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R E S E A R C H
M E T H O D O L O G Y :
I N T R O D U C T I O N
T O R E S E A R C H
-Dr.Vijay Vishwakarma
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RESEARCH???
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RESEARCH.....
• Research is defined as careful consideration of
study regarding a particular concern or problem
using scientific methods.
• According to the American sociologist Earl Robert
Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to
describe, explain, predict, and control the
observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and
deductive methods.”
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WHY DO YOU
WANT TO DO
RESEARCH???
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Identify Identify new business opportunities
Put Put together a business expansion plan
Address Address business challenges
Develop Develop productive market strategies
Set Set pragmatic goals
Understand Understand existing customers
Identify Identify potential and new customers
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• According to Creswell – “Research is
a process of steps used to collect and
analyze information to increase our
understanding of a topic or issue”.
It consists of three steps:
• Pose a question,
• collect data to answer the question,
• present an answer to the question.
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W H AT A R E T H E C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F
R E S E A R C H ?
Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data.
Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making
observations or drawing conclusions.
The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and
deductive methods.
Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural
settings.
There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies
associated with it.
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It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more
research opportunities.
It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in
inference.
Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must
be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled
environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the
calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result.
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W H AT I S T H E
P U R P O S E O F
R E S E A R C H ?
• Exploratory: As the name
suggests, researchers
conduct exploratory studies to
explore a group of questions.
• The answers and analytics may not
offer a conclusion to the perceived
problem.
• It is undertaken to handle new
problem areas that haven’t been
explored before. This exploratory
process lays the foundation for
more conclusive data collection
and analysis.
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• Descriptive: It focuses on expanding
knowledge on current issues through a
process of data collection.
• Descriptive research describe the
behavior of a sample population.
• Only one variable is required to
conduct the study.
• The three primary purposes of
descriptive studies are describing,
explaining, and validating the findings.
• For example, a study conducted to
know if top-level management leaders
in the 21st century possess the moral
right to receive a considerable sum of
money from the company profit.
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• Explanatory: Causal
or explanatory research is
conducted to understand the
impact of specific changes in
existing standard procedures.
• Running experiments is the most
popular form.
• For example, a study that is
conducted to understand the
effect of rebranding on customer
loyalty.
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Here is a comparative analysis for better understanding:
Exploratory
Research
Descriptive
Research
Explanatory
Research
Approach used Unstructured Structured Highly structured
Conducted through Asking questions Asking questions By using hypotheses.
Time Early stages of decision making
Later stages of decision
making
Later stages of decision making
Research begins by asking the right
questions and choosing an appropriate
method to investigate the problem.
After collecting answers to your questions,
you can analyze the findings or observations
to draw reasonable conclusions.
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TYPES OF RESEARCH 14
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• F U N D A M E N TA L
R E S E A R C H
• Fundamental, or basic, research is
designed to help researchers better
understand certain phenomena in the
world; it looks at how things work.
• This research attempts to broaden
your understanding and expand
scientific theories and explanations.
• For example, fundamental research
could include a company's study of
how different product placements
affect product sales.
• This study provides information and
is knowledge-based.
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• A P P L I E D
R E S E A R C H
Applied research is designed to identify
solutions to specific problems or find
answers to specific questions.
The research is meant to offer knowledge
that is applicable and implementable.
For instance, applied research may
include a study on ways to increase
student involvement in the classroom.
This research focuses on a defined
problem and is solution-based.
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EXAMPLES
• Here are some examples of basic
research:
• A study looking at how alcohol
consumption impacts the brain
• A study to discover the components
making up human DNA
• A study accessing whether stress
levels make people more
aggressive
• A study looking to see if gender
stereotypes lead to depression
• Here are some examples of potential
applied research scenarios:
• A study on how to improve illiteracy in
teenagers
• A study looking for ways to market
products for millennials
• A study trying to decrease fraud on
social media platforms
• A study searching for ways to
encourage high school graduates to
attend college
• A study to find ways to make car tires
last longer
• A study exploring ways to cook gluten-
free meals with a limited budget
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• Q U A L I T A T I V E
R E S E A R C H
• Qualitative research involves nonnumerical data, such
as opinions and literature. Examples of qualitative data
may include:
• Focus groups
• Surveys
• Participant comments
• Observations
• Interviews
• Businesses often use qualitative research to determine
consumer opinions and reactions. For instance, a
marketing organization may present a new commercial
to a focus group before airing it publicly to receive
feedback. The company collects nonnumerical data—
the opinions of the focus group participants—to make
decisions.
