Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Unit v


Published on

Published in: Education
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Unit v

  1. 1. UNIT-5 LEGAL ISSUES: In addition to the legal issues that any business must face, Internet companies must also deal with a unique set of challenges that arise from transacting business online. Even businesses in traditional sectors, such as retail or service, must adapt their legal strategy when they decide to launch an Internet presence.Business Structure: For any business, choosing a legal structure to adopt can have far-reaching consequences. Businessowners must decide whether to protect themselves from personal liability by forming a corporation or LLC,whether to choose a pass-through entity for tax purposes and in which state to file incorporation ororganizational documents. Unlike local businesses, which may concern themselves primarily with local laws,Internet businesses are essentially present throughout the world and must anticipate potential conflicts inmany jurisdictions. For example, an Internet business may choose to incorporate in Delaware for itsestablished body of business law, while a local business may find it easier to incorporate in its home state.Taxes Internet businesses face tax issues that sometimes differ from those faced by traditional businesses ofa similar size. For example, while a local retail store typically needs to collect sales taxes for all purchasesthat take place face-to-face, an online store needs to collect sales taxes only from customers where thebusiness has a presence. Furthermore, an Internet business may find itself working frequently with remotecontractors, and must provide 1099-MISC returns for those individuals; a local business would typically hireemployees, who receive W-2s.Intellectual Property Internet businesses must prepare to deal with intellectual property issues. For online stores sellingsoftware or copyrighted materials, carefully crafted legal documents protecting against illegal copying andpiracy are essential. Even for Internet businesses operating in traditional areas, such as sporting goods retail,intellectual property issues are important. Domain name trademark clearances, comprehensive website termsand conditions, and properly licensed stock imagery are all part of doing business on the Internet.Business Contracts While traditional businesses often need to draft and negotiate contracts with suppliers, employees and even customers, Internet businesses have these needs in addition to other contractual relationships specific to the online realm. Web design contracts can be extraordinarily complicated, as business needs change mid-project and disagreements over the scope of a web design contract can leave plans in disarray. Credit card merchant account agreements can also be difficult to negotiate, as Internet businesses must process riskier web-based transactions rather than using credit card terminals GLOBAL CONTRACTS: General Definition: Global business means getting your people where they need to be. SkyTeam Global Corporate Agreements go beyond a standard loyalty program in meeting your
  2. 2. company’s travel requirements, providing cost savings and a vast network that is focusedon your travel needs.BENEFITS OF GLOBAL CONTRACTS:  Point of ContactA designated SkyTeam representative, simplifying communications and negotiations.  Customized AgreementA custom-made agreement that would include all the SkyTeam carriers that meet yourneeds.  SkyTeam Discount ProgramDiscounts based on your company’s travel requirements.  Network Scope and CoverageYou’ll have access to over 1,000 destinations in SkyTeam’s expansive worldwide network.Our network is continually expanding to meet your needs.  Joint Review Meetings Get performance metrics and updates during quarterly and annual meetings with your SkyTeam contract team. Find out if a SkyTeam Global Contract is right for your company. For more information, please contact your SkyTeam member airline representative about SkyTeam alliance corporate agreementsMANAGING GLOBAL CONTRACTS:The challenges in managing contracts on a global scaleIf a typical software implementation is “one small step” toward improving a company’s efficiency,then a global implementation is “one giant leap.”Rolling out a contract lifecycle management (CLM) solution globally introduces a series of unique challenges.Contracts need to conform to both corporate standards and local requirements. Organizations need to maintainvisibility to key contract data required to effectively comply with internal mandates and governmentalregulations while still optimizing revenues and minimizing costs. How does an organization even begin to rollout software on such a large scale?Previously, when it came to contract management, vendors attempted to meet the challenges of the globalenvironment by simply implementing multiple, isolated instances of the software on separate hardware stacksat multiple data centers. While certainly a straightforward solution for the vendor, this approach does notaddress the challenges of a global CLM environment. Isolated instances of applications cannot, for example,enable enterprise controls to be easily disseminated across all sites. Nor do they facilitate enterprise widevisibility. This type of approach to rolling out CLM ultimately complicates the process even more.
