Management of creativity; Stimulating individual creativity ... Lateral thinking , Checklists, Morphological analysis;; Stimulating group creativity ... Brainstorming, Slipwriting;; Edward De Bono's Six Thinking Hats...
Creativity Stimulation & Management By Dr. Vijay Kr Khurana
Management of CreativityMany factors block / hinder / stifle creativity; thus its management is important.Creativity is a resource which has to be managed at firm’s level for obtaining continuous improvement and innovation by:….a) Providing right organizational supportb) Supporting inventive individuals by respecting individual initiatives viz. through rewards, recognitions etc.c) Setting an inventive environmentd) Using Techniques for Stimulating Creativity
Management of Creativityc). Setting an inventive environment …..• Encourage calculated risk by allowing room for failures and tolerance for honest mistakes• Encourage people to talk to each other and promote the cross-pollination of ideas.• Minimize competitive turf issues and inter-functional squabbles.• Recognize that creative people tend to be different from most other people and tolerate their idiosyncrasies.• Supporting participatory decision-making and employees’ contribution
Management of CreativityContd ….c). Setting an inventive environment…..• Provide fast evaluation and feedback of ideas when they are submitted.• Be willing to consider partially thought out ideas and give people time to develop them further.• Maintain an openness to creative ideas from outsiders, recognizing that not everything has to be invented internally-ensure contacts with external sources of information• Willingness to experiment with new ideas• Keep channels of communication open• Allowing independence, encourage initiatives
How to Stimulate CreativityAccording to Higgins (1999) factors for encouraging the creative work climate are:• A secure environment with minimal administrative interference.• An organisational culture that makes it attractive and easy for people to discover and solve problems.• Rewards for employee performance and enhancement of intrinsic motivation.• Managerial willingness to take risks for creativity and innovation, as well as an open and flexible attitude on the part of management.• Providing people with formal and informal training to enhance creativity.
How to Stimulate Creativity• Important conditions for implementation of creative techniques within work groups in a company are also the existence of well-trained human resources, a clear strategic definition of the company and to focus on the core competencies of the company (European Commission 1998).• Solving complex problems, may require inputs from many areas, i.e. marketing, engineering, design, etc. for which the company should preferably employ multidisciplinary teams.
How to Stimulate Creativityd). Following Techniques for Stimulating Creativity• Analytical techniques vs intuitive techniques• Techniques for stimulating individual creativity vs. group creativity• Techniques for Creative techniques that rely upon divergent thinking and techniques that rely upon convergent thinking.• Aleatory techniques exploiting randomness are also common
How to Stimulate CreativityFundamental concepts for all creative techniques are:• The suspension of premature judgement and the lack of filtering of ideas.• Use the intermediate impossible.• Create analogies and metaphors, through symbols, etc., by finding similarities between the situation, which we wish to understand and another situation, which we have already understood.• Relate things or ideas which were previously unrelated• Build imaginative and ideal situations (invent the ideal vision).• Find ways to make the ideal vision happen.• Generate multiple solutions to a problem.
How to Stimulate Individual CreativityTechniques for stimulating individual creativity• Encouraging Lateral Thinking• Using Check Lists• Morphological Analysis
Stimulating Individual CreativityLATERAL THINKING• In traditional type of thinking i.e. Linear Thinking, there is forward movement by taking a number of sequential steps, each of which must be justified. Only relevant / right / justified step is selected at each stage in order to achieve a correct / planned solution. These steps are taken in planned direction. These steps influence the outcome of thinking process. This forward movement can be both in vertical directions (downward along supply chain or upward along distribution chain) and horizontal directions (increasing product range / product line). These are called vertical linear thinking and horizontal linear thinking respectively.•
Stimulating Individual CreativityLATERAL THINKING• The term Lateral Thinking was coined by Edward de Bono. Lateral thinking is concerned with generation of new ideas and "breaking out of the prisons of old ideas."• In Lateral Thinking, one may deliberately seek out irrelevant information and one may use that information not for its own sake but for its effect. One may have to be knowingly wrong at some stage in order to achieve an innovative and correct solution.
Stimulating Individual CreativityLATERAL THINKING• Lateral thinking is based on the idea that mind is a pattern making and self organizing system. Mind captures the inputs according to existing pattern of perceptions and mind is generally not willing to go beyond set pattern of perceptions thus blocking creativity.
Stimulating Individual CreativityLATERAL THINKING• Lateral Thinking is a set of related techniques primarily used for supporting creative thinking. Through these techniques, access of mind to old / existing patterns is temporarily blocked and attention is diverted to thinking and exploring some thing new and unknown.• Lateral thinking provides a way to restructure & escape from obslete patterns & to develop patterns which may be beneficial.• Lateral thinking techniques are part of overall creativity thinking techniques.
