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Defensive driving


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We need to be safe on roads, particularly in India as we have probably the highest rates of accidents and deatjs on roads due to various reasons. This presentation educates drivers as to what they need to do in order to make roads safe for themselves as well as for others

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Defensive driving

  1. 1. Defensive Driving
  2. 2. What is defensive driving• Not just driving by laid down rules and the basic mechanics of driving.• Risk reduction by: – anticipating dangerous situations – despite adverse conditions or the mistakes of others• Through – Safety common sense – Specific driving techniques.
  3. 3. Accident statistics (annual)US• About 50,000 people die• Over twenty-two million are injured.• Costs more than $ 80 billion.India• Highest number of road accidents in the world.• 35 in India as compared to 4-10 per 1000 vehicles(Source: National Transportation Planning and Research Centre (NTPRC))
  4. 4. More Indian Statistics• In 2006-07 – 1.05 lakh people killed in road traffic crashes – 6 lakh got injured, majority with grievous injuries.• Each day – nearly 300 Indians are killed on roads. – 1600 people get injured• India has world’s highest fatality rate- 3 times higher than that of USA which has 4 times vehicle
  5. 5. Why teach you defensive driving?• You are educated• You have a valid driving license obtained after a proper driving test • You are a careful driver • You are driving on good roads • You have not met with any accident• You never have a drink and driveStill…..
  6. 6. Who do you share the road with• Jaywalking pedestrian• Cyclist with his wife and kid• Motorcyclist with full family• Auto driver with 2 passengers in driver seat• Jack rabbit cab driver after night shift• Bus driver swearing at all others• Truck driver coming from Punjab to Tamilnadu• Cement concrete mixer, bulldozer, ox cart, hand cart, crane
  7. 7. Do you trust all the road users?• What makes us trust any one? – Integrity • Are you sure that all drivers in India got valid driving licenses, or they passed the test at all? – Intention • Do you think they want you to be safe – Capabilities • Do you have confidence that all the drivers are able to see, hear, or are in full senses while driving? – Results • Do you know about their driving history, how many accidents they had in the past?
  8. 8. If you call these drivers by acommon name “Pappu”, what can you say about them?
  9. 9. Pappu can’t drive Saala
  10. 10. In addition…..You share the road with
  11. 11. 13
  12. 12. Horses, cows, dogs, donkeys, elephants, potholes, stones, openmanholes …..
  13. 13. That is why - “Defensive Driving”You need to defend your life in this dangerous environment that is Indian roads
  14. 14. Why do we have bad drivers?• Rash and negligent driving, the law requires just Rs 950 to get bail• Section 304 (a) of the IPC states ‘death caused by a rash and negligent act does not amount to culpable homicide or murder.’’. (First introduced in 1870)• Film actors Puru Raj kumar and Aditya Pancholi paid Rs 950 each in hit- and-run accidents at Mumbai in 1993 and 1999 respectively. – Three pavement dwellers killed by Puru – Two constables on night patrol knocked down by Aditya• After being convicted, Puru had to pay a fine of Rs 30,000 to the families of the deceased and Rs 500 each to the injured.• Other examples – BMW, Salman Khan
  15. 15. Causes of Accident• Human Error (80% of all causes) – Own error – Error by others using road – Error by others who maintain road• Types of human error – Driver inattention – Failure to merge or yield – Speeding, racing, aggressive driving, road rage – Falling asleep – Alcohol, drugs and drunk driving – Driver distractions – mobile, music• Other causes – Bad roads – Weather – Insects in the car – Collisions with animals in the road, horses, cows and dogs and even birds
  16. 16. Vehicle maintenance
  17. 17. Listen to your vehicle• Listen to the sounds your vehicle makes. They will often tell you when things are going wrong.– A metallic scuffing sound (and feel) - brake pads are worn– Clanking and rattling - steering problem.– Whirring or shrieking noises under the hood - water pump, a power steering pump, or maybe a belt.• When you hear a noise, get it checked.• Check the oil, and make sure you keep good quality, fresh oil in the vehicle, at LEAST as often as the manufacturer requires.
  18. 18. Look for warning signs• Sudden change in brake fluid levels• Check the brakes checked regularly. – If brake pads wear down too far, they not only wont stop you when needed, but theyll carve trenches into your rotors.• Check your coolant level. – Make sure you have the cooling system serviced according to the manufacturers schedule. – Your mechanic says, "Pay me now, or pay me more later."