  3. 3. A truly effective global solution is designed to empower end-users to easily and quickly access any content,analytical tools, and enterprise reports in the language of their choice, with the appropriate currency, and withthe time/date formats required.GLOBAL CONTRACTS LIFE CYCLE:  A global CLM solution should be feature-richGlobal contract management should enable contract optimization, contract compliance, and effective riskmanagement across multiple languages, multiple countries, and multiple regulatory and businessenvironments. Additionally, a global solution should allow any authorized user throughout the enterpriseto get a full view of repository data (and metadata) in any language, at any time, and from any location—without the need for any source code modifications.As a baseline, a solution that can handle global contract management challenges should include: Full support for legacy globalization, IT infrastructures, and replication solutions Global visibility and reporting across all contract metadata in all languages and currencies Controls for business practices, regulatory compliance, and maverick spending Presentation of repository metadata in any language Language-specific, end-user interfaces Full support for all currencies and time/date formats Fast and easy configuration of fields Seamless replication of data across multiple application instances and multiple databases Department-level administration  A global CLM solution should ensure that corporate standards are upheldIn a global company, customer relationships transcend borders, boundaries, and languages—and so dobusiness practices and controls. Corporate standards can be more easily upheld in a number of areas in thecontract process including in:Contract AuthoringAutomated contract management on a global level should ensure that required fields are included in allcontracts, regardless of where they are authored, while also giving authors the flexibility to adapt terms
  4. 4. and conditions to local needs. At the same time, the solution should ensure that locally authored contractsreflect terms and conditions that exist in master contracts.Currency ReportsRolling up data from multiple local sites, in multiple currencies, into consolidated, single currency reportsis an absolute requirement for any company working to minimize contract risks, ensure enterprise-widecompliance with internal controls and external regulations, and optimize management of global revenueand spend. Global organizations looking for automated contract management need a solution that can dothis without introducing needless margin for error.Database ReplicationTo ensure that timely and accurate information can flow bi-directionally across all data centers in theglobal enterprise, an efficient global CLM solution should support standardized database replicationsolutions such as those from Oracle or IBM. This strategy is key to enabling disparate local contractpractices that meet a unified global vision.“Tight/Loose” ControlsIn global environments, ―tight/loose‖ controls are essential, meaning that local offices need to adherestrictly to corporate mandates, while also respecting regional prerogatives. Employment contracts for allregional executives, for example, may include performance bonuses, but the levels may vary with localemployment law. A global CLM solution will be able to handle the complexity of these conditionalvariations from one system.  A global CLM solution should meet performance expectationsSoftware that is intended to handle global contract complexity ideally meets a number of performanceexpectations.Facilitating tech communicationDuring a work session, some CLM products require constant communication links between the desktopand the server. The most efficient contract management systems, however, will eliminate the keystroke
  5. 5. latency that can result with this approach and rely on check-in/check-out architecture that enables end-users to establish local copies of contracts they are working on.Structuring dataAn efficient global solution will ensure optimized performance by mapping unstructured information intostructured data, and leveraging industry standard databases for repository functionality. As a result, nosignificant modifications are required in legacy IT infrastructures.Customizing contractsWith an agile global solution, no source code modifications are required when changing contractstructures. In fact, in just minutes, non-technical end-users can create the tailored fields they need foreasily customizing contracts to the specific and complex requirements of global businesses.  A global CLM solution should benefit the entire enterpriseA globally deployed CLM solution can deliver a wide range of benefits to an even wider range of end-users throughout the enterprise.Financial DepartmentsWith the ability to roll-up data across multiple global data centers, for example, a global CLM solutionoffers financial managers snapshot views of all contracts in negotiation. This information delivers anunprecedented ability to assess overall risks, and to drill down to the specific contracts that may bemodified to adjust this risk profile. Financial departments can also rely on CLM for more accuraterevenue forecasting than is possible with traditional tools, such as sales force automation systems.Procurement DepartmentsProcurement departments benefit through global visibility to master procurement agreements. Globalcompanies using contract lifecycle management can ensure that all local contracts conform to the termsand specifications in these agreements. As a result, the true value of master contracts can be unlocked andcosts controlled.Sales Departments