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• Q U A N T I TAT I V E
R E S E A R C H
Quantitative research depends on
numerical data, such as statistics
and measurements.
For example, a car manufacturer
may compare the number of sales
of red sedans compared to white
sedans.
The research uses objective
data—the sales figures for red
and white sedans—to draw
conclusions.
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• M I X E D
R E S E A R C H
Mixed research includes both
qualitative and quantitative data.
Consider the car manufacturer
comparing sedan sales.
The company could also ask car buyers
to complete a survey after buying a red
or white sedan that asks how much the
color impacted their decision and other
opinion-based questions.
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• E X P L O R ATO RY R E S E A R C H
Exploratory research is
designed to examine what
is already known about a
topic and what additional
information may be
relevant.
It rarely answers a specific
question, but rather
presents the foundational
knowledge of a subject as
a precursor to additional
research.
Often, exploratory
research applies to lesser-
known issues and
phenomena.
For instance, you may
consider what is currently
known about the success
of year-long maternity and
paternity leave programs.
This research can include
gathering all relevant
information and compiling
it together in an accessible
format that has not been
available previously.
Your research may reveal
gaps in information,
leading to additional
studies in the future.
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• F I E L D
R E S E A R C H
• Field research takes place
wherever the participants or
subjects are, or "on
location."
• This type of research
requires onsite observation
and data collection.
• For instance, a
manufacturing plant may hire
an environmental
engineering firm to test the
air quality at the plant to
ensure it complies with all
health and safety
requirements.
• The researchers would travel
to the plant to collect
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• C A U S A L R E S E A R C H
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Causal research, also called
explanatory research, seeks to
determine cause and effect
relationships between variables.
This research is designed to
identify how much one variable
may cause a change in the
other.
Causal research is important for
evaluating current processes
and procedures and
determining if and how changes
should take place.
For instance, a business may
study employee retention rates
before and after instituting a
work-from-home policy after six
months of employment to see if
this policy increases employee
retention.
I M P O R TA N C E O F R E S E A R C H I N
C O M M E R C E ? ? ? ? 24
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R E S E A R C H P R O C E S S A S P E R
P R O F. C R K O T H A R I
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https://www.cusb.ac.in/images/cusb-
files/2020/el/cbs/MCCOM2003C04%20(Business%20Research%20Methods)
Research_Methodology_C_R_Kothari.pdf
Before embarking on the details of research
methodology and techniques, it
seems appropriate to present a brief overview of
the research process.
Research process consists of series of actions
or steps necessary to effectively carry
out research and the desired sequencing of
these steps.​
R E S E A R C H P R O C E S S
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(1) formulating the
research problem;
(2) extensive literature
survey;
(3) developing the
hypothesis;
(4) preparing the
research design;
(5) determining sample
design;
(6) collecting the data;
(7) execution of the
project;
(8) analysis of data; (9) hypothesis testing;
(10) generalisations
and interpretation, and
(11) preparation of the
report or presentation
of the results, i.e.,
formal write-up of
conclusions reached.
W H AT I S A R E S E A R C H P R O B L E M ?
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A research problem, in general, refers to some difficulty which a researcher experiences in the context of either a theoretical or
practical situation and wants to obtain a solution for the same.
We can, thus, state the components1 of a research problem as under:
(i) There must be an individual or a group which has some difficulty or the problem.
(ii) There must be some objective(s) to be attained at. If one wants nothing, one cannot have a problem.
(iii) There must be alternative means (or the courses of action) for obtaining the objective(s) one wishes to attain. This means that
there must be at least two means available to a researcher for if he has no choice of means, he cannot have a problem.
(iv) There must remain some doubt in the mind of a researcher about the selection of alternatives. This means that research must
answer the question concerning the relative efficiency of the possible alternatives.