  19. 19. Maintain Your Vehicles Tires• Your tires should have plenty of tread. – If they dont, replace them.• Correct inflation is extremely important• Want to save a load of change? – You can waste one third of the tread life of your tires by running with them 10% low on air.• How does low tire pressure affect vehicle handling? – Low pressures adversely affect braking performance. – Low pressures also can affect your ability to steer and corner. – Spend five or ten minutes each week with your tires.
  20. 20. Attitude• Do not trust others on road• Have patience• Do not get angry• Do not get into arguments• Accept others’ impatience
  21. 21. Written behind a truck Chalte raho, Badte Raho Raho Sabke Aage Apne Saathiyon se aage raho Kisiko aage nikalne na do Tabee to tum ek achha ……… Carry on, carry on Do not be deterred by any one Be at the refront Let not others put you behind Remember that you are second to none Then only you will become ……
  23. 23. Truck Drivers• Give them plenty of room. – A truck is like an ocean liner -- developing massive amounts of energy to move down the road. – They cannot maneuver easily – A truck driver is trained to leave plenty of space around the vehicle.• Dont follow closely, either. – If you are close behind the trailer, the chances are the driver cannot see you. – You also cannot see the road in front of the truck. – Look for his mirrors -- if you can see his FACE in the mirror, he can see you. – If you dont have a good following distance and he hits the brakes you have a risk of rear-ending the truck
  24. 24. Truck Drivers• Watch for his signals – A truck makes wide turns. – Many collisions occur when a truck swings left to make a wide right turn, and an unaware driver tries to pass on the right as he starts to swing right again.• Use your lights to communicate. – Its not possible for the driver of a long truck to see exactly where the rear of the truck is. – Let him know hes safely past by switching your headlights on/off. – In daylight, watch his mirror and when you see him look at you, turn your lights on for a few seconds. – At night, turn your lights off for a second or two.26
  25. 25. Courtesy• Respect other road users by: – Don’t do any unpredictable things. Dangerous drivers do that – Do not put others road users to danger – Signal your intentions well in time. Do not surprise others. – Do not change lanes at will. – Do not honk when not required – Honk when required – Follow the right of way rule. If in doubt, stop and go.
  26. 26. Do Not Trust Anyone• Drive with a wary attitude, expecting that others will commit a mistake• Most collisions occur when the other guy did something you were not expecting• Be careful of approaching red lights, a light by itself never stopped anyone.• Someone may change lane without signalling• A pedestrian can suddenly decide to cross• A cyclist may veer to one side as he fancies• Some one can open the door and come out of a stopped vehicleBe alert to the possibilities and have a strategy in mind for dealing with them.
  27. 27. Exercise Prudent Courtesy• Courtesy is important – Example: youre on a freeway, with three lanes of traffic that are narrowing to two lanes just ahead. – Do you encounter drivers who stay as close as they can to the rear bumper of the vehicle ahead, so the folks in the right lane cannot merge? – Have you done the same thing to others? – The result is a sure bottleneck and backed-up traffic.• Courtesy is important, but be beware of unintended consequences.• When being courteous, think about the big picture
  28. 28. Road Rage• It is in your attitude.• You can get angry or give a cool response for others’ mistakes on the road. This is what Stephen Covey calls as “Responsability”.• Anger leads to danger. – Recently one driver stabbed another driver after arguments about overtaking.• Even if you are right, don’t argue on road(Remember Sidhu who faced a court case for 15 years after an argument and death of an old man when Sidhu slapped him after an argument about parking)
  29. 29. Own precautions• Avoiding distraction• Fully aware• Paying attention• Using helmets, seat belts• Observing speed limits
  30. 30. A careless driver on a cell phone rushed through a red light at 80 kmph and struck driver’s door driving at 30 kmph. This car was pushed 40 feet and driver’s neck was broken in 2 places. She died instantly. The other driver has not been charged with. anything due to no witnesses willing to get involved and make a statement at the scene.
  31. 31. Is your head replaceable?