  6. 6. Sales organizations in global environments can benefit from the ability to calculate the aggregateoptimized value of any given contract. A clear understanding of both the extrinsic and intrinsic values andrisks associated with a specific contract can provide essential clues for how to tweak sales efforts andrefine financial projections.WEBSITE ISSUES:Design Issues:Website Management:Web Browser Issue:Security:Trust:Dynamic sites(interact).5 Most Obvious Website Usability Issues: There are a lot of ways one can make their website into a conversion driving machine. Site designtweaks, endless A/B and multivariate testing, exit surveys (gasp!) are some of the hardest to pull off.However, some of the most obvious usability issues often get ignored. There have been countlessroundups of these issues, and a lot of them are really technical in nature.Usability Issue #1: Browser Size and Your Call to ActionJust because you (or your web designer) has a 40 inch wrap-around monitor does not mean that your usersdo. Making sure that your primary call to action is included at the very top of the page. If you have avariable width website, great. If not, make sure that button/request/link/etc. is close to the top left handcorner. Everyone sees that corner. Additionally, frontload your keywords in your content. The sooner theysee the words on the page that likely brought them there, the better.Usability Issue #2: Where’s the form? You mean I have to do all that?One of the most important types of conversion for most websites is data gathering. Therefore, one of themost popular soft conversion goals is to have the user fill out an information request form. Whether itsdemographic information that you’re after or email addresses for your newsletter, you want people to fillout this form.
  7. 7. To encourage users to fill out this form, webmasters are usually willing to jump through some hoops.Maybe they require a form to be filled out to access parts of the site or tantalize users with premiummembership perks. However, everyone knows that requiring users to fill out forms is just another barriersurrounding the sale. Added to that, Most of the time, the form is buried more than three pages in the siteand is hard to find, and a lot of the time, the form is lengthy and takes lots of time to fill out completely.This is the point in time when priorities need to be set. What is the the MOST important piece ofinformation that the website it supposed to garner through the form. If it’s the email address (and itusually is) put a simple, three line form on every page of the site. First Name. Last Name. Email Address.That’s it. It’s visible and it’s so brief that filling it out won’t interrupt the user’s experience enough toprohibit them from doing it. If you want age, street address, phone number etc. by all means create thatform and bury it wherever you want. But make an abridged version available as many places on the site aspossible.Usability Issue #3: Information OverloadDeciding how to present necessary information in a user-friendly way is a challenge for every website inevery industry. It’s usually really hard for webmasters to decide what the most important information isand where to place it. Figuring out the overall purpose of the webpage in question is a good first step.If the home page is supposed to introduce the company in question and showcase a specific product, limitthe information to these two tasks. Keep in mind that your navigation bar will take up space and attention.Keep the copy as sparse and concise as possible and get to the point right away.Avoid overloading every page with extraneous elements like rotating testimonials, banners and the like.There are specific places for such things, where they won’t detract from your focal elemetns.Usability Issue #4: Sense of “Place”Many times, especially with large, multilayer, thousand page sites, the user looses track of where they areand how to get back to something else they were looking at. This problem is not limited to huge sitesthough, it occurs on the smallest of blogs as well. There are many ways to create a sense of ―place‖ foryour user. In my opinion, the most overlooked tool is breadcrumbs.Breadcrumbs (horizontal navigation links) are a great, noninvasive way to give customers a sense of placewhen they’re 8 levels deep on a specific product page or feature list. Breadcrumbs don’t clutter a page up,they don’t eat up a lot of real estate and they provide the added bonus of more anchor text rich links toother pages on your site (if you use them the right way.)