Stimulating Individual CreativityS No Linear Thinking Lateral Thinking 1 Linear thinking is logical Lateral thinking may be illogical or intuitive 2 It pursues a defined path It jumps to new paths 3 Linear thinking is compelling Lateral thinking forces the mind if the next logical step is to look at other planes of available and compelling, thus knowledge. Looking off the cutting off access to any current plane is inherently non- alternate paths (i.e. searching logical in nature. on other planes of knowledge) 4 Usually leads to ideas for Usually leads to radical or improvement in existing different ideas for new or hybrid technologies, products, services technologies, new products, or processes services or processes
Stimulating Individual CreativityTechniques of LATERAL THINKING• i) Suspending Judgement – Under this approach, evaluation / judgement of usefulness & feasibilty of suggested ideas is suspended in early stages so as to avoid killing / dropping of some good new ideas at the initial stage. Evaluation / judgement of suggested ideas is deferred to later stages.• ii) Dismantling or fractionalisation of problem into parts – A big problem may be difficult to diagnose and deal. However its complexility can be reduced by dismantling / fractionalizing it into smaller parts. Focus on smaller parts may help in thinking up ideas for problem solving thus facilitating creativity.
Stimulating Individual CreativityTechniques of LATERAL THINKING• iii) Reversal of Problem (By turning it around viz. inside-out, upside-down or back to front) - This approach helps in thinking up ideas from opposite / different prespective and thus helps in finding new or different ideas for problem solving.• iv) Use of Metaphors & Analogies - Metaphors are words or phrases applied to concepts / objects they do not literally denote & Analogies are used to express similarities between dissimilar things. Use of metaphors and analogies helps in thinking ideas for new / different uses and applications.• v) Use of random words- Use of reandom words, sometimes, may bring out fresh association of ideas thus facilitating creativity.• vi) Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats
Stimulating Individual CreativityExamples• A metaphor is a literary figure of speech that describes a subject by asserting that it is, on some point of comparison, the same as another otherwise unrelated object .• One of the most prominent examples of a metaphor in English literature is the ‘All the worlds a stage monologue’ from ‘As You Like It’:• All the world’s a stage,• And all the men and women merely players;• They have their exits and their entrances; — William Shakespeare, ‘As You Like It’, 2/7• This quote is a metaphor because the world is not literally a stage. By figuratively asserting that the world is a stage, Shakespeare uses the points of comparison between the world and a stage to convey an understanding about how the world works and the lives of the people within it.
Stimulating Individual CreativityExamples• Analogy (from Greek – analogia, "proportion") is a cognitive process of transferring information or meaning from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), and a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process.• Niels Bohrs model of the atom made an analogy between the atom and the solar system.• Use of Random Words ….. Balloon & Cars ;;; Toothbrush & Cycle wheel
Stimulating Individual CreativityCHECK LISTS• This creative technique is used mainly for improvement or modification.• It involves applying a series of words, verbs, adjectives or phrases contained in checklists or tables to an existing product or service or its attributes or area of interest .• Check lists involve listing of all attributes of interest like adapt, modify, magnify, minify, substitute, rearrange, reverse, combine.• Through this listing, focus can be narrowed down to key areas; and ideas for improvement in focussed areas can be developed.
Stimulating Individual CreativityContd … CHECK LISTS• Osborn’s Checklist is the best known and includes the verbs: put to other uses, adapt, modify, magnify, minify, substitute, rearrange, reverse and combine. Each verb contains also an expanded definition in the form of questions. For example, the description of the verb substitute is: Who else instead? What else instead? Other ingredient? Other material? Other process? Other power? Other place? Other approach? Other tone of voice?
Stimulating Individual CreativityCHECK LISTS• Another checklist technique is Van Gundy’s PICL (product improvement checklist).• Used in the same way as Osborn’s list, gives many options containing 792 words, both standard and unique, that can be applied to existing products or services, and 102 stimulation questions
Stimulating Individual CreativityMORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS• Morphological analysis combines concepts of fractionalisation of problem into smaller parts & use of checklists.• It can be used for stimulating both individual creativity and group creativity.
Stimulating Individual CreativityMORPHOLOGICAL ANALYSIS – CLOCK Alternates 1 2 3 4 Parameters Energy Manual Battery Solar Source Winding Energy Weight Spring Bimetallic No Store Store Store Store Coil Motor Spring Electric Motor Motor Regulator Balance Pendulum Tuning Quartz Wheel Fork Gearing Pinion Chain Drive Worm Drive Drive Indicator Dial Hands Slide Marks Liquid Light Device Quartz Indicators
How to Stimulate Group Creativity• Scientists / Technologists / Experts often work as members of a Group / Team. Some of the techniques used for stimulating group creativity are as under:1. BRAINSTORMING2. SLIP WRITING
Stimulating Group CreativityBRAINSTORMING• It is a method of getting a large number of ideas from a group of people in a short time.• Brainstorming sessions may take place in a group of 6-10 or required number of people. Members are usually experts / experienced persons drawn from relevant fields / departments / functions.• A leader / convener is necessary to stimulate the generation of ideas, as well as to plan for preparation phase.• Through this technique, members of the group are asked to respond to a central problem or theme. Members are asked to avoid criticism of each other.• Sessions may be free-wheeling & wild ideas may be generated.