  32. 32. Motorcyclist — Protect Thyself !• A helmet is not a cure-all• Wear a good helmet eye protection, protective clothing, and good boots.• Wear bright clothes or jacket so as to be visible by others• Driver and pillion driver should not wear loose fitting clothes – pallu, dupatta etc need to be properly tucked.• There have been cases where pallu got entangled with spokes of the wheel resulting in death .• Be soft on the front brake.
  33. 33. Avoid Head Injuries• Whats the one part of the human body that doesnt heal quickly (or at all) if injured? – 40-50% accidents result in brain injuries – Long term effects can be permanent and life-altering.. – Other parts heal fast – brain doesn’t – Even in minor injuries, blood clot or hemorrhage can be fatal• In minor head injury – Recovery in 3 to 4 months (still, some dont) – Moderate head injuries - 6 to 9 months – Severe – no recovery or fatal
  34. 34. Non impact head injuries• Whipping movement possible in a collision• Twisting or stretching the thousands of nerve fibers and soft tissues in the brain, and also result in ruptures of the veins and arteries within it.• It doesnt take much force to cause serious brain injuries – impacts as low as 10kmph can cause fatalities.
  35. 35. Helmets• Always wear a helmet - Buy the best money can buy.• Objections - spondilitis, hair loss , too heavy etc• Many carry helmets but do not wear them. (Recently an engineer fell on a bridge from his 2 wheeler. He was not wearing a helmet although he was carrying one. He suffered a head injury and died)• If caught, fine is cheap - just Rs 50, but accident may cost life
  36. 36. Wear your seat belt!• Seat belts are the most significant safety device ever invented. They – provide impact protection, – absorb crash forces, – keep you from being thrown out of the vehicle.• The belts hold you in place while the vehicle collapses around your "safe" zone.
  37. 37. “Reasons" for not wearing seat belts• They wrinkle my clothes• Theyre uncomfortable• I want to be thrown clear of the vehicle in a crash• I dont want to be trapped if theres a collision, or my vehicle ends up in the water, or on fire• Its a free country• What about others who ride with you — what if they wont wear belts?39
  38. 38. Keep Your Child Safe – Rear Centre• The safest place for a child is in the center of the rear seat, in a protective seat• The front-right seat in an American vehicle has sometimes been referred to as the "suicide" chair – not safe• A child doesnt "fit" the passive safety equipment at that location and you increase the likelihood of injury.• Both seat belts and air bags can injure the occupant if they do not fit correctly.
  39. 39. Do not keep loose objects in the car• Loose objects can fly and injure you when you stop suddenly• One driver had kept a bottle of water on the seat. When he suddenly braked, water bottle fell and got entangled in the brake pedal and he could not stop• Result – he crashed against a car
  40. 40. High heels for the lady …• I met with an accident today. I hate to admit but it was my fault. I couldn’t brake on reflex due to my high heels. Most of the time when I wear shoes with heels, I remove them while driving. And sometimes I forget to do so and today was that day. And as I turned right outside my society gate looking to my right and left - actually I took a fleeting glance towards the left and judged the water tanker to be far – the water tanker was right there in front of me and I was in the middle of the road, my car slightly turned towards right. And when my brain signaled me to brake right there, I couldn’t manage to because of my heels. Thank God, I was slow, so the damage was to the left headlight of my car.42
  41. 41. Observe Speed Limits• Normal reaction time is between .75 second and 1.5 seconds, on average. A• Average reaction time distance at 80 kmph – 30 m• At 110 kmph, it is 40 m• These numbers do not include braking distance, just reaction time.• A defensive driver chooses a speed matching traffic as closely as possible without exceeding speed limits.• Speeding often doesnt save much time. – the difference between 100 Kmph and 130 kmph over 80 miles is only 8.7 minutes.
  42. 42. Create Space: Use the "Two-Second- Plus Rule"• Guard your safety - Create space around your vehicle – Maintain at LEAST two seconds of following distance, more if you can.• How do you apply the two-second rule? – Watch as the vehicle ahead passes some object—I often use shadows or marks on the road surface—then count "one-thousand-one, one thousand two." If you pass that same spot before getting to "two," youre too close—back off!
