Creating a Sustainable DFSS Platform in Corporate R&D


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  • Our vision for DuPont is articulated on this chart. It includes the three elements of : Science Sustainability - sustainable solutions The Big Task – “essential to a better, safer, healthier life for people everywhere” All of the platform offerings and R&D priorities are designed to hekp us achieve this Vision.
  • DuPont has undergone three transformations in our nearly 202-year history. We are now in our third transformation, which began in 1998. Since then we have made major changes in our portfolio (e.g. Pioneer, Chemfirst, electronics, Griffin acquisitions; Conoco, DTI, DuPont Merck divestitures). We have also made changes in how we work, adopting Six Sigma methodology across the company. We need to accelerate the rate of transformation. The changes that are part of the launch of the “new” DuPont are designed to do that.
  • Creating a Sustainable DFSS Platform in Corporate R&D

    1. 1. Creating a Sustainable DFSS Platform in Corporate R&D Harvey S. Gold Design for Six Sigma Master Black Belt DuPont Central Research and Development Wilmington, Delaware WCBF Design for Six Sigma Conference; June 9 - 10, 2005
    2. 2. Our Vision <ul><li>To be the world’s most dynamic science </li></ul><ul><li>company, creating sustainable solutions </li></ul><ul><li>essential to a better, safer, healthier life </li></ul><ul><li>for people everywhere. </li></ul>
    3. 3. Mission Sustainable Growth 10% Normalized EPS Growth The Operational Drivers of Sustainable Growth: <ul><li>SIX SIGMA </li></ul><ul><li>Leveraging our scope & scale </li></ul>KNOWLEDGE INTENSITY INTEGRATED SCIENCE PRODUCTIVITY
    4. 4. Transforming for Our Third Century 1802 1830 1850 1900 1925 1945 1990 2000 2050 2090 Six Sigma Birth Growth Maturity Explosives Birth Growth Maturity Chemistry, Biology, Knowledge-Intensive Solutions Birth Maturity Chemicals, Energy Growth
    5. 5. DuPont has a 200+ Year Heritage of Innovation An early DuPont gunpowder mill located along the Brandywine River, Wilmington, DE. Production began in 1802. These mills are now part of the Hagley Museum, and are located across the river from the Experimental Station, which dates to 1902.
    6. 6. Five Growth Platforms <ul><li>Large Opportunities </li></ul><ul><li>Strong Capabilities </li></ul><ul><li>Market Leadership </li></ul>Sales figures updated for 2004 actual. Original figures were 2003 and 2002 . Overall, a 16% increase in 2004 vs. 2003 and a 13% increase in 2003 vs. 2002. DuPont Safety & Protection $3.5 B $4.1 B $ 4.7 B DuPont Electronic & Communication Technologies $2.5 B $2.9 B $3.3 B DuPont Coatings & Color Technologies $5.0 B $5.5 B $6.0 B DuPont Performance Materials $4.9 B $5.3 B $6.6 B DuPont Agriculture & Nutrition $4.5 B $5.4 B $6.3 B
    7. 7. DuPont is a Science Company Yeast Bacterium Glucose Glycerol 3G Single Biocatalyst: Escherichia coli For a Fermentation Process: DuPont developed a single bacterium to do both steps . <ul><li>In Nature: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two microorganisms convert sugar to PDO (1,3-propanediol, also known as 3G) stepwise. </li></ul></ul>
    8. 8. DuPont’s R&D Agenda <ul><li>Revolutionize asset productivity </li></ul><ul><li>Strengthen biotechnology platforms </li></ul><ul><li>Create or acquire new polymer platform(s) </li></ul><ul><li>Vigorously develop new products and applications </li></ul><ul><li>Selectively create new businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Aggressively pursue discovery research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1/3 : 5 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Generate one-third of DuPont revenues from new products (commercialized within the previous five years) </li></ul></ul>Technology Innovation is the centerpiece of DuPont’s growth strategy.