  8. 8. uses breadcrumbs incredibly effectively, allowing me to navigate from a very specificproduct page to a more general category page quickly instead of having to find the category all over againin the side nav bar.Usability Issue #5: Cross Browser CompatibilityIf I had a dollar for every site I work on that has elements that work in Internet Explorer but not Firefox orSafari, I’d buy myself some over the knee Prada Boots. If I had a dollar for every site I come across(searching for boots?) that works in Internet Explorer but not Firefox or Chrome, I’d probably be wealthyenough to start my own fashion footware company.It’s a sad fact that browsers interpret code differently,but that doesn’t change things. Just because you seeyour site one way doesn’t mean everyone does, and if your navigation is broken or your CSS has text allover the place in one browser or another, you’re limiting your audience drastically and creating a badname for yourself. Take the time to test the look and functionality of your site across all browsers.CRISIS MANAGEMENT:  The process of responding to an event that might threaten operations, staffs, customers, reputation or the legal and financial status of an organization.  The aim is to minimize the damage  Spreading of crisis through media, 24*7 news channels, Internet easily.  Dr. Rory Knight and Dr. Deborah pretty from Oxford University have stated that a. If an Organization recovers from crisis 5% is added to their original stock value. b. If an Organization doesn’t recovers for a minimum 5 to maximum of 50 days they met a loss of 15% on stock value.WHEN CRISES ARISES:  Build a Dark website: (i.e.) It is a Information hup that remains unpublished until a crisis hits. Updated information will be stored and published and once if the crisis occurs website is made to offline mode and changed.  Create response and seeding plan: When a crisis hit occurs communicators should be ready to explain 5ws (i.e.) Who, What, Where, When, Why etc. and the steps to resolve the issue should be carried out.  Be ready to launch paid search: Paid search is an effective tactic to drive traffic to your darksite when an issue emerges.
  9. 9.  Resource for real time engagement and authorization: Online engagement demonstrates openness, honesty and transparency. Clearly define who is an authorized one to comment on behalf of the organization. (OR)CRISIS MANAGEMENT:DEFINITION: Crisis management is the process by which an organization deals with a major event that threatensto harm the organization, its stakeholders, or the general public. The study of crisis managementoriginated with the large scale industrial and environmental disasters in the 1980s. Three elements arecommon to most definitions of crisis: (a) a threat to the organization, (b) the element of surprise, and (c) ashort decision time. "crisis is a process of transformation where the old system can no longer be maintained." The fourth defining quality is the need for change. If change is not needed, the event could moreaccurately be described as a failure or incident. crisis management involves dealing with threats before, during, and after they have occurred. It is adiscipline within the broader context of management consisting of skills and techniques required toidentify, assess, understand, and cope with a serious situation, especially from the moment it first occursto the point that recovery procedures start. Crisis management consists of: Methods used to respond to both the reality and perception of crises. Establishing metrics to define what scenarios constitute a crisis and should consequently trigger the necessary response mechanisms. Communication that occurs within the response phase of emergency management scenarios.Crisis Management Plan: Crisis management methods of a business or an organizationcrisis mindset : the ability to think of the worst-case scenario while simultaneously suggesting numeroussolutions.TYPES OF CRISIS: Eight types of crises areNatural crises:
  10. 10. Natural crises, typically natural disasters considered as acts of God, are such environmentalphenomena as earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, tornadoes and hurricanes, floods,landslides, tsunamis,storms, and droughts that threaten life, property, and the environment itself.Example: 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake (Tsunami)Technological crises: Technological crises are caused by human application of science and technology. Technologicalaccidents inevitably occur when technology becomes complex and coupled and something goes wrong inthe system as a whole (Technological breakdowns). Some technological crises occur when human errorcauses disruptions (Human breakdowns. People tend to assign blame for a technological disaster becausetechnology is subject to human manipulation whereas they do not hold anyone responsible for naturaldisaster. When an accident creates significant environmental damage, the crisis is categorized as megadamage. Samples include software failures, industrial accidents, and oil spills.Examples: Chernobyl disaster, Exxon Valdez oil spill.Confrontation crisis: Confrontation crisis occur when discontented individuals and/or groups fight businesses,government, and