  43. 43. Do not focus on anything• Dont concentrate on any one thing in your field of view for more than a second. – Your focused field of vision is very narrow, less than 5 feet wide at 100 feet. Everything else you see is first picked up by your peripheral vision, which is effective at picking up motion but doesnt provide a clear view.45
  44. 44. Importance of peripheral vision• It is not clear or focused, but it detects movement—it is your "early warning" vision.• If you focus on any one thing, peripheral vision immediately begins to narrow down into "tunnel" vision• Loss of ability to detect movement to the sides.• Keeping your eyes moving prevents this from occurring. – Look as far down the road as possible, and use a scanning motion to take in and analyze everything that is happening around you or close enough to be a hazard.46
  45. 45. Pay attention to road ahead• Look ahead where you will be 15-20 seconds – not 5 seconds• Gives time to recognize and avoid most potential hazards before they become a problem.• You can observe – Lane restrictions or construction areas, – Traffic congestion, truck entrances, mishaps, etc. – Balls rolling into the street followed by children – Cars about to pull out from parallel parking – Pedestrians hidden between vehicles etc.
  46. 46. Overtaking• Never overtake from the wrong side – you do not know when the driver in front will change lanes.• Give enough warning to the driver in front about your intention – use horn and headlight• Do not overtake while taking turns• Do not overtake if your vehicle cannot go faster than the vehicle in front.• Beware of vehicles comings in the wrong direction when you try to overtake.
  47. 47. Falling asleep while driving• Most people require at least eight hours of sleep to avoid feeling sleepy the next morning• Sleep deprivation or ‘sleep debt’ is a chronic lack of sleep• Leads to the driver dosing off unintentionally while at the wheel.• Caused for 1 lakh accidents, 71,000 injuries and 1,500 fatalities in US (US National highway traffic safety administration report)• Long highways lead to monotonous driving and results in driver going to sleep
  48. 48. Precautions to avoid micro-sleep• Micro sleeps are brief, unintended episodes of loss of attention due to lack of sleep, fatigue. – They last a few seconds. – Likely to occur at certain times of the day - pre-dawn and mid afternoon hours• Passengers in the car should remain awake to avoid driver from going to sleep.• Pilgrims on multi-stop temple visits generally fall asleep as a whole group and the driver is usually the only one awake through the whole night.
  49. 49. Don’t drive impaired• Impairment is defined as "making something worse, less, weaker, or damaged."• Applied to driving, impairment means there is a factor present that decreases your ability to operate your vehicle safely.• Impairment can be through alcohol or other drugs.• Other forms of impairment can be through fatigue, or as a result of disabling injuries or illness.• Alcohol is a prime cause of impairment. – If impairment causes your reaction time to double, for example, at 70 mph that can result in an additional 103 feet traveled. Obviously, this could mean the difference between a miss and a collision. Driving with other impairments could have similar results.
  50. 50. Blind spots• All vehicles have blind areas – A car typically has blind areas at the sides near the rear of the vehicle – Other vehicles may be blind to anything that is directly behind. – Vehicles in which the driver sits very high may have forward-quarter blind – Adjust your position relative to other traffic to stay out of other drivers blind spots whenever you can. – Tractor-trailer rigs have their own particular blind spots.• Check your mirrors every 5 to 8 seconds while driving, but that is not enough. – Mirrors also will not reveal a vehicle that is changing lanes from two lanes away – It is very important to turn your head and look before making a lane change.• Even parked vehicles have blind areas. – Kids often play around cars. – Before you start up and back out your vehicle, take a quick turn around the vehicle to make sure nothing, living or inanimate, is under or behind your wheels.
  51. 51. Be seen by others• Use your lights and horn when necessary to let others know you are there.• Position yourself in a lane (left or right) so others can see you.• Dont drive in other drivers blind spots.• Make sure to signal ALL turns even if not required by law.• Make certain that your brake lights are functioning properly – Much of another drivers reaction time might be consumed if your brake lights dont alert them to the fact you are slowing or stopping—and they may not be left with enough space to avoid hitting you once they see you are stopping. – Tap the brakes once or twice before applying them, so that the flashing brake lights alert the following driver• Turn on your headlights in the daytime – When you are driving on two-lane highways—this has been shown to increase your visibility to oncoming traffic. – Turn on your lights in tunnels.
  52. 52. Driving at 140 km/h,in a turn, lookeddown at the stereo toturn up the music.,went over to corner ofroad, tried to turnback and lost control.The car flipped and Irolled 7 or 8 times andlanded in the ditch.