    9. 9. What does Six Sigma mean for DuPont? A Way of Working - not just a Quality initiative Defect Elimination / Prevention - in Products, Processes & Transactions Near-Perfect Products & Processes A Rigorous, Structured Approach to Problem Identification and Solution Breakthrough Performance Improvement Market-Based and Data-Driven Focus on the Customer
    10. 10. DuPont Experimental Station – Wilmington, DE
    11. 11. CR&D: Enabling Technologies to Shape New Markets <ul><li>Biotechnology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Microbiology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Molecular Biology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enzyme Catalysis </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bioinformatics </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Nanotechnology </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Particles & Dispersion Science </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inorganic Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interfacial Science </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Information & Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Polymerization Processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluoropolymers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Photopolymers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organometallics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical Catalysis </li></ul></ul>Establish capabilities & create options for step changes in business growth CR&D’s Role
    12. 12. DuPont Experimental Station – Wilmington, DE What’s a methodology like Six Sigma doing in a nice place like this?
    13. 13. Six Sigma Reinforces Our R&D Strategy <ul><li>Market Relevance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six Sigma begins and ends with the Customer </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technology Uniqueness </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six Sigma helps researchers get to answers more quickly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Path to Commercialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Six Sigma is “front-end loaded.” Keep “engineering” in mind while working on the “science”. Begin with the end in mind. </li></ul></ul>R&D must deliver revenue, not just science. Per Tom Connelly, Chief Science and Technology Officer
    14. 14. Six Sigma and R&D: Myth & Prejudice <ul><li>“ Six Sigma makes sense in Manufacturing, but not in Research”: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Why: Research requires creativity ! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manufacturing doesn’t ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why: Manufacturing has “issues” ! </li></ul><ul><li>Research doesn’t ? </li></ul><ul><li>Why: Manufacturing needs a “turn the crank” method like Six Sigma that automatically generates solutions ! </li></ul><ul><li>But Six Sigma requires creativity – it’s built into the methodology ! </li></ul>
    15. 15. Overcoming the R&D “Immune Response” <ul><li>Apply Six Sigma in obvious areas first. </li></ul><ul><li>Pick your fights wisely. </li></ul><ul><li>Use DfSS to drive the Six Sigma implementation strategy for R&D. </li></ul>In DuPont CR&D, “Six Sigma” is inseparable from DfSS concepts and tools, and vice versa.
    16. 16. First, Apply Six Sigma in Obvious Areas <ul><li>Everyone knows some other organization that really needs Six Sigma (clearly “them”, not “us”). </li></ul><ul><li>Nobody thinks they’re paying too little for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical plant & utilities; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crafts support (metal & electrical shops, etc.); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Computer networking, help desk support, mail delivery; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Access to technical literature, routine chemical analyses, support for filing patent applications. </li></ul></ul>
    17. 17. Next, Apply Six Sigma to “Production” Services in Research and Development <ul><li>Trouble-shoot tough problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize existing high-throughput systems for synthesis or analysis: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Many small-volume chemical reactors (manual or robotic). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical, biological, or physical testing of large numbers of small samples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DNA Sequencing; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Microarray Analysis; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid-Response NMR Facility. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Then, Introduce Six Sigma to “Hard Core” Research and Development <ul><li>Be reasonable. </li></ul><ul><li>Include DfSS concepts in every Green Belt course for R&D personnel (and others). </li></ul><ul><li>Use training to allow people to raise issues, then address them. </li></ul><ul><li>Emphasize the need for creativity. </li></ul><ul><li>Publicize early (and later) successes. </li></ul><ul><li>Engage respected technical professionals – support of management is necessary but not sufficient. </li></ul><ul><li>Use examples – both good and bad - from the corporate memory. </li></ul>
