Often times we focus on training acceleration, however it is the deceleration phase of sports that causes the most injury. Functional Training methods help address this problem by teaching: Agility/Quick Change of Direction Balance Flexibility Core Strength Functional Training Methods are concerned with proprioception -- developing strength we can use. Deciding which exercise to meet your goal, decide…… What joints are involved/which muscles are used What is speed of contraction What is ROM of joint What equipment
The key in almost any sport is – rotation. That is why functional training emphasizes movement in all 3 planes of the body. We will demonstrate a variety of movement in our video. In his book, Carlos Santana describes an athlete who can do squats with 450 lbs of weight (not multi directional, multiplanar, and multidimensional) , however he could not do a single leg squat in all 3 with NO weight in all three planes.
What makes one athlete better than another? Certainly innate ability plays an integral role. However, what we are here to suggest to you today, is that athletic ability can be greatly enhance through proper training. Mark Vestegren in his book Core Performance states that while leg curls, tricep press, crunches, pushups and bench press are all traditional ways to train strength, no running, weight lifting or swimming program can compensate for a body that cannot perform functional movements with strength, agility and balance. Using the FT Pyramids you will be able to teach athletes from the physical education student to the elite performer how to become better and stronger by increasing endurance, flexibility, balance, speed, agility and power. We will show you how to transfer absolute strength to functional strength and give you concrete ideas to bring back to the athletic field and the classroom.
Our functional training pyramids present a way to increase athleticism: Ability to execute athletic movements at optimal speed with precision, style and grace. Teachers and coaches need to train athletes to be able to train athletes to be create greater transfer of absolute strength to the functional strength forthe target activity. Functional training guru, Carlos Santana, describes an athlete who can squat 450 pounds, but cannot do a single leg squat in all three planes.
Definition: Vern Gambetta says that we usually emphasize acceleration in sports, but it is in deceleration where most of the injuries occur and therefore, it is what needs to be trained.
Balance is often underrated. It involves keeping the center of gravity over the base of support in the dynamic and static postural alignment. Balance is a component of all movement whether that movement is dominated by strength, speed, flexibility or stamina. Balance is closely related to coordination and agility because they are dependent on a well-developed sense of balance. Poor balance leads to poor technical skill development which can lead to less than stellar performances.
For the last pyramid, we have chosen to show how to increase flexibility by using yoga as the modality to show there are other activities/skills that can help increase functionality We all know that stretching can be - Static, Ballistic or can be achieved by using PNF . However, the benefits we are trying to achieve by increasing flexibility are: Increased ROM Goal of Flexibility: Decreased risk of injury To Strengthen (first) and lengthen Enhanced physical performance FT accomplishes these goals
Functional training pyramids
Functional Training Pyramids: For Physical Education Student to Elite Athlete Presented by: Bonnie Swarsen and Jennifer Tricoli Production Assistant: John Haynor New Trier High School Kinetic Wellness Department
GOALS <ul><li>To change teaching methods from traditional training methods toward an elite functional paradigm </li></ul><ul><li>2. To demonstrate how to merge absolute strength with functional strength </li></ul><ul><li>3. To enhance performance and prevent injury </li></ul><ul><li>4. To present concrete ideas to bring back to the classroom </li></ul>
What is Functional Training? <ul><li>Integrated, multidirectional, multidimensional, multiplanar movements </li></ul><ul><li>Movements that require acceleration, deceleration and stabilization in all 3 planes of motion: </li></ul><ul><li>Works the core – the genesis of all movement </li></ul>Train Movement Not Muscles Frontal (Coronal) Transverse Saggital
How Does Functional Training Work? <ul><li>Functional Training Works by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>creating proprioceptively-enriched environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>working the entire core area to produce stability and strength </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>creating better balance, agility, speed, power, and reaction time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>integrating not isolating muscles </li></ul></ul>