various interest groups to win acceptance of their demands and expectations. Thecommon type of confrontation crisis is boycotts, and other types are picketing, sit-ins, ultimatums to thosein authority, blockade or occupation of buildings, and resisting or disobeying police.Example: Rainbow/PUSH’s (People United to Serve Humanity) boycott of NikeCrisis of malevolence: An organization faces a crisis of malevolence when opponents or miscreant individuals usecriminal means or other extreme tactics for the purpose of expressing hostility or anger toward, or seekinggain from, a company, country, or economic system, perhaps with the aim of destabilizing or destroyingit. Sample crisis include product tampering, kidnapping, malicious rumors, terrorism, and espionage.Example: 1982 Chicago Tylenol murdersCrises of organizational misdeeds: Crises occur when management takes actions it knows will harm or place stakeholders at risk forharm without adequate precautions. Lerbinger specified three different types of crises of organizationalmisdeeds: crises of skewed management values, crises of deception, and crises of managementmisconduct.Crises of skewed management values:
  11. 11. Crises of skewed management values are caused when managers favor short-term economic gainand neglect broader social values and stakeholders other than investors. This state of lopsided values isrooted in the classical business creed that focuses on the interests of stockholders and tends to disregardthe interests of its other stakeholders such as customers, employees, and the communityExample: Sears sacrifices customer trust[It has 4 stage[-precrisis -acute -chronic and -conflict resolutionCrisis of deception: Crisis of deception occur when management conceals or misrepresents information about itself andits products in its dealing with consumers and others.Example: Dow Corning’s silicone-gel breast implantCrises of management misconduct: Some crises are caused not only by skewed values and deception but deliberate amorality andillegality.Workplace violence: Crises occur when an employee or former employee commits violence against other employees onorganizational grounds.Example: DuPont’s LycraRumors: False information about an organization or its products creates crises hurting the organization’sreputation. Sample is linking the organization to radical groups or stories that their products arecontaminated.Example: Procter & Gambles Logo controversy.CRISIS MANAGEMENT:Crisis Management Model: Successfully defusing a crisis requires an understanding of how to handle a crisis – before theyoccur. Gonzalez-Herrero and Pratt found the different phases of Crisis Management.There are 3 phases in any Crisis Management are as below a. The diagnosis of the impending trouble or the danger signals. b. Choosing appropriate Turnaround Strategy. c. Implementation of the change process and its monitoring.Management Crisis Planning:
  12. 12. No corporation looks forward to facing a situation that causes a significant disruption to their business,especially one that stimulates extensive media coverage. Public scrutiny can result in a negative financial,political, legal and government impact. Crisis management planning deals with providing the bestresponse to a crisis.Contingency planning:Preparing contingency plans in advance, as part of a crisis management plan, is the first step to ensuringan organization is appropriately prepared for a crisis. Crisis management teams can rehearse a crisis planby developing a simulated scenario to use as a drill. The plan should clearly stipulate that the only peopleto speak publicly about the crisis are the designated persons, such as the company spokesperson or crisisteam members. The first hours after a crisis breaks are the most crucial, so working with speed andefficiency is important, and the plan should indicate how quickly each function should be performed.When preparing to offer a statement externally as well as internally, information should be accurate.Providing incorrect or manipulated information has a tendency to backfire and will greatly exacerbate thesituation. The contingency plan should contain information and guidance that will help decision makers toconsider not only the short-term consequences, but the long-term effects of every decision.Business continuity planningWhen a crisis will undoubtedly cause a significant disruption to an organization, a business continuityplan can help minimize the disruption. First, one must identify the critical functions and processes that arenecessary to keep the organization running. Then each critical function and or/process must have its owncontingency plan in the event that one of the functions/processes ceases or fails. Testing thesecontingency plans by rehearsing the required actions in a simulation will allow for all involved to becomemore sensitive and aware of the possibility of a crisis. As a result, in the event of an actual crisis, the teammembers will act more quickly and effectively.Structural-functional systems theoryProviding information to an organization in a time of crisis is critical to effective crisis management.Structural-functional systems theory addresses the intricacies of information networks and levels ofcommand making up organizational communication. The structural-functional theory identifiesinformation flow in organizations as "networks" made up of members and "links". Information inorganizations flow in patterns called networks.[12]Diffusion of innovation theoryAnother theory that can be applied to the sharing of information is Diffusion of Innovation Theory.Developed by Everett Rogers, the theory describes how innovation is disseminated and communicatedthrough certain channels over a period of time. Diffusion of innovation in communication occurs when an