    19. 19. How DuPont and CR&D are Deploying DfSS <ul><li>Initial R&D focus was on CR&D. </li></ul><ul><li>15% of Green Belts trained by CR&D come from R&D groups in the Growth Platforms. </li></ul><ul><li>Employees in every function at every level are entitled to say, “Show me the data !” </li></ul><ul><li>In CR&D, we drive DfSS by including DMADV deliverables in every GB course, thereby inoculating every GB and every APEX research project with DfSS. </li></ul><ul><li>JIT DfSS Workshops address strategic team-level issues, while spawning tactical GB projects. </li></ul>
    20. 20. A Six Sigma Foundation Provides the Discipline to Achieve Growth
    21. 21. DuPont has Built a Six Sigma Foundation Black Belts and MBBs - 1200 at the end of 2000 2500 BBs, 300 MBBs trained by year end 2003 Green Belts - 6000 at the end of 2001 16000 trained by year end 2003 Top Line Growth, DfSS 2002 900 DfSS, $1.2Bn revenue TLG projects 03 Process Excellence 2003 Identified Corporate Core Processes Transformation 2004 Marketing & Sales Effectiveness Operations Supply Chain $2.3 Bn in Final Validated Benefits by the end of 2003 Breakout 2005 Lean Enterprise Six Sigma
    22. 22. DfSS Required the Development of Six Sigma Competency and Culture … CUSTOMERS Capable, Disciplined Process Accountability Bottom Line Results Focus on inputs Sense of Urgency Commitment to Training & Development for all employees Fact based, Data driven decisions Management Passion Values Communications
    23. 23. Changing the Earnings Growth Model: The “C” Word ON TREND LINE GROWTH (TLG) SIX SIGMA PRODUCTIVITY RESTRUCTURING INNOVATION ACQUISITION DMAIC DfSS Time Earnings “ Changing Corporate Culture is much like moving a cemetery … <ul><ul><li>… you don’t get very much assistance from the occupants.” </li></ul></ul>Don Linsenman DuPont Vice-President and Corporate Six Sigma Champion
    24. 24. Design for Six Sigma New Tools in the Six Sigma Tool Kit Strategic and Tactical Suggestions for Use
    25. 25. DMAIC and DMADV – Similarity at 50,000 Feet Define the Problem Phase 1 Characterize Requirements & Performance Phase 2 Identify & Characterize Key Elements in the Solution Phase 3 Determine the Best Solution Phase 4 Validate & Implement the Solution Phase 5 Improve an Existing Product or Process Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Design a New Product or Process Define Measure Analyze Design Verify
    26. 26. DfSS Projects are Rarely “Pure” !!! Extension New Existing Process (Mfg., business) Product, Service, Offering Use, Market, Customer All needed processes already exists Modifications needed to adapt existing process New process or technology needed New product, service or offering Same basic offering adapted with new technology New end use, Target Market or New Customers Extend Target Marketing or Seek New Customers Same product, service, or offering design Existing use, Target Market and Customers IMPROVE DEVELOP DMAIC DfSS
    27. 27. Long Duration Projects Require Ongoing Assessment by Decision Boards or Stage Gate Processes DuPont has integrated DMADV with its Stage Gate managing process for long term Development Projects (PACE for SBU’s and APEX for CR&D) Decision Processes evaluate the overall portfolio of projects, strategies, and available resources
    28. 28. Critical X’s for R&D and Growth Six Sigma Projects <ul><li>Clear Definition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>DfSS encompasses both DMAIC and DMADV. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Tools introduced with DfSS are easily adaptable to R&D. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Define & Measure: wove in market research and market segmentation (VOC, Kano, QFD, FMEA, etc), MGP, risk assessment, Stage-Gated Development Processes, “Real Options”, etc. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Risk management tools helped assess high uncertainty of growth and development “traction index”. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multigenerational project planning and hypothesis-driven approaches helped spawned GB projects remain ‘bite-size’. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze: recognized the key role of screening DOE’s, and variability transfer functions. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Design & Verify: logical connection to market entry strategy, marketing plans, and implementation plans. </li></ul></ul></ul>
    29. 29. <ul><li>New Measures of Success </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Patience: Many Growth developments take years, so measuring results must often be forward looking (DMAIC brings fast results, DMADV / DfSS takes time). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What might be new metrics? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>number of patent applications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>number of technical papers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>phase deliverables vs. plan </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cycle time </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>time to first revenue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>slope of the revenue trend line </li></ul></ul></ul>Critical X’s for R&D and Growth Six Sigma Projects