What is Agility? <ul><li>Definition : The ability to explosively brake, change direction and accelerate again while maintaining good control and without decreasing speed </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives : </li></ul><ul><li>To enhance power, balance, speed and coordination </li></ul><ul><li>To increase intramuscular coordination </li></ul><ul><li>To increase explosive power and strength at the major muscle groups </li></ul><ul><li>To develop quickness as a habit </li></ul><ul><li>To develop coordination of skills through repetition </li></ul>
What is Core Strength <ul><li>Definition: The ability to use core muscles (torso, hips, lower back, abs, shoulders) in all three planes of motion with force. The Core is primarily responsible for maintaining dynamic balance of the bodies center of gravity. </li></ul><ul><li>Core Strength development starts with using body weight in all three planes of motion. After developing those skills add equipment. </li></ul><ul><li>Most people have their gravity center in the lower back, building core strength moves it to the opposite muscle group called the core. </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment: </li></ul><ul><li>Medicine Balls Stability Balls </li></ul><ul><li>Free Weights Tubing and Bands </li></ul><ul><li>Unstable Surfaces (Advanced) </li></ul>
The Core-Strength Pyramid Medicine Balls: Torso Curls, Side bends, Good mornings, Russian Twist, Wood Chopper, Standing/Kneeling/Straddle-Seated, Chest Pass, Soccer Throw, Overhead Bounce Pass, Single-Arm Over- Hand Throw, Sit-Up Throw from Chest, Sit-Up Throw Overhead Medicine Balls: Plyo Bench Press, Partner Drop, Incline Pull- Over Throw, Single-Arm Drops/Catch and Drops, Rotations and Twists Medicine Balls: Same as High School Athlete with lighter balls (playground balls, basketballs, volleyballs Stability Balls: Crunches, Lateral Roll, Russian Twist, Knee-Tuck, Supermans, Stability Balls: Jack Knife, Reverse Hype, Reverse Crunches, Hand/Foot Ball exchange, Hip Crossovers, Bridge-up, Prone Bridge, All Medicine Ball Exercises can be done on a Stability Ball Elite Athlete College/ Advanced Athlete High School Athlete PE Student Stability Balls: Modified Sit-ups, Planks, Modified Push-ups, Platypus Walk, Basic Stability Ball Moves : Shoulder Row, Hip Ab/Adductors, Hamstring Curl, Squats (arms out/overhead), Alphabet Balance, Shoulder Abduction, Pelvic Rocks, Trunk Flex Single-Leg Bridge Up Med. Balls/ Unstable Surface: Push-ups (feet on ball hands on med ball Stability Ball/Unstable Surface
What is Power/Reaction Time? <ul><li>Definition: The ability to exert maximum muscular contraction instantly in an explosive burst of movement (Jumping or sprint starting) </li></ul><ul><li>Power = Force x Distance </li></ul><ul><li>Enhance Power by: </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the force producing capacities of the muscles </li></ul><ul><li>Decreasing the time it takes to move over distance </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing the distance a force acts on a body (plyometrics) </li></ul>
The Power/Reaction Time Pyramid Tennis Ball Two-Point Stance Drill, Tennis Ball Drop/Get Up, Jumps: Pogo, Squat Jump, Box Jump, Rocket Jump, Star Jump Bounds and Skips: Prancing, Galloping, Fast Skipping, Ankle Flip, Double Leg Speed Hoop Hops : Double-Leg Hop Progression, Incremental Vertical Hop, Side Hop, Side Hop-Sprint Hand Eyeball Drops, Get Up with resistance, Medicine Ball Underhand Throw Jumps: Double-Leg Butt Kick, Knee-Tuck Jump, Split Jump, Scissors Jump Bounds and Skips: Single-Leg Stair Bound, Lateral, Stair Bound, Alternate- Leg Stair Bound Hops: Angle Hop, Single-Leg Butt Kick, Single-Leg Progression Hop PE Student High School Athlete College/Advanced Elite Athlete Medicine Balls: Backward Throw, Medicine Ball Power Drop Jumps: Double Scissors Jump, Single- Leg Stride Jump, Stride Jump, Crossover, Quick Leap Bounds/Skips: Lateral Bound, Alternate-Leg Diagonal Bound Hops: Single-Leg Lateral Hop, Decline Hop, Single-Leg Jumps Depth Jumps, Box Jump, Depth Leap, Depth Jump Leap Bounds/Skips: Box Skip, Box Bound Elite
What is Balance? <ul><li>Definition : The body’s natural ability to respond and adjust to abnormal positions and situations. Balance is losing and regaining one’s center of gravity. </li></ul><ul><li>“ Balance is the single most important component of athletic ability because it underlies all movements.” -Vern Gambetta- </li></ul><ul><li>“ If we create an environment of artificial instability the human body with respond by creating artificial stability.” -Gary Gray- </li></ul><ul><li>“ We must create proprioceptively-enriched environments….in hopes of making athletes functionally better-balanced.” -Steve Myrland- </li></ul>