(v) There must be some environment(s) to which the difficulty pertains.
SELECTING
THE
PROBLEM
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(i) Subject which is overdone should not be normally
chosen, for it will be a difficult task to throw any new light
in such a case.
(ii) Controversial subject should not become the choice
of an average researcher.
(iii) Too narrow or too vague problems should be
avoided.
(iv) The subject selected for research should be familiar
and feasible so that the related research material or
sources of research are within one’s reach.
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(v) Before the final selection of a problem is done, a researcher must ask himself the
following questions:
(a) Whether he is well equipped in terms of his background to carry out the research?
(b) Whether the study falls within the budget he can afford?
(c) Whether the necessary cooperation can be obtained from those who must participate
in research as subjects?
If the answers to all these questions are in the affirmative, one may become sure so far as
the practicability of the study is concerned
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vi) The selection of a problem must be preceded by a
preliminary study.
This may not be necessary when the problem requires
the conduct of a research closely similar to one that has
already been done.
But when the field of inquiry is relatively new and does
not have available a set of well developed techniques, a
brief feasibility study must always be undertaken.
L E T U S S U P P O S E T H A T A R E S E A R C H
P R O B L E M I N A B R O A D G E N E R A L W A Y I S A S
F O L L O W S :
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“Why is productivity in Japan so much higher than in India”?
In this form the question has several ambiguities such as:
What sort of productivity is being referred to?
With what industries the same is related?
With what period the productivity is being talked about?
• In view of all such ambiguities the given statement or the question is much too
general to be amenable to analysis.
• Rethinking and discussions about the problem may result in narrowing down
the question to:
• “What factors were responsible for the higher labour productivity of
Japan’s manufacturing industries during the decade 1971 to 1980 relative
to India’s manufacturing industries?”
• This latter version of the problem is an improvement over its earlier version for
the various ambiguities have been removed to the extent possible.
• Further rethinking and rephrasing might place the problem on a still better
operational basis as shown below:
“To what extent did labour productivity in 1971 to 1980 in Japan exceed
that of India in respect of 15 selected manufacturing industries? What
factors were responsible for the productivity differentials between the two
countries by industries?”
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With this sort of formulation,
the various terms involved
such as ‘labour productivity’,
‘productivity differentials’, etc.
must be explained clearly.
The researcher must also see
that the necessary data are
available.
In case the data for one or
more industries selected are
not available for the
concerning time-period, then
the said industry or industries
will have to be substituted by
other industry or industries.
The suitability of the time-
period must also be
examined.
Thus, all relevant factors must
be considered by a researcher
before finally defining a
research problem.
C O N C L U S I O N
• We may conclude by saying that the task of
defining a research problem, very often, follows
a sequential pattern—the problem is stated in a
general way, the ambiguities are resolved,
thinking and rethinking process results in a
more specific formulation of the problem so that
it may be a realistic one in terms of the
available data and resources and is also
analytically meaningful.
• All this results in a well-defined research
problem that is not only meaningful from an
operational point of view but is equally capable
of paving the way for the development of
working hypotheses and for means of solving
the problem itself.
