures. Heavy vertical lines connectsystolic and diastolic pressures at height of TEAC effect (TEAC floor). The 2 horizontal broken linesrepresent the mean systolic and diastolic endpoints (TEAC floor) of all determinations. Note the day to dayvariation in the TEAC floor and the lack of any evidence of increasing tolerance to the drug.30 mm. Hg) occurred in patient E. H. (Figure 2), the maximum (82/71 to 18/1 mm. Hg) in patient
  12. 12. V. F. (Figure 2). The fluctuations in the blood pressure floor varied from 170/114 to 144/96 mm.Hg in patient F. I. (Figure 3) to 176/135 to 114/ 84 mm. Hg in patient V. F. (Figure 2). No correlationcould be demonstrated between variations in the initial height of blood pressure and the floorlevels reached after tetraethyl ammonium chloride.SUMMARYSerial intravenous injections of tetraethyl ammonium chloride in 6 hypertensive patients revealedin all cases considerable daily fluctuation in both the magnitude of depressor response and theblood pressure floor. There was no evidence of the development of increasing tolerance to the depressoreffect of the drug on repeated administration.For this reason, the data suggest that fluctuating humoral and neurogenic mechanisms interactas factors in clinical hypertension.BIBLIOGRAPHY1. Acheson, G. H., and Pereira, S., The blocking effect of tetraethyl ammonium ion on the superior cervicalganglion of the cat. J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap., 1946, 87, 273.2. Lyons, R. H., Moe, G. K., Campbell, K. N., Hoobler, S. W., Neligh, R. B., Berry, R. L., and Rennich, B.,The effects of blockade of the autonomic ganglia in man. Preliminary observations on the use oftetraethyl ammonium bromide. Univ. Hosp. Bull., Ann Arbor, 1946, 12, 33.3. Lyons, R. H., Moe, G. K., Neligh, R. B., Hoobler, S. W., Campbell, K. N., Berry, R. L., and Rennich,B. R., The effects of blockade of the autonomic ganglia in man with tetraethyl ammonium.Preliminary observations on its clinical application. Amer. J. M. Sc., 1947, 213, 315.4. Acheson, G. H., and Moe, G. K., Some effects of tetraethyl ammonium on the mammalian heart. J.Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap., 1945, 84, 189.5. Acheson, G. H., and Moe, G. K., The action of tetraethyl ammonium ion on the mammalian circulation.J. Pharmacol. & Exper. Therap., 1946, 87, 220. BILE ACIDSLD 50 Values:CHOLIC ACID Rabbit i.v. 50 mg/Kg Body weight (Na salt) Gillert, 1926DESOXYCHOLIC ACID Rabbit i.v. 15 mg/Kg body weight (Na salt) Gillert, 1926CITATION:Effects of the synthetic bile acids on blood pressure were examined in spontaneouslyhypertensive rats. Continuous intravenous administration of the bile acids at the rate of 1mg/min for 20 min significantly lowered the blood pressure by 12 mmHg. In order toexamine its blood pressure lowering mechanism, the isolated mesenteric arterialperfusion system was employed. Bile acids in the perfusate inhibited vascular reactivityto norepinephrine and KCl in a dose-dependent manner. This inhibitory action
  13. 13. diminished as the concentration of potassium in the perfusate decreased. When theperfusate was free from potassium, its inhibitory action completely disappeared. Theseresults in vivo and in vitro studies strongly suggest that bile acids act directly on thevascular beds and attenuate vascular response to norepinephrine.(Takehiko Tominaga, Hiromichi Suzuki, Yasuhide Ogata, Toshio Imafuku and TakaoSaruta; Bile acids are able to reduce blood pressure by attenuating the vascularreactivity in spontaneously hypertensive rats; Life Sciences; Volume 42, Issue 19, 1988,Pages 1861-1868) CALCIUM CHLORIDESynonyms:Calcium(II) chloride,Calcium dichloride,CAS number 10043-52-4, 22691-02-7 (monohydrate), 10035-04-8 (dihydrate) 25094-02-4 (tetrahydrate) 7774-34-7 (hexahydrate)PubChem 24854EC number 233-140-8RTECS number EV9800000Molecular formula CaCl2Molar mass 110.98 g/mol (anhydrous), 128.999 g/mol (monohydrate) 147.014 g/mol (dihydrate), 183.045 g/mol (tetrahydrate) 219.08 g/mol (hexahydrate)Appearance white solidDensity 2.15 g/cm3 (anhydrous), 1.835 g/cm3 (dihydrate) 1.83 g/cm3 (tetrahydrate, 1.71 g/cm3 (hexahydrate)