  53. 53. Avoid Distractions• Most of those involved in collisions and survive will say "I never saw him!"• Quite often, its because they were not paying attention to their surroundings and situation• Inattention was because the driver was distracted.• Avoid getting distracted.• Some of the most common driving distractions : – Eating – Drinking – applying make-up – talking on cell phones – adjusting the radio or changing CDs – dealing with misbehaving kids – talking to passengers.• You can help make the road much safer - keep driving task as JOB ONE
  54. 54. Carbon monoxide poisoning in parked cars• Automobile exhaust contains carbon monoxide. – Colourless, odourless, and tasteless poisonous gas. – Gives no warning of its presence. – If cars parked on flooded roads keep the engine running, the exhaust enters the car and has killed the passengers, who just go to sleep and die in sleep, with no signs of struggle. – Examples: Mumbai (4 cars – 16 passengers on 26 Jul 05 – Precaution – Do not lock the car doors, leave windows partially open, do not run engine.• Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning : – Nausea and vomiting, dizziness, lightheadedness, and loss of sensation in the hands or feet. – Sleep and death in sleep if exposure prolonged
  55. 55. Deal with Light Glare• At high speeds, having sharp night vision is important• Headlights these days are brighter than ever. – halogen lights, or even the newer "blue" high intensity discharge lights, reduce your ability to recover from nighttime light glare. – As we get older, our ability to recover our night-vision after exposure reduces.• Precautions: – Slow down at night as you have slow recovery – If opposite driver shows bright light, do not do likewise – better to have one blind person rather than two.
  56. 56. • It is also illegal to turn your bright lights on in the face of another driver, or approaching closely behind them, even for just a moment.• Deal with light glare by averting your eyes slightly down and to the right. – The right-side white stripe outlining the right edge of the usable roadway is called the "fog-line." – One of its purposes is to provide drivers with a reference line to keep their vehicle aligned with the roadway in poor visibility situations -- and this is one such situation. – Use it to keep your vehicle on the road, but keep aware of the approaching vehicle using your peripheral vision. If that vehicle starts to drift into your lane, you must be able to react quickly
  57. 57. Beware of Stopped or Slow-Moving Vehicles• Be cautious when passing stopped or slow-moving vehicles. – They often hide dangers that are not immediately apparent.• Stopped vehicles may have people around them who are preoccupied – Changing a tire, working under the hood, – Working under the vehicle with their legs stuck out into the road. – Maybe an animal or a child is crossing in front of them.• Use caution when approaching a slow-moving vehicle. – It creates danger when vehicles are moving at different speeds in close proximity to each other. – If you are flying up behind another vehicle, the risk of a collision is increased if a conflict develops, plus another driver moving at a very slow speed should cause you to think that something might be wrong, so you could expect other erratic behavior as well. – Be prepared to react and slow down until you see that it is safe to go around.• Exercise care if you are coming up behind a line of slower vehicles. – It is an error to take an immediate opportunity (if presented) to pass the entire line. – Some of those drivers may have been in that line for awhile and they may be getting impatient. They may "bop" out in front of you, so plan for that possibility. – It increases your safety if they know your intentions.
  58. 58. Driving on steep roads• If you are the driver of a vehicle thats held up by a slower vehicle – stay calm and patient, and dont take chances. – your safety is worth more than a moments anger.• If you are the driver of a slower vehicle – frequently give way to following traffic that wants to pass.• As a defensive driver – think about the state of mind of the other drivers around you, since their unsafe actions may also endanger you. – If you have to park on steep roads - use of hand-brake, bricks to stop the vehicle from rolling when one starts the vehicle to starting climbing. – If driving on steep roads in heavy traffic, use hand brakes so as not to allow the vehicle from sliding back in frequent stops.