What is Speed? <ul><li>Definition: The ability to achieve high velocity or explosive force applied to a specific task. Speed also involves acceleration, deceleration, redirection and moving through distance in the shortest possible time. </li></ul><ul><li>Components of Speed: </li></ul><ul><li>Stride Length </li></ul><ul><li>Turn-Over Speed </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing Endurance </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stride Length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn-over Speed </li></ul></ul>
The Speed Pyramid PE Student High School Athlete College Athlete Elite Athlete Weighted-Vest Starts Basic Technique Drills: Seated dorsi flex/extend, Running Balance Poise, Walk on Balls of Feet, Dorsi Flex Run (straight legs), Walk to Run, Butt Kicks, Wall Slides. Pawing (Cycling), A-Skips (regular skipping), Running with High-Knees in front, Falling Starts, Marching/B-Skips Intermediate Technique Drills: Beach Running (Sandblasting), Skip for Height, Skip for Distance, Quick Feet in Agility Ladder, Run Stadium Steps, Run Downhill (over speed drill) A-Skip/C-Skip, Single-Leg Hurdle Run Through R/L Resisted Drills: Marching w/ resistance bands, Resisted Speed Drill (add Tire) Resisted Drills: Run Uphill, Partner Tubing Resisted Run, Parachute run, Contrast resisted Run w/ Tire/ Parachute, Run Uphill 20-35% Grade, Run Uphill w/ Weighted Vest – 10-20% Grade Plyometrics: Bounding, Single-Leg Bounds Resisted Heavy Sled Pull, Partner resisted starts, Plyos: Split-Squat jumps
What is Flexibility? <ul><li>Definition: The range of motion (ROM) available at a particular joint or group of muscles. It is determined by the shape of the bones/cartilage and the length of muscles/tendons/ligaments/ fascia. Flexibility is specific to each joint. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexibility is the most neglected, underrated and undervalued aspect of fitness. </li></ul><ul><li>The goal of flexibility is to functionally lengthen and strengthen muscles. Strength and flexibility go together. </li></ul><ul><li>To increase flexibility use the overload principle, stretch 10% beyond normal using: static, ballistic and PNF stretching. </li></ul>
The Flexibility Pyramid PE Student High School Athlete College/Advanced Elite Athlete Using Yoga as a Modality Athlete Uttanasana: (Intense forward stretch posture) Beginning Janusirasana: (Head on knee posture) Beginning Urdhava Dhanurasana: (Upward-Facing Bow Posture ) Beginning Halasana: (Plough Posture) Beginning Uttanasana: Intermediate Uttanasana: Advanced/Intermediate Janusirasana: Intermediate Urdhva Dhanurasana: Intermediate Halanasna: Intermediate Uttanasana: Advanced Urdhva Dhanurasana: Advanced Halasana: Advanced Parsvottansana: (Intense Chest Stretch)
Summary and Conclusions <ul><li>Functional Training : </li></ul><ul><li>Should be used in addition to and not as a substitute for traditional training </li></ul>
Summary and Conclusions <ul><li>Functional Training: </li></ul><ul><li>Allows the PE Student to the Elite Athlete opportunity to improve a variety of skills using a variety of equipment and exercises </li></ul>
Summary and Conclusions <ul><li>Functional Training: </li></ul><ul><li>Can prevent injury </li></ul>
Summary and Conclusions <ul><li>Functional Training: </li></ul><ul><li>Can provide sports specific training </li></ul><ul><li>(Train Movement Not Muscles) </li></ul>
Bibliography <ul><li>Alfieri, Rose Marie Gionta. Functional Training: Everyone’s Guide to the New Fitness Revolution. New York: Hatherleigh Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Brown, L.E., Ferrigano, V.A., Santana, J. C. Training for Speed, Agility, and Quickness. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. </li></ul><ul><li>Gambetta, Vern. Building the Complete Athlete. Optimum Sports Training, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Gambetta, Vern. Pumping Gravity: Functional Strength Training. Optimum Sports Training, Inc. </li></ul><ul><li>Iyengar, B.K.S. Yoga: the Path to Holistic Health. London: Dorling Kindersley </li></ul><ul><li>Santana, J. C. Functional Training: Breaking the Bonds of Traditionalism. Boca Raton, FL: Optimum Performance Systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Vestegen, Mark. Core Performance. U.S.A.: Rodale. </li></ul>
The Functional Training Pyramids Thank You For Coming Web Site: http://www.newtrier.k12.il.us/academics/kw/aahperd_05/