  14. 14. Melting point 772 °C (anhydrous), 260 °C (monohydrate) 176 °C (dihydrate) 45.5 °C (tetrahydrate) 30 °C (hexahydrate)Boiling point 1935 °C (anhydrous)Solubility in water 74.5 g/100mL (20 °C) 59.5 g/100 mL (0 °C)Solubility in alcohol solubleAcidity (pKa) 8-9 (anhydrous) 6.5-8.0 (hexahydrate)Structure Crystal structure Orthorhombic (deformed rutile) octahedral, 6- coordinateEU Index 017-013-00-2LD50 1000mg/KgCalcium chloride in water dissociates to provide calcium (Ca++) and chloride (Cl-) ions.Both are normal constituents of the body fluids and are dependent on variousphysiological mechanisms for maintenance of balance between intake and output.It is generally prescribed in the cases of low blood plasma calcium levels, for thetreatment of magnesium intoxification, due to overdosage of magnesium sulfate, and tocombat the deleterious effects of too much potassium in the body.It is used in cardiac resuscitation when weak or inadequate contractions return followingdefibrillation or when epinephrine injection has failed to strengthen myocardial (heart)contractions.Calcium is present in small quantities in the extracellular fluid and to a minor extent inthe structure of cytoplasm of cells of soft tissue. To fulfill its vital function, ionized calciummust be available to the appropriate tissues in the proper concentrations. An endocrinecontrol system ordinarily keeps the plasma concentrations of ionized calcium withinnarrow limits. Intracellular concentrations of ionized calcium are also strictly regulated bycontrol of the exchange of ions between the cell and its environment and betweenintracellular compartments. The principal endocrine factors that control calciummetabolism are parathyroid hormone, calcitonin and vitamin D. Derangements incalcium metabolism may occasionally require the rapid restoration of calciumconcentrations in body fluids by the infusion of i.v. calcium salts.High calcium levels, on the other hand, constrict the heart arteries and increase the riskof heart attacks. Calcium deposits in the walls of the arteries contribute to thedevelopment of arteriosclerosis. The arteries become hard and rigid, thereby restrictingthe blood flow and causing high blood pressure. In addition, such inelastic blood vesselsmay easily rupture and cause strokes. Countries with the highest calcium to magnesiumratios (high calcium and low magnesium levels) in soil and water have the highestincidence of cardiovascular disease. At the top of the list is Australia.Contra-Indications:Cardiac resuscitation in the presence of ventricular fibrillation; digitalized patients;hypercalcemia and hypercalciuria (e.g., in hyperparathyroidism, vitamin D overdosage,decalcifying tumors such as plasmocytoma, bone metastases); severe renal disease;calcium loss due to immobilization. tag_WarningWarnings COLCHICINE
  15. 15. LD 50 Values:IPR-RAT LD50 6.1 mg kg-1. IVN-MUS LD50 1.6 mg kg-1. SCU-MUS LD50 1.2 mg kg-1.Colchicine tends to impair sodium absorption. Hempedu Bumi or Bile of EarthThis seasonal herbaceous plant can grow until 70-90 cm heights..Hempedu Bumi leaf can used as the remedy to lower the high blood pressurepressure, besides to cure diabetes, antiinflammation, antibacterial, antivirus, relievefever and as the phlegm liquefier. It is also used to improve defecation, destroy theworms in digestive system and fasten the blood clotting.Hempedu Bumi is more popular in treating high blood pressure and fever. It possessesliver protective and bile promoting properties. The active constituents, theandrographolides act as strong antioxidants, protecting the liver and digestive system.Laboratory and clinical trials have demonstrated its effectiveness in cases of toxic liverdamage, poor liver function and hepatitis. MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE
  16. 16. Synonyms:Magnesium dichlorideCAS number 7786-30-3, 7791-18-6 (hexahydrate)PubChem 24584RTECS number OM2975000Molecular formula MgCl2Molar mass 95.211 g/mol (anhydrous), 203.31 g/mol (hexahydrate) Appearance white or colourless crystalline solidDensity 2.32 g/cm3 (anhydrous), 1.569 g/cm3 (hexahydrate)Melting point 714 °C (987 K) (on rapid heating: slow heating leads to decomposition from 300 °C)Boiling point 1412 °C (1685 K)Solubility in water anhydrous 54.3 g/100 ml (20 °C) 72.6 g/100 mL (100 °C) Hexahydrate 157 g/100 mL (20 °C)Solubility in ethanol 7.4 g/100 mL (30 °C)Refractive index (nD) 1.675 (anhydrous) 1.569 (hexahydrate)Structure Crystal structure CdCl2Coordination geometry (octahedral, 6-coordinate)Flash point Non-flammableMagnesium chloride is easily assimilated and metabolized in the human body.Research suggests a preventive role for magnesium in hypertension and cardiovasculardisease, as well as a beneficial effect in the treatment of diabetes, osteoporosis, andmigraine headaches.For purposes of cellular detoxification and tissue purification, the most effective form ofmagnesium is magnesium chloride, which has a strong excretory effect on toxins andstagnant energies stuck in the tissues of the body, drawing them out through the poresof the skin.Concentration of Magnesium in the body is 250 mg/Kg. Daily requirement is 300-400mg. Normal daily diet contains about 300-500 mg.The first prominent researcher to investigate and promote the antibiotic effects ofmagnesium was a French surgeon, Prof. Pierre Delbet. In 1915 he was looking for asafe solution to cleanse wounds of soldiers, because he had found that traditionally usedantiseptics actually damaged tissues and encouraged infections instead of preventingthem. In all of his tests, magnesium chloride solution proved by far the best answer. Not
  17. 17. only was it harmless for tissues, but it also greatly increased leucocyte activity andphagocytosis (the destruction of microbes).After World War I, Prof. Delbet performed experiments with internal applications ofmagnesium chloride, and found it to be a powerful immune stimulant. In his experiments,phagocytosis increased by up to 333%. This means that, after magnesium chlorideintake, the same number of white blood cells destroyed up to three times more microbesthan beforehand.Over the years, Prof. Delbet found magnesium chloride to be beneficial in a wide rangeof diseases. These included diseases of the digestive tract such as colitis and gallbladder problems, Parkinsons disease, tremors and muscle cramps; acne, eczema,psoriasis, warts and itching skin; impotence, prostatic hypertrophy, cerebral andcirculatory problems; asthma, hay fever, urticaria and anaphylactic reactions. Hair andnails became stronger and healthier, and patients also had more energy.Prof. Delbet also found an excellent preventative effect on cancer, and he curedprecancerous conditions such as leukoplasia, hyperkeratosis and chronic mastitis.(Epidemiological studies have since confirmed that regions with magnesium-rich soilhave a lower cancer rate than those deficient in magnesium.)Another French doctor, A. Neveu, cured several diphtheria patients with magnesiumchloride in just two days. He also published 15 cases of poliomyelitis that were curedwithin days if treatment was started immediately, or within months if paralysis hadalready progressed. Neveu also found magnesium chloride effective with asthma,bronchitis, pneumonia and emphysema; pharyngitis, tonsillitis, hoarseness, commoncold, influenza, whooping cough, measles, rubella, mumps, scarlet fever; poisoning,gastroenteritis, boils, abscesses, infected wounds and osteomyelitis.In more recent years Dr Raul Vergini and others have confirmed these earlier resultsand have added more diseases to the list of successful uses: acute asthma attacks,shock, tetanus, herpes zoster, acute and chronic conjunctivitis, optic neuritis, rheumaticdiseases, many allergic diseases, chronic fatigue syndrome and cancer. In all