  13. 13. individual communicates a new idea to one or several others. At its most elementary form, the processinvolves: (1) an innovation, (2) an individual or other unit of adoption that has knowledge of orexperience with using the innovation, (3) another individual or other unit that does not yet haveknowledge of the innovation, and (4) a communication channel connecting the two units. Acommunication channel is the means by which messages get from one individual to another.Role of apologies in crisis managementThere has been debate about the role of apologies in crisis management, and some argue that apologyopens an organization up for possible legal consequences. "However some evidence indicates thatcompensation and sympathy, two less expensive strategies, are as effective as an apology in shapingpeople’s perceptions of the organization taking responsibility for the crisis because these strategies focuson the victims’ needs. The sympathy response expresses concern for victims while compensation offersvictims something to offset the suffering."Crisis leadershipJames identifies five leadership competencies which facilitate organizational restructuring during andafter a crisis. a. Building an environment of trust b. Reforming the organization’s mindset c. Identifying obvious and obscure vulnerabilities of the organization d. Making wise and rapid decisions as well as taking courageous action e. Learning from crisis to effect change.Crisis leadership research concludes that leadership action in crisis reflects the competency of anorganization, because the test of crisis demonstrates how well the institution’s leadership structure servesthe organization’s goals and withstands crisis. Developing effective human resources is vital whenbuilding organizational capabilities through crisis management executive leadership.Unequal human capital theoryJames postulates that organizational crisis can result from discrimination lawsuits. James’s theory ofunequal human capital and social position derives from economic theories of human and social capitalconcluding that minority employees receive fewer organizational rewards than those with access toexecutive management. In a recent study of managers in a Fortune 500 company, race was found to be apredictor of promotion opportunity or lack thereof. Thus, discrimination lawsuits can invite negativestakeholder reaction, damage the companys reputation, and threaten corporate survival.Social media and crisis management
  14. 14. Social media has accelerated the speed that information about a crisis can spread. The viral affect ofsocial networks such as Twitter means that stakeholders can break news faster than traditional media -making managing a crisis harder. This can be mitigated by having the right training and policy in place aswell as the right social media monitoring tools to detect signs of a crisis breaking. Social media also givescrisis management teams access to real-time information about how a crisis is impacting stakeholdersentiment and the issues that are of most concern to them.The crisis management mantra of Lanny Davis, former counsellor to Bill Clinton is to ―Tell it Early, Tellit All, Tell it Yourself‖. A strategy employed at the Clinton White House 1996 – 1998, to any breakingOrganisations should have a planned approach to releasing information to the media in the event of acrisis. A media reaction plan should include a company media representative as part of the CrisisManagement Team (CMT). Since there is always a degree of unpredictability during a crisis, it is best thatall CMT members understand how to deal with the media and be prepared to do so, should they be thrustinto such a situation.In 2010 Procter & Gamble Co called reports that its new Pampers with Dry Max caused rashes and otherskin irritations "completely false" as it aimed to contain a public relations threat to its biggest diaperinnovation in 25 years. A Facebook group called "Pampers bring back the OLDCRUISERS/SWADDLERS" rose to over 4,500 members. Pampers denied the allegation and stated thatonly two complaints had been received for every one million diapers sold, Pampers quickly reached outto people expressing their concerns via social media, Pampers even held a summit with four influential―mommy bloggers,‖ to help dispel the rumour. Pampers acted quickly and decisively to an emergingcrisis, before competitors and critics alike could fuel the fire further.There is no truth. There is only perception.EXAMPLE OF SUCCESSFUL CRISIS MANAGEMENT: Pepsi The Pepsi Corporation faced a crisis in 1993 which started with claims of syringes being found incans of diet Pepsi. Pepsi urged stores