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Classical genetics


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Classical genetics

  1. 1. Classical Genetics<br />
  2. 2. Species characteristics<br />Characteristics/traits shared by all individuals of a species<br />E.g. Presence of eyes, nose, arms etc. Of humans<br />
  3. 3. Individual characteristics<br />Characteristics/traits that are unique/distinct to an individual of a species<br />E.g skin color on humans<br />
  4. 4. Factors that affect individuality<br />Theory of blending inheritance<br />Traits manifested on ofsspring are a combination of the traits of the parents<br />Heredity (nature)<br />Environment (nurture)<br />
  5. 5. Nature-Nurture Controversy<br />“Which is a more important factor in how your personality develops – nature or nurture?”<br />What are the different factors that affect individuality?<br />How does heredity bring about traits in every individual?<br />How does environment affect an individual’s traits?<br />
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  8. 8. Objectives<br />cite specific examples of each of the four types if hereditary characters<br />explain inheritance based on Mendelian laws<br />
  9. 9. Hereditary Characters<br />Characters that are controlled by genes<br />Genes <br />factors of heredity<br />transmitted from one generation to the next<br />Which do you inherit from your parents?, the genes or the characters?<br />
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  11. 11. Hereditary Characters<br />Morphological<br />Characters that refer to structure or form such as shape, length or color of body parts<br />E.g. fur color in cats<br />hitchhiker’s thumb<br /> bent little finger<br />
  12. 12. Hereditary Characters<br />Physiological <br />Characters that refer to the functions of parts <br />e.g. lactose intolerance and diabetes mellitus<br />
  13. 13. Hereditary Characters<br />Behavioral<br />externally directed activities in response to stimuli<br />examples are instincts such as crying and thumb sucking in babies<br />
  14. 14. Hereditary Characters<br />Sexual<br />Characters that are associated with being male or female<br />E.g. moustache<br />
  15. 15. Classifying Hereditary Characters<br />Classify the following and present your answer in tabulated form:<br />Hitchhiker’s thumb 8.Internal and external genitalia<br />Cleft chin 9. Spinning of spider’s web<br />Bent little finger 10. Pubic hair<br />Lactose intolerance 11. Diabetes mellitus<br />Fur color in cats 12. Bird migration<br />Widow’s peak 13. widening of hips in females<br />Polydactyly 14. appearance of Adam’s apples <br />
  16. 16. Hereditary Characters<br />
  17. 17. Hereditary Characters<br />
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  20. 20. Mendel’s Experiments<br />Gregor Johann Mendel – Father of Classical Genetics<br />Austrian monk and a botanist<br />Joined the Augustinian Monastery of St.Thomas at Brunn, Austria <br />Spent 10 years in experimenting garden peas (Pisumsativum)<br />Another 2 years in analyzing the results<br />
  21. 21. Why garden peas?<br />The plant has several characters that exhibit two contrasting expressions or traits.<br />The plant reproduces at a fast rate.<br />Garden peas can produce enough offspring for study purposes<br />Garden pea flowers are structurally adapted for self-pollination<br />Pollination can be controlled in this group of plants with minimum work<br />
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  24. 24. Mendel’s Experimental Design<br />Mendel studied one character with two contrasting expressions at a time, e.g. seed color, yellow and green.<br />yellow-seeded plants  self-pollination  pure-breeding yellow-seeded plants<br />green-seeded plants  self-pollination  pure-breeding green-seeded plants<br />2. Mendel cross-pollinated the two pure-breeding plants with contrasting expressions for the same character (seed shape used in the example.)<br />
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  26. 26. Mendel’s Experimental Design<br />2. The parents were referred to as the first parental (P1) generation. The offspring produced from the cross is referred to as the first filial (F1) generation.<br />Law of Dominance – some traits are transmitted to and manifested in offspring more often than others<br />Dominant traits – traits that are expressed<br />Recessive traits – traits that are hidden or not expressed<br />
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  28. 28. Mendel’s Experimental Design<br />3. Mendel allowed the F1 plants to self-pollinate. He noted that some of the offspring expressed the recessive trait. <br />
  29. 29. Two important observations:<br />When the F1 plants that expressed only the domonant trait were self-pollinated, some of their offspring (f2) expressed the recessive trait.<br />The ratio of the plants with dominant traits to the plants with recessive traits is almost 3:1<br />
  30. 30. F1 plants have “unit determiners/characters”<br />F1 plants with yellow seed color – two unit determiners: one for the yellow, one for the green seed color<br />Mendel  unit determiners<br />Walter Sutton (1902)  GENES<br />
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  34. 34. Mendelian Principles of Inheritance<br />Seed color<br />G – yellow<br />g – green<br />:: G and g  alleles (alternative/different forms of the gene for the seed color)<br />:: genes appear in pairs <br />:: yellow-seeded plants – GG<br />:: green –seeded plants - gg<br />
  35. 35. Phenotype – physical expression of the character<br />Genotype – set of genes that an organism has<br />Homozygous – gene pairs that are made up of identical genes<br />Heterozygous – gene pairs that are made up of dissimilar genes<br />
  36. 36. Seatwork: Identify if the following gene pairs are homozygous or heterozygous<br />AA 6. SSrr<br />Rr 7. GG<br />aaBB 8. LLll<br />MmNN 9. CCrr<br />PpQq 10. Jj<br />