  59. 59. Make Defensive Stops!• You can minimize the danger of collision at intersections by learning to stop defensively.• Make sure your deceleration to the stop doesnt surprise the guy behind you.• Pay attention to WHERE you stop. Leave space in front of your vehicle.• Stopping with space in front of you gives you room to pull forward if another vehicle comes up behind and is about to rear-end you (youre still checking those mirrors every five to eight seconds, right?). Second, if the vehicle stopped in front of you stalls or breaks down, this leaves you room to pull around.• Dont enter intersections for the first four seconds after a light change.• When the light does change, make sure you clear the cross street (look left, right, and left AGAIN) before you enter the intersection.• Finally, do you know WHERE you have to stop? You can stop sooner if you choose, but remember this: a signal or stop sign tells you that you HAVE to stop, the pavement markings tell you WHERE
  60. 60. Do not change lanes at intersections• It is dangerous to change lanes in an intersection. It may be legal or illegal.• If you are on a less busy road, it may not be unsafe to change lanes in an intersection, but not the right thing for a defensive driver• Signal a turn at least 100 feet in advance - make it a habit• Practice holding your position relative to other traffic and staying in the same lane until you are safely through.• Remember to slow down before entering the intersection to give yourself extra space and time.
  61. 61. Maintain an Even, Measured Pace• One of the most frequent factors behind collisions is the "jackrabbit" driver. – constantly changing speeds, – changing lanes, – tailgating, and otherwise not fitting into traffic.• If you observe traffic way out in front of you, you can visualize what the "flow" of traffic is, as a whole.• Practice "tortoise" style of driving! – Pick your lane, and stay in it. – Bopping and weaving from one lane to another, trying to pass every car on the road doesnt gain you much.• Relax, resist the urge to make frequent lane changes – use the two-second rule – stay alert to the dangers posed by the jack rabbits around you – If someone needs to merge into the lane, back off a bit and let them in smoothly. In doing this, you are not only maintaining the flow, but you also set an example that others will follow. When you refuse to allow another driver to merge, the person behind you does the same thing.
  62. 62. • There ARE times when two seconds isnt enough. – Leave more space when you can, and leave additional space if following a vehicle with different characteristics than yours—motorcycles or trucks, for example—or if the road surface is slippery. – Motorcycles can often stop faster than you, and trucks (or trailers) impede your vision, which can cause you not to see hazards until too late.• It is an error to think you cannot leave the appropriate space in heavy traffic. – Some dont try, because they think other vehicles will change lanes in front of them and fill the space. – It is not as common a problem as you probably think, and heavy traffic is one time when you really need the space! If someone cuts into your space, simply back off a little and get it back!• Pay attention to anyone driving next to your vehicle in other lanes. Adjust your speed to keep your vehicle "in the open," with no vehicles to the left or right, as much as you can.• It is important to leave space even when stopped for a light.
  63. 63. Road conditions• Potholes• Open manholes• Dug up sides or even middle of the roads• Low road dividers with no illumination• Unpainted speed breakers• Oil spill on road• Too smooth roads becoming slippery due to rain65
  64. 64. Hydroplaning!• Tread on your tires cannot channel all the rain-water out from under your tires• Result – no traction.• Depends on water depth, speed, weight of the vehicle, width of the tire, depth of tread, and tread pattern• The steering wheel jerks suddenly and the vehicle veers toward the puddle.• Loss of steering control.
  65. 65. Precautions in hydroplaning• You can prevent hydroplaning. – Keep good tires on your vehicle. – Keep your speed down in the rain (slow by at least 1/3) – If you are following another vehicle, try to drive in their tire tracks -- let their tires displace some of the water so yours dont have to work so hard.• Slow down before hitting a puddle or in heavy rain• Do not touch the brakes. – Slow down by smoothly lifting your foot from the accelerator – Engage your clutch
  66. 66. • Having the right away through intersections is not always going to save you. Hit by a half ton truck who had no right of way.• This car was at 65 kmph and truck at 10 kmph
  67. 67. Red light runners Running red lights kills hundreds of us every year.• Two basic types of red light runners– the daydreamer or distracted driver who just doesnt see it– the driver whos impatient and accelerates on the yellow signal instead of stopping and waiting the average 45 seconds of a signal cycle!• Some of us are guilty of both offenses.• Accidents can happen when– The green light anticipator meets the red light procrastinator– 90 degree collision – seat belt also cannot save
  68. 68. Care at intersections • If you get a yellow light, stop. – You can anticipate when the light is about to change, so it is no excuse to say it was too late. • If you have the green light, watch for the red-light runner – look left, right, then left AGAIN to make sure the intersection is safe from red light runners, who are also speeding • Running red lights is too dangerous, both for you and for others, no matter how pressured or late you are. – Slow down, grow some patience! • Do not be immersed in some thinking that you forget to see the lights70
  69. 69. Thank you71