of thesecases magnesium chloride gave much better results than other magnesium compounds.Adequate levels of magnesium are essential for the heart muscle. Those who die fromheart attacks have very low magnesium, but high calcium levels in their heart muscles.Patients with coronary heart disease who have been treated with large amounts ofmagnesium survived better than those with drug treatment. Magnesium dilates thearteries of the heart and lowers cholesterol and fat levels.Worldwide the intake of magnesium has been lowered and that of calcium increasedbecause of the heavy use of fertilisers high in calcium and low in magnesium. With this,the intake of magnesium from our food has steadily decreased in the last fifty years,while the use of calcium-rich fertilisers and cardiovascular disease have greatlyincreased at the same time.Diabetics are prone to atherosclerosis, fatty degeneration of the liver and heart disease.Diabetics have low magnesium tissue levels. They often develop eye problems such asretinopathy. Diabetics with the lowest magnesium levels had the most severeretinopathy. The lower the magnesium content of their water, the higher is the death rate
  18. 18. of diabetics from cardiovascular disease. In an American study the death rate due todiabetes was four times higher in areas with low magnesium water levels.Magnesium chloride contains about 120 mg of magnesium per gram or 600 mg perrounded teaspoon. It has a mild laxative effect. As a good maintenance intake to remainhealthy you may take a teaspoon daily in divided doses with meals. With raised bloodpressure and symptoms of magnesium deficiency you may temporarily increase this to 2teaspoons daily in divided doses. This may already cause `loose stools in some but thatis generally beneficial.Individuals with very sensitive taste buds may start using it in tiny amounts mixed withstrongly flavoured food and increase doses very gradually. Alternatively, drink it in onegulp dissolved in water while pinching your nose and quickly drink something pleasantafterwards.With acute infections dissolve 40g or 8 slightly rounded teaspoons in 1 litre ofwater.With children commonly a small glassful or 125 mL has been used every 6 hours. Adultsmay double this dose by drinking this amount every 3 hours or even more until diarrhoeadevelops and then cut back to a maintenance intake just below the level of diarrhoeauntil the infection has cleared.For daily use it may be more convenient as well to dissolve the magnesium chloride inwater. (What some call "Magnesium Oil" is simply magnesium chloride dissolved inwater.) You may dissolve half of a lightly rounded teaspoon of the crystals in a mediumsize glass of water or, more accurately, 2.5g in 150 mL of water. Mix one teaspoon ofthis solution three times daily with food or drink for a daily intake of about 600mg ofmagnesium. This or a more concentrated solution may also be used as a pack overtumours and infected, inflamed, painful, stiff or calcified joints, muscles, adhesions orscar tissue. It is also excellent as a back rub and to relax tense muscles anywhere andeven to rejuvenate aging skin. For sensitive skin use it in a very diluted form. On woundsit was commonly used in a 4% solution that is 4g or a level teaspoon in 100 mL or asmall glass of water. MAGNESIUM SULPHATESynonyms:Epsom salt, Bitter saltsCAS number 7487-88-9, 14168-73-1 (monohydrate) 24378-31-2 (tetrahydrate), 15553-21-6 (pentahydrate) 13778-97-7 (hexahydrate), 10034-99-8 (heptahydrate)PubChem 24083ChemSpider 22515RTECS number OM4500000Molecular formula MgSO4Molar mass 120.366 g/mol (anhydrous), 246.47 g/mol (heptahydrate)Appearance white crystalline solid