Stimulating Group CreativityBRAINSTORMING - General rules• Focus on generation of large quantity of ideas• Withhold criticism of ideas• Welcome unusual ideas• Combine and improve ideas
Stimulating Group CreativityBRAINSTORMING - Many variants• Nominal group technique• Group passing technique• Team idea mapping method• Electronic brainstorming• Directed brainstorming• Guided brainstorming• Question brainstorming• PMI brainstorming - in which the participants are directed to brainstorm the Plus points, then the Minus points and finally the Interesting points• Individual brainstorming
Stimulating Group CreativitySome of the common problems associated with brainstorming are:• Free riding: Individuals may feel that their ideas are less valuable when combined with the ideas of the group at large.• Evaluation apprehension: Evaluation apprehension occurs only in instances of personal evaluation.• Blocking: Blocking describes the reality that only one person may gainfully voice his or her ideas in a group at any given time & ideas of others may be blocked at that time.• Social matching effect: The social matching effect is the tendency for individuals in a group to match the level of productivity & thinking of others in the group.• Illusion of group productivity: Members of groups often overestimate their productivity, a tendency known as the illusion of group productivity & hence, they may not contribute effectively.
Stimulating Group CreativityContd … problems …. brainstorming:• Process may delay evaluation of ideas• Dominant groups may try to monopolize the process• Undue focus on attaining consensus amongst members can undermine creativity• No reference material may be provided beforehand to participating members• There could be emotional involvement of some of participants, leading to conflicts etc
Stimulating Group CreativitySome benefits of SLIP WRITING technique are :• It preserves anonymity of person contributing the ideas• It overcomes many problems associated with brainstorming like domination by a particular group, chances of emotional involvement etc.
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking Hats• The Six Thinking Hats is a method devised by Edward De Bono and meant to improve the results of thinking and discussion.• It may be used either by oneself or in a group.• As per Edward De Bono .. .. by separating six different types of thinking we can make our thinking clearer and more thorough.• These six thinking hats / perspectives are : White Hat, Green Hat, Yellow Hat, Black Hat, Red Hat, Blue Hat
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking HatsWhite Hat represents facts, information, and statistical data, as well as identifying missing information and from which sources it may be collected.White Hat Thinking- Facts Oriented• Information and data• Neutral and objective• What do I know?• What do I need to find out?• How will I get the information I need?
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking HatsYellow Hat signifies positive rationality, and is used to look at the positive aspects of a situation or idea, on the potential benefits of the suggested course of action, and on the parties who are expected to profit from it.Yellow Hat Thinking- Benefits• Positives, plus points• Logical reasons are given.• Why an idea is useful
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking HatsBlack Hat is in a way the opposite of the Yellow Hat. It is used for discussing the negative repercussions of the plan, the potential dangers, and any criticism on the logic of arguments made in its support.Black Hat Thinking - Cautions• Focus on difficulties, weaknesses, dangers• Spotting the risks• Logical reasons are given.
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking HatsGreen Hat stands for creativity and unconventional thinking. Under this perspective / hat, people are encouraged to think creativelyGreen Hat Thinking - Creativity• Ideas, alternatives, possibilities• Thought Provocation• Solutions to black hat problems
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking HatsRed Hat symbolizes emotions and feelings. Under this perspective / hat, people are “encouraged" to express their feelings about the subject or to share their general mood, which might be affecting their participation or lack of it.Red Hat Thinking - Feelings• Intuition, hunches, gut instinct• Our Feelings right now.• Feelings can change.• No reasons may be given.
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking HatsBlue Hat - This perspective / hat is used for directing the discussion, for switching hats when necessary, for summarizing the major points of the discussion, as well as for making decisions.Blue Hat Thinking- Controlling Process• Thinking about thinking• What thinking is needed?• Organizing the thinking• Planning for action
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking HatsExample:• Step 1: Present the facts of the case (White Hat).• Step 2: Generate ideas on how the case could be handled (Green Hat).• Step 3: Evaluate the merits of the ideas- List the benefits (Yellow Hat), List the drawbacks (Black Hat).• Step 4: Get everybody’s gut feelings about the alternatives (Red Hat).• Step 5: Summarize and adjourn the meeting (Blue Hat).
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking HatsMain benefits … contd :• Allow to say things without risk.• Create awareness that there are multiple perspectives on the issue at hand.• Convenient mechanism for ‘switching gears’ from one perspective to another.• Rules for the game of thinking.• Focussed thinking.• Leads to more creative thinking.• Leads to Improved communication.• Leads to Improved decision making.
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking HatsMain benefits … contd ..:• De Bono’s Six Hats represent six very different ways of thinking. By using this model one will be able to easily find several ways for getting a message through.• We can save time in thinking about the ideas, and use a clear methodology for producing new ideas whenever we need them.
Edward De Bono’s Six Thinking HatsMain benefits .. Contd …:• This matches the real life differences in different persons that different persons are influenced by different kinds of communication. Some are deeply affected by emotion, while others are more susceptive to logical reasoning, and a third group may need a fair amount of objective information in order to make their own judgment.• By using creative communication ideas covering all types of thinking, we will be able to choose those that best fit our audience, or even to use all types of thinking to ensure that anyone can find what they are looking for in our message.
Creativity Stimulation & Management By Dr. Vijay Kr Khurana