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R E F E R E N C E S
1. https://www.questionpro.com/blog/what-is-
research/ Accessed on 17-01-2022 12:44pm
2. http://www.vkmaheshwari.com/WP/?p=2472#:~
:text=It%20includes%3B%20research%20desi
gn%2C%20Study,a%20philosophy%20of%20r
esearch%20process. Accessed on 17-01-2022
3. https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/career-
development/basic-research-vs-applied-
research Accessed on 17-01-2022
4. d.com/career-advice/career-
development/types-of-research Accessed on
17-01-2022
5. https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/career-
development/types-of-research Accessed on
17-01-2022
6. https://www.cusb.ac.in/images/cusb-
files/2020/el/cbs/MCCOM2003C04%20(Busine
ss%20Research%20Methods)Research_Metho
dology_C_R_Kothari.pdf
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Research methodology Basics in Research

  • 1. R E S E A R C H M E T H O D O L O G Y : I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H -Dr.Vijay Vishwakarma 1 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 3. RESEARCH..... • Research is defined as careful consideration of study regarding a particular concern or problem using scientific methods. • According to the American sociologist Earl Robert Babbie, “research is a systematic inquiry to describe, explain, predict, and control the observed phenomenon. It involves inductive and deductive methods.” 3 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A
  • 4. WHY DO YOU WANT TO DO RESEARCH??? 4 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 5. Identify Identify new business opportunities Put Put together a business expansion plan Address Address business challenges Develop Develop productive market strategies Set Set pragmatic goals Understand Understand existing customers Identify Identify potential and new customers 5 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 6. • According to Creswell – “Research is a process of steps used to collect and analyze information to increase our understanding of a topic or issue”. It consists of three steps: • Pose a question, • collect data to answer the question, • present an answer to the question. 6 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 7. W H AT A R E T H E C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S O F R E S E A R C H ? Good research follows a systematic approach to capture accurate data. Researchers need to practice ethics and a code of conduct while making observations or drawing conclusions. The analysis is based on logical reasoning and involves both inductive and deductive methods. Real-time data and knowledge is derived from actual observations in natural settings. There is an in-depth analysis of all data collected so that there are no anomalies associated with it. 7 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 8. It creates a path for generating new questions. Existing data helps create more research opportunities. It is analytical and uses all the available data so that there is no ambiguity in inference. Accuracy is one of the most critical aspects of research. The information must be accurate and correct. For example, laboratories provide a controlled environment to collect data. Accuracy is measured in the instruments used, the calibrations of instruments or tools, and the experiment’s final result. 8 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 9. W H AT I S T H E P U R P O S E O F R E S E A R C H ? • Exploratory: As the name suggests, researchers conduct exploratory studies to explore a group of questions. • The answers and analytics may not offer a conclusion to the perceived problem. • It is undertaken to handle new problem areas that haven’t been explored before. This exploratory process lays the foundation for more conclusive data collection and analysis. 9 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 10. • Descriptive: It focuses on expanding knowledge on current issues through a process of data collection. • Descriptive research describe the behavior of a sample population. • Only one variable is required to conduct the study. • The three primary purposes of descriptive studies are describing, explaining, and validating the findings. • For example, a study conducted to know if top-level management leaders in the 21st century possess the moral right to receive a considerable sum of money from the company profit. 10 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 11. • Explanatory: Causal or explanatory research is conducted to understand the impact of specific changes in existing standard procedures. • Running experiments is the most popular form. • For example, a study that is conducted to understand the effect of rebranding on customer loyalty. 11 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 12. Here is a comparative analysis for better understanding: Exploratory Research Descriptive Research Explanatory Research Approach used Unstructured Structured Highly structured Conducted through Asking questions Asking questions By using hypotheses. Time Early stages of decision making Later stages of decision making Later stages of decision making Research begins by asking the right questions and choosing an appropriate method to investigate the problem. After collecting answers to your questions, you can analyze the findings or observations to draw reasonable conclusions. 12 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 14. TYPES OF RESEARCH 14 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 15. • F U N D A M E N TA L R E S E A R C H • Fundamental, or basic, research is designed to help researchers better understand certain phenomena in the world; it looks at how things work. • This research attempts to broaden your understanding and expand scientific theories and explanations. • For example, fundamental research could include a company's study of how different product placements affect product sales. • This study provides information and is knowledge-based. 15 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 16. • A P P L I E D R E S E A R C H Applied research is designed to identify solutions to specific problems or find answers to specific questions. The research is meant to offer knowledge that is applicable and implementable. For instance, applied research may include a study on ways to increase student involvement in the classroom. This research focuses on a defined problem and is solution-based. 