  19. 19. Density 2.66 g/cm3 (anhydrous), 2.445 g/cm3 (monohydrate) 1.68 g/cm3 (heptahydrate)Melting point 1124 °C (anhydrous, decomp), 200 °C (monohydrate, decomp) 150 °C (heptahydrate, decomp)Solubility in water anhydrous 269 g/L (0 °C) 255 g/L (20 °C) Heptahydrate 710 g/L (20 °C)Solubility 0.116 g/L (18 °C, ether)slightly soluble in alcohol, glycerolinsoluble in acetoneRefractive index (nD) 1.523 (monohydrate), 1.433 (heptahydrate)Structure Crystal structure monoclinic (hydrate)LD50 1200 mg/KgEpsom salts is rapidly excreted through the kidneys and therefore difficult to assimilate.Magnesium sulphate may cause a reduction in blood pressure when taken together withcalcium channel blockers such as nifedipine. There may be an increase in the effects ofneuromuscular blocking agents when given together with magnesium sulphate. Whenmagnesium sulphate is given together with the following medicines there may be a riskof respiratory depression: high dose barbiturates, opioids, sleeping medicines,aminoglycoside antibiotics.Magnesium sulphate should be administered with caution to patients receiving digoxin.Some muscle relaxants may have their effect increased when used at the same time asmagnesium. POTASSIUM CHLORIDESynonyms:Muriate of potashCAS number 7447-40-7PubChem 4873ChemSpider 4707RTECS number TS8050000Molecular formula KClMolar mass 74.551 g/molAppearance white crystalline solidOdor odorlessDensity 1.984 g/cm3Melting point 770 °C
  20. 20. Boiling point 1420 °C (sublimes)Solubility in water 281 g/L (0 °C), 344 g/L (20 °C), 567 g/L (100 °C)Solubility soluble in ether, glycerol, alkaliesslightly soluble in alcoholAcidity (pKa) ~7Refractive index (nD) 1.33743Structure Crystal structure face centered cubicICSC 1450NFPA 704Flash point Non-flammableLD50 2600 mg/kg (oral/rat), 142 mg/kg (intravenous/rat)Potassium is always found in association with protein and therefore all the protein-richfoods, especially milk, contribute significantly to the daily intake of potassiumOther rich sources of potassium are: Potatoes - especially baked, chips & crisps (boilingleaches out a lot of potassium); bananas, grapes, rhubarb, fresh grapefruit, freshpineapple, Kiwi fruit,dried fruit eg currants, sultanas, dates, pure fruit juice includingapple juice (even though fresh apples are low in potassium) tomatoes, butter beans,sweetcorn, mushrooms, beetroot, sprouts, leeks chocolate (plain contains less than milk)liquorice, fruit gums, coffee.Potassium contains a percentage of the radioactive isotope K-40. Thus potassium andits compounds are radioactive. The human body contains a significant amount of K-40and with the proper instruments, is easily detected from the radiation it emits.Interestingly enough, vegetarians are significantly hotter than meat-eaters becauseveggie oriented diets contain more potassium than a meat oriented diet.Concentration of Potassium in the body is 2 g/Kg. At a concentration of 140 mmol/l, it isthe most common cation in the intracellular fluid.. Potassium is localized mostly withinthe cells. Daily intake of Potassium is estimated to be 2-5.9 g/ day in normal diet.To effect a reduction in sodium chloride or the sodium ion, many food processors haveemployed potassium chloride as a sodium chloride substitute. However, potassiumchloride is easily discernable from sodium chloride, or table salt, by most humans. Insome societies the flavor of potassium chloride is readily accepted, but in the UnitedStates, Europe, and Asia the flavor is unacceptable. Although potassium chloride isperceived as being salty, the potassium ion imparts an "off" flavor most often describedas bitter. The reason for bitterness perception with potassium salt and not with sodiumsalt is not generally understood, but the perceptor sites located on the tongue wheresaltiness is perceived can readily distinguish potassium from sodium and this differenceis physiologically perceived as a difference in bitterness intensity. Because of thedifference in flavor between potassium chloride and sodium chloride, it is necessary toemploy additives in sodium chloride substitutes to minimize this flavor difference.Excess potassium intake can cause hyperkalemia.Various diseases and medications may decrease the bodys excretion of potassium,thereby increasing the risk of hyperkalemia.