    30. 30. Zero Defects … is not Good Enough … <ul><li>Maximize value </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design Positive Quality in. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the purpose of the DMADV (DfSS) strategy. </li></ul></ul>-Q … we must Delight the Customer! Negative Quality Traditional Quality Systems +Q Positive Quality Modern Quality Systems Zero Defects <ul><li>Minimize defects </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understand causes. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Analyze Negative Quality out. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This is the purpose of the DMAIC strategy. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zero Defects? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing wrong  Everything right. </li></ul></ul>
    31. 31. Strategic: Quality Attainment = Delivering Value DMADV: You promise what the customer wants (good design) DMAIC: You deliver what you promise (good execution) Customer Expectation Customer Entitlement What the customer Wants What the customer is Promised What the customer Gets DMADV helps you get this right DMAIC helps you fix this if it’s broken
    32. 32. Strategic: Confront the Innovator’s Dilemma <ul><li>For truly Disruptive Technologies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Customer may not even know he/she needs it; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Market often non-existent, or not clearly defined; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where is the “Voice of Customer” ? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Market Pull vs. Technology Push </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both equally valid ways of achieving commercial success; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identify which applies in each case and proceed accordingly. </li></ul></ul>New Technology Development Ideas Existing Markets Non-existing Markets $ Market “Pull” Technology “Push”
    33. 33. Tactical: DfSS in the R&D Context <ul><li>DfSS is one tool for </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Identifying areas where inventions are needed; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing a disciplined structure for the R & D process; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quantifying unambiguously how good such inventions must be (in terms of quality); </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Providing quantitative justification for basic R&D expenditure in pursuit of the inventions. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DfSS does not: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tell innovator “how” to innovate. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resolve the “innovator’s dilemma” (DfSS does emphasize the importance of knowing your market!). </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Tactical: Focus on Issues Faced in R&D <ul><li>The DMADV Development Methodology makes sense for Research & Development: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>R&D often needs to use Voice of the Customer (rather than current process performance) as the source of performance standards; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to consider a range of development options; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need to manage multiple Project Y’s. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Voice of the Customer tools, functional analysis, variability transfer functions, response surface analysis DOE, and robust design are new to many in R&D. </li></ul>
    35. 35. Tactical: Focus on Issues Faced in R&D <ul><li>The DMAIC Improvement methodology is still necessary ! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Measurement System Analysis is key. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Design of Experiments is critical, since experiments are the stock-in-trade of R&D. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>R&D requires more extensive coverage of DOE than is found in the standard DMAIC course: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Screening Designs (in Analyze); </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response surface designs (in Design); </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Response optimization (in Design). </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Both MSA and DOE have historically been under-utilized in the R&D community. </li></ul>