16 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 17. EXAMPLES • Here are some examples of basic research: • A study looking at how alcohol consumption impacts the brain • A study to discover the components making up human DNA • A study accessing whether stress levels make people more aggressive • A study looking to see if gender stereotypes lead to depression • Here are some examples of potential applied research scenarios: • A study on how to improve illiteracy in teenagers • A study looking for ways to market products for millennials • A study trying to decrease fraud on social media platforms • A study searching for ways to encourage high school graduates to attend college • A study to find ways to make car tires last longer • A study exploring ways to cook gluten- free meals with a limited budget 17 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 18. • Q U A L I T A T I V E R E S E A R C H • Qualitative research involves nonnumerical data, such as opinions and literature. Examples of qualitative data may include: • Focus groups • Surveys • Participant comments • Observations • Interviews • Businesses often use qualitative research to determine consumer opinions and reactions. For instance, a marketing organization may present a new commercial to a focus group before airing it publicly to receive feedback. The company collects nonnumerical data— the opinions of the focus group participants—to make decisions. 18 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 19. • Q U A N T I TAT I V E R E S E A R C H Quantitative research depends on numerical data, such as statistics and measurements. For example, a car manufacturer may compare the number of sales of red sedans compared to white sedans. The research uses objective data—the sales figures for red and white sedans—to draw conclusions. 19 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 20. • M I X E D R E S E A R C H Mixed research includes both qualitative and quantitative data. Consider the car manufacturer comparing sedan sales. The company could also ask car buyers to complete a survey after buying a red or white sedan that asks how much the color impacted their decision and other opinion-based questions. 20 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 21. • E X P L O R ATO RY R E S E A R C H Exploratory research is designed to examine what is already known about a topic and what additional information may be relevant. It rarely answers a specific question, but rather presents the foundational knowledge of a subject as a precursor to additional research. Often, exploratory research applies to lesser- known issues and phenomena. For instance, you may consider what is currently known about the success of year-long maternity and paternity leave programs. This research can include gathering all relevant information and compiling it together in an accessible format that has not been available previously. Your research may reveal gaps in information, leading to additional studies in the future. 21 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 22. • F I E L D R E S E A R C H • Field research takes place wherever the participants or subjects are, or "on location." • This type of research requires onsite observation and data collection. • For instance, a manufacturing plant may hire an environmental engineering firm to test the air quality at the plant to ensure it complies with all health and safety requirements. • The researchers would travel to the plant to collect 22 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 23. • C A U S A L R E S E A R C H D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H 23 Causal research, also called explanatory research, seeks to determine cause and effect relationships between variables. This research is designed to identify how much one variable may cause a change in the other. Causal research is important for evaluating current processes and procedures and determining if and how changes should take place. For instance, a business may study employee retention rates before and after instituting a work-from-home policy after six months of employment to see if this policy increases employee retention.
  • 24. I M P O R TA N C E O F R E S E A R C H I N C O M M E R C E ? ? ? ? 24 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H
  • 25. R E S E A R C H P R O C E S S A S P E R P R O F. C R K O T H A R I D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H 25 https://www.cusb.ac.in/images/cusb- files/2020/el/cbs/MCCOM2003C04%20(Business%20Research%20Methods) Research_Methodology_C_R_Kothari.pdf Before embarking on the details of research methodology and techniques, it seems appropriate to present a brief overview of the research process. Research process consists of series of actions or steps necessary to effectively carry out research and the desired sequencing of these steps.​
  • 26. R E S E A R C H P R O C E S S D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H 26 (1) formulating the research problem; (2) extensive literature survey; (3) developing the hypothesis; (4) preparing the research design; (5) determining sample design; (6) collecting the data; (7) execution of the project; (8) analysis of data; (9) hypothesis testing; (10) generalisations and interpretation, and (11) preparation of the report or presentation of the results, i.e., formal write-up of conclusions reached.
  • 27. W H AT I S A R E S E A R C H P R O B L E M ? D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H 27 A research problem, in general, refers to some difficulty which a researcher experiences in the context of either a theoretical or practical situation and wants to obtain a solution for the same. We can, thus, state the components1 of a research problem as under: (i) There must be an individual or a group which has some difficulty or the problem. (ii) There must be some objective(s) to be attained at. If one wants nothing, one cannot have a problem. (iii) There must be alternative means (or the courses of action) for obtaining the objective(s) one wishes to attain. This means that there must be at least two means available to a researcher for if he has no choice of means, he cannot have a problem. (iv) There must remain some doubt in the mind of a researcher about the selection of alternatives. This means that research must answer the question concerning the relative efficiency of the possible alternatives. (v) There must be some environment(s) to which the difficulty pertains.