  21. 21. SALABMISRI SEA WEED EXTRACTOne promising compound comes from seaweed, though in some recipes it produces afishy taste.LD50 92.6 mg/Kg TARTARIC ACIDIUPAC name: 2,3-dihydroxybutanedioic acidSynonyms: 2,3-dihydroxysuccinic acid, threaric acid, racemic acid, uvic acid paratartaric acidCAS number 526-83-0PubChem 875ChemSpider 852MeSH tartaric+acidMolecular formula C4H6O6 (Basic formula), HO2CCH(OH)CH(OH)CO2H (Structural formula)
  22. 22. Molar mass 150.087 g/molAppearance white powderDensity 1.79 g/mL (H2O)pK1 2.98pK2 4.34Melting point 171–174 °C (L-tartaric), 206 °C (DL, racemic) 146–148 °C (meso) [2]Solubility in water 133 g/100ml (20°C)EU classification Irritant(Xi)R-phrases R36LD50 Rat LDLo Oral; dose: 7500 mg/kg; Rabbit LDLo Oral; dose:5000mg/kg. Dog LDLo Oral; dose: 5000 mg/kg.Forms of Tartaric AcidCommon name tartaric acid levotartaric acid dextrotartaric acid mesotartaric acid racemic acidSynonyms D-(S,S)-(−)-tartaric acid L-(R,R)-(+)-tartaric acid (2R,3S)-tartaric acid DL-(S,S/R,R)-(±)-tartaric acid unnatural isomer natural isomerPubChem CID 875 CID 439655 CID 444305 CID 78956 CID 5851EINECS number 205-695-6 201-766-0 205-696-1 205-105-7CAS number 526-83-0 147-71-7 87-69-4 147-73-9 133-37-9THIOUREASynonyms:ThiocarbamideCAS number 62-56-6PubChem 2723790UN number 2811RTECS number YU2800000Molecular formula CH4N2SMolar mass 76.12 g/molAppearance white solidDensity 1.405 g/mlMelting point 182 °C, 455 K, 360 °FSolubility in water moderately solubleEU Index 612-082-00-0EU classification Carc. Cat. 3 Repr. Cat. 3 Harmful (Xn) Dangerous for the environmentLD50 1g/kg for rats (oral).A goitrogenic effect (enlargement of the thyroid gland) has been reported for chronicexposure, reflecting the ability of thiourea to interfere with iodide uptake.
  24. 24. All in well balanced safe proportions keeping in view of the toxicities . MODE OF ACTION OF SALTEXAmmonium Chloride present in saltex is to effect a reduction in sodium chlorideor the sodium ion and kept at the lowest possible level.Bile Acids inhibit vascular reactivity to norepinephrine and KCl in a dose-dependent mannerColchicine tends to impair sodium absorption.Potassium Chloride present in Saltex reduces the intake of Sodium and kept at thelowest possible levels.Salabmisri is a herb known to be used by Tribals in coastal areas to make saltwater potable and used to coagulate the sodium chloride obstructing it’sabsorption.Sea Weed Extract is also employed to minimize the absorption of Common Salt.Sodium chloride present in Saltex helps in maintaining the taste and flavour so asthe finished food is acceptable and palatable to the consumer but kept at thelowest possible level.Tartaric Acid is used to improve the taste and flavour.Thiourea is also aimed to reduce the absorbed sodium levels. CONTRA INDICATIONSPatients having kidney problems are to avoid this.Heart patients are to avoid this.Diabetes patients may avoid this.SUGGESTED DOSAGE: WEB REFERENCES:
  25. 25. REFERENCES:Fregly, M.J. In: Present Knowledge in Nutrition, Fifth Edition. Nutrition Foundation:Washington, D.C., 1984, pp. 439-458.