    36. 36. Tactical: Creativity <ul><li>Researchers are creative, and they want that creativity respected: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the early barriers to implementing Six Sigma in R&D was a misconception that it was a “turn the crank” methodology with no room for creativity. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Emphasize the role of creativity wherever there is a “divergent” step in the Six Sigma process: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All possible Y’s and X’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional analysis design alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>
    37. 37. Tactical: Implementation in CR&D <ul><li>CR&D MBB’s and BB’s come from the R&D community, and are accepted by Research Teams as peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Every Green Belt is assigned a BB or MBB Coach. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>This has been critical in maintaining project quality, and in achieving a high certification rate. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We make every effort to make the training as enjoyable as possible. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Actively engage each student as often as possible. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We have benefited from having a dedicated training facility. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>We encourage comments, questions, and challenges ( Our students have definitely not been shy or reticent ! ) </li></ul></ul>
    38. 38. Tactical: Implementation in CR&D <ul><li>We now offer two versions of Green Belt training: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Belt for Technical Development Projects (GB-d) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Green Belt – Standard (GB-s); “Green Belt for the rest of us” </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Both versions cover DMADV and DMAIC (50/50). </li></ul><ul><li>Both versions cover the same tools. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>GB-d is taught at an enhanced level of statistics, including response surface DOE and Robust Design concepts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DfSS JIT Workshops and GB training are often closely linked via participating personnel (ideal state). </li></ul><ul><li>Natural work teams (i.e. Principal Investigator and their Associate) often come to Green Belt training together. </li></ul>
    39. 39. Six Sigma Reception in CR&D <ul><li>We have assisted dozens of APEX Teams in the context of JIT DfSS Workshops. </li></ul><ul><li>We have taught 30 Waves of “Green Belt for Technical Development Projects” plus 12 other Waves (22 students per Wave), and the reception has been positive. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>We’ve had full enrollments through all scheduled waves, even in the absence of a GB training requirement in CR&D. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CR&D instituted a GB training requirement this year. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The GB-d Course (and Lead Instructor) has been “ported” to the DuPont Canada RE&BD Center in Kingston, ON. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>RE&BD personnel receive the same training provided to CR&D personnel. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Another ~15% of enrollments are from the Growth Platforms. </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. <ul><li>Goal: To Put a Man On the Moon and Return Him Home Safely by the End of the Decade </li></ul><ul><li>Multi-Generational Plan: Three Main Programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mercury </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single person; earth orbit; test extended flight </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gemini </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Two-person; earth orbit; extra-vehicular activities; vehicle docking </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apollo </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Three-person; fly to and land on the moon; return home safely </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Each generation built on the last </li></ul><ul><li>All three generations defined at the outset </li></ul>Continually Enhance the DfSS Toolbox: A Classic MGP: The U.S. Space Program VOP VOC
    41. 41. Continually Enhance the DfSS Toolbox: MGP, Reality, & The Essence of DfSS <ul><li>“ You want a valve that doesn’t leak, and you try everything possible to develop one. But the real world provides you with a leaky valve. You have to determine how much leaking you can tolerate.” </li></ul><ul><li>Arthur Rudolf Saturn 5 Rocket Developer </li></ul><ul><li>Source: Obituary of Arthur Rudolf, New York Times, January 3, 1996 </li></ul>
    42. 42. Continually Enhance the DfSS Toolbox: OODA Loops Applied to R&D and Business <ul><li>1 st : “ O bserve” the action or problem that requires a decision. </li></ul><ul><li>2 nd : “ O rient” yourself. </li></ul><ul><li>3 rd : “ D ecide” on the appropriate response. </li></ul><ul><li>4 th : “ A ct” !! </li></ul><ul><li>BUT – Who thought of OODA Loops? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The OODA Loop was first characterized by Col. John R. Boyd, USAF, in a briefing report “Patterns of Conflict”. </li></ul></ul>
    43. 43. Continually Enhance the DfSS Toolbox: OODA Loops Applied to R&D and Business <ul><li>Boyd’s key idea was not the four steps, but an insistence that the cycle be immediately repeated . </li></ul><ul><li>Action is not the final step. Action triggers the beginning of a new O bserve, O rient, D ecide, and A ct cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep up the pace of the decision making, so that decisions are made faster than the problem can evolve , and faster than your competitors can respond. </li></ul>
    44. 44. OODA Loops, DfSS, and DuPont CR&D <ul><li>O bserve </li></ul><ul><ul><li>O rient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>D ecide </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A ct </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>OODA Loops … empowering the individual researcher to action! </li></ul>
    45. 45. DfSS JIT Workshop Expectations <ul><li>What do we want the project teams to take away ? </li></ul><ul><li>Learn what the customer wants as early as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Understand the product/technology uniqueness. </li></ul><ul><li>Develop a (multi-generational) commercialization plan, with risk assessment. </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge of DMADV (and DMAIC) methodology - </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What the tools are; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When/where they might be used; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where to go for additional help. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Develop appropriate team milestones; report back on program objectives using DMADV. </li></ul>
    46. 46. Design for Six Sigma DfSS Examples from CR&D
    47. 47. VersaSpun™ - A CR&D APEX Project <ul><li>Concept: “Disruptive” one-step process to produce staple yarns from continuous fiber. </li></ul><ul><li>DfSS Strategy: Begin engagement with Team-Based DfSS JIT Workshops. </li></ul>Laydown Staple Bale Blend Card Draft 2 Draft 1 Open Cut Crimp Anneal Draw Spin Spin Ship VersaSpun ™ Spin VersaSpun ™
    48. 48. VersaSpun™ - Design for Six Sigma <ul><li>Early recognition that GB-level projects needed to be spawned. These GB projects included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed a clear understanding of customers’ needs (VOC). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Conducted an MSA of the key yarn quality measuring device. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identified the critical X’s affecting yarn quality in the process for low denier VersaSpun™ yarns made from Kevlar ® brand aramid fibers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Optimized process variables to produce yarn quality necessary for customer evaluations and commercialization. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved process economics by increasing yarn throughputs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Developed and qualified an online QC instrument for yarn production. </li></ul></ul>
    49. 49. Nutraceutical - Design for Six Sigma <ul><li>Concept: Produce a nutraceutical by fermentation, rather than obtaining it via extraction from traditional sources. </li></ul><ul><li>DfSS Strategy: Begin engagement with Team-Based DfSS JIT Workshops. </li></ul>
    50. 50. Nutraceutical - Design for Six Sigma <ul><li>Early recognition that GB-level projects needed to be spawned. GB projects included: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sequential GB projects developed a multi-generational plan for method development and conducted MSA’s for “pure” compounds, mixtures of “pure compounds”, and complex mixtures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Identification and evaluation of microbe for nutraceutical production. </li></ul></ul>
    51. 51. Bio-PDO ™ - Design for Six Sigma <ul><li>Concept: Produce PDO (1,3-propanediol) from renewal resources, rather than obtaining via traditional chemical synthesis. Develop yeast that will accomplish the synthesis in a single step. </li></ul><ul><li>DfSS Strategy: Begin engagement with Team-Based DfSS JIT Workshops, and rapidly spawn relevant GB projects. Engage development partner (Tate and Lyle) in process as deemed appropriate. </li></ul>
    52. 52. Bio-PDO ™ - Design for Six Sigma Yeast Bacterium Glucose Glycerol 3G Single Biocatalyst: Escherichia coli For a Fermentation Process: DuPont developed a single bacterium to do both steps . <ul><li>In Nature: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two microorganisms convert sugar to PDO (1,3-propanediol, also known as 3G) stepwise. </li></ul></ul>
    53. 53. Integrated Corn Bio-Refinery - Design for Six Sigma <ul><li>Concept: Produce fuel ethanol from corn stover and higher value chemicals from corn grain rather than refining crude oil. This involves the development and construction of an I ntegrated C orn B io- R efinery (ICBR). </li></ul><ul><li>DfSS Strategy: Begin engagement with Team-Based DfSS JIT Workshops for each “Task” associated with the Project. Train team members as GB’s using spawned projects to address milestones and deliverables. Engage the National Renewal Energy Laboratory (NREL) as well as our development partner in biotechnology, Diversa Corporation, in the DfSS process as appropriate. </li></ul>
