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Environmental Factors
Affecting Pavement Design
Vijai KrishnanV
M.Tech Student
RIT Kottayam
Factors affecting pavement design
 Wheel load
 Subgrade soil
 Pavement component materials
 Climatic and Environmental Factors
 Drainage
Climatic Factors
 Variation in moisture condition
 Frost action
 Variation in temparature
Variation in Moisture Content
 Depends on
1. Climatic conditions
2. Fluctuations of ground water level
3. Type of soil
4. Drainage conditions
5. Type of pavement and shoulders
 Rain  Surface water enter subgrade through pavement
or its edge
 Capillary action in subgrade soil also affect moisture
content
 High plasticity soil  volume vary with variation in water
content
 Differential rise or fall of pavement edges  subgrade
moisture content below centre is different from that at
pavement edge
 Stability of subgrade  decrease due to adverse moisture
conditions – progressive and cumulative damage to
pavement
 High moisture variation – controlled by surface and
subsurface drainage system
 Poor drainage  Reduce shear strength
Pumping in rigid pavements
Frost Action
 Overall effect due to frost heave, frost melting and alternate
freeze-thaw cycle
 Frost Heave
 During winter
 Held water in subgrade form ice crystals at freezing temperature
 Size of crystal increase  raise a portion of pavement
 Non-uniform heaving cause damage
 Frost Melting
 During spring/summer
 Increase in temperature result in melting or thawing of frozen crystals
soften subgrade/road bed
 Decrease load bearing capacity due to voids created by
melting
 Excessive deflection under heavy traffic progressive failure
 Frost action depends on :-
 Soil - type, GSD, density, permeability and capillarity
 Temperature below freezing point and its duration
 Supply of water – capillarity or soil suction
 Type and colour of pavement
Freeze-thaw damage
on flexibile pavement
 Frost action prevention :-
 Proper surface and subsurface drainage
 Sufficient thickness for each layer
 Use non-frost susceptible material – clean sand, gravel
 Capillary cutoff – granular or bituminous layer, geotextile
 Soil stabilization
 Mix CaCl2 and NaCl with soil – lower freezing temperature
Variation in Temperature
 Daily and seasonal variation
 Affect design, performance and life of pavement
 Flexible Pavement
 Hot weather  bitumen binder softens
 Very cold weather  bitumen stiffens or become brittle
 Affect resilient modulus of surface course
 Rigid Pavement
 Temperature or frictional stresses are developed
Environmental Factors Affecting Pavement Design

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Environmental Factors Affecting Pavement Design

  • 1. Environmental Factors Affecting Pavement Design Vijai KrishnanV M.Tech Student RIT Kottayam
  • 2. Factors affecting pavement design  Wheel load  Subgrade soil  Pavement component materials  Climatic and Environmental Factors  Drainage
  • 3. Climatic Factors  Variation in moisture condition  Frost action  Variation in temparature
  • 4. Variation in Moisture Content  Depends on 1. Climatic conditions 2. Fluctuations of ground water level 3. Type of soil 4. Drainage conditions 5. Type of pavement and shoulders
  • 5.  Rain  Surface water enter subgrade through pavement or its edge  Capillary action in subgrade soil also affect moisture content  High plasticity soil  volume vary with variation in water content
  • 6.  Differential rise or fall of pavement edges  subgrade moisture content below centre is different from that at pavement edge  Stability of subgrade  decrease due to adverse moisture conditions – progressive and cumulative damage to pavement
  • 7.  High moisture variation – controlled by surface and subsurface drainage system  Poor drainage  Reduce shear strength Pumping in rigid pavements
  • 8. Frost Action  Overall effect due to frost heave, frost melting and alternate freeze-thaw cycle  Frost Heave  During winter  Held water in subgrade form ice crystals at freezing temperature  Size of crystal increase  raise a portion of pavement  Non-uniform heaving cause damage
  • 9.  Frost Melting  During spring/summer  Increase in temperature result in melting or thawing of frozen crystals soften subgrade/road bed  Decrease load bearing capacity due to voids created by melting  Excessive deflection under heavy traffic progressive failure
  • 10.
  • 11.  Frost action depends on :-  Soil - type, GSD, density, permeability and capillarity  Temperature below freezing point and its duration  Supply of water – capillarity or soil suction  Type and colour of pavement Freeze-thaw damage on flexibile pavement
  • 12.  Frost action prevention :-  Proper surface and subsurface drainage  Sufficient thickness for each layer  Use non-frost susceptible material – clean sand, gravel  Capillary cutoff – granular or bituminous layer, geotextile  Soil stabilization  Mix CaCl2 and NaCl with soil – lower freezing temperature
  • 13. Variation in Temperature  Daily and seasonal variation  Affect design, performance and life of pavement  Flexible Pavement  Hot weather  bitumen binder softens  Very cold weather  bitumen stiffens or become brittle  Affect resilient modulus of surface course  Rigid Pavement  Temperature or frictional stresses are developed