  • 28. SELECTING THE PROBLEM D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H 28 (i) Subject which is overdone should not be normally chosen, for it will be a difficult task to throw any new light in such a case. (ii) Controversial subject should not become the choice of an average researcher. (iii) Too narrow or too vague problems should be avoided. (iv) The subject selected for research should be familiar and feasible so that the related research material or sources of research are within one’s reach.
  • 29. D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H 29 (v) Before the final selection of a problem is done, a researcher must ask himself the following questions: (a) Whether he is well equipped in terms of his background to carry out the research? (b) Whether the study falls within the budget he can afford? (c) Whether the necessary cooperation can be obtained from those who must participate in research as subjects? If the answers to all these questions are in the affirmative, one may become sure so far as the practicability of the study is concerned
  • 30. D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H 30 vi) The selection of a problem must be preceded by a preliminary study. This may not be necessary when the problem requires the conduct of a research closely similar to one that has already been done. But when the field of inquiry is relatively new and does not have available a set of well developed techniques, a brief feasibility study must always be undertaken.
  • 31. L E T U S S U P P O S E T H A T A R E S E A R C H P R O B L E M I N A B R O A D G E N E R A L W A Y I S A S F O L L O W S : D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H 31 “Why is productivity in Japan so much higher than in India”? In this form the question has several ambiguities such as: What sort of productivity is being referred to? With what industries the same is related? With what period the productivity is being talked about? • In view of all such ambiguities the given statement or the question is much too general to be amenable to analysis.
  • 32. • Rethinking and discussions about the problem may result in narrowing down the question to: • “What factors were responsible for the higher labour productivity of Japan’s manufacturing industries during the decade 1971 to 1980 relative to India’s manufacturing industries?” • This latter version of the problem is an improvement over its earlier version for the various ambiguities have been removed to the extent possible. • Further rethinking and rephrasing might place the problem on a still better operational basis as shown below: “To what extent did labour productivity in 1971 to 1980 in Japan exceed that of India in respect of 15 selected manufacturing industries? What factors were responsible for the productivity differentials between the two countries by industries?” D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H 32
  • 33. D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H 33 With this sort of formulation, the various terms involved such as ‘labour productivity’, ‘productivity differentials’, etc. must be explained clearly. The researcher must also see that the necessary data are available. In case the data for one or more industries selected are not available for the concerning time-period, then the said industry or industries will have to be substituted by other industry or industries. The suitability of the time- period must also be examined. Thus, all relevant factors must be considered by a researcher before finally defining a research problem.
  • 34. C O N C L U S I O N • We may conclude by saying that the task of defining a research problem, very often, follows a sequential pattern—the problem is stated in a general way, the ambiguities are resolved, thinking and rethinking process results in a more specific formulation of the problem so that it may be a realistic one in terms of the available data and resources and is also analytically meaningful. • All this results in a well-defined research problem that is not only meaningful from an operational point of view but is equally capable of paving the way for the development of working hypotheses and for means of solving the problem itself. D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H 34
  • 35. R E F E R E N C E S 1. https://www.questionpro.com/blog/what-is- research/ Accessed on 17-01-2022 12:44pm 2. http://www.vkmaheshwari.com/WP/?p=2472#:~ :text=It%20includes%3B%20research%20desi gn%2C%20Study,a%20philosophy%20of%20r esearch%20process. Accessed on 17-01-2022 3. https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/career- development/basic-research-vs-applied- research Accessed on 17-01-2022 4. d.com/career-advice/career- development/types-of-research Accessed on 17-01-2022 5. https://www.indeed.com/career-advice/career- development/types-of-research Accessed on 17-01-2022 6. https://www.cusb.ac.in/images/cusb- files/2020/el/cbs/MCCOM2003C04%20(Busine ss%20Research%20Methods)Research_Metho dology_C_R_Kothari.pdf 35 D R . V I J A Y V I S H W A K A R M A _ I N T R O D U C T I O N T O R E S E A R C H