    54. 54. Design for Six Sigma Reflections on DfSS from CR&D
    55. 55. DfSS is … NOT ! <ul><li>A new process for “discovery” or innovation. </li></ul><ul><li>A substitute for creativity, or technical / business judgment. </li></ul><ul><li>Focused on paperwork. </li></ul><ul><li>Intended to be an obstacle to new product development. </li></ul><ul><li>A “make-work” or a “let’s pretend” exercise. </li></ul><ul><li>A substitute in itself for GB training, but DMADV must be part of all GB training. </li></ul>
    56. 56. DfSS is ... <ul><li>The “Voice of the Customer”. </li></ul><ul><li>Data-, analysis-, and decision- driven. </li></ul><ul><li>A focused methodology to enable better, faster decisions by project teams. </li></ul><ul><li>A user-friendly “toolbox” of techniques that can enhance R&D projects. </li></ul><ul><li>A methodology for both Team-based JIT Workshops, and for the GB Projects that are spawned to support key Project milestones and deliverables. </li></ul>
    57. 57. My DfSS Learnings ... My TLG Learnings... <ul><li>It works! - Applies starting with R&D and continuing through marketing, sales, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Need focused training … “demystify” Six Sigma : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show the value proposition of Six Sigma ( success stories ). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talk the R&D language ( include examples from R&D, and use Certified GB’s as guest speakers). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DfSS “Gap Analysis” can identify where R&D creativity is required. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhanced VOC training (including VOMP, Kano analysis, QFD, etc) is vital for all R&D Belts (MBB/BB/GB) and enables Process Owners to demand good VOC. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show R&D personnel that they do have processes . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Incorporate DfSS tools (QFD, FMEA, functional analysis, variable transfer functions, etc) … DMAIC is not enough. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use personnel (BB, MBB, Champions) drawn from the R&D community who will be accepted as peers. </li></ul><ul><li>Perception is often reality. Small changes can work miracles. For instance, recognizing that DMADV leads to “Implementation Plans” rather than to “Control Plans” was invaluable. </li></ul>
    58. 58. DfSS: Changing the R&D Paradigm <ul><li>You see things; and say “Why?” </li></ul><ul><li>But I dream of things that never were; and say “Why not?” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>George Bernard Shaw Back to Methuselah , (1921), Part 1, Act 1 </li></ul></ul>
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    60. 60. Harvey S. Gold, Lead DfSS Master Black Belt DuPont Central Research & Development, Experimental Station, E304/C119 Wilmington, DE 19880-0304 USA Email: [email_address] Phone: 1-302-695-3669 Harvey S. Gold is currently a Six Sigma and Design for Six Sigma (DfSS) Certified Master Black Belt in Central Research and Development at DuPont in Wilmington, DE. In 2000 he served as a principal developer of the Design for Six Sigma course at DuPont, and joined the CR&D Six Sigma group on January 1, 2001. In 2001, he co-developed the &quot;Green Belt for Technical Development Projects&quot; offering (which presents both the DMAIC and DMADV deliverables in parallel) for CR&D. He teaches Green Belt courses for CR&D and other parts of DuPont, as well as Corporately leveraged Black Belt courses in the United States and Europe. In addition to Coaching Green Belts, he works closely with long-term R&D (APEX) project teams in CR&D as they progress towards commercialization.  Harvey grew up in Central New Jersey, and obtained a B.A. degree in Chemistry and in History at Cornell University. After receiving his Ph.D. in Analytical Chemistry from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, he joined the Chemistry Department at the University of Delaware where he taught and lead a graduate research group for 7 years. He joined the Polymer Products Department at DuPont in 1985 as an analytical chemist. He is the author of 30 technical papers, holds 2 US patents, and has spoken and taught at numerous national and international meetings. Among his awards are the “Spectroscopist of the Year Award” from the Society for Applied Spectroscopy, the “Delaware Section Award” of the American Chemical Society, and the “Tomas Hirschfeld Award” from the International Council for Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (the only industrial scientist among the 18 recipients of the Award). He is a Past Chairman of the Delaware Section of the American Chemical Society, the Delaware Valley Section of the Society for Applied Spectroscopy, and the Eastern Analytical Symposium. Biography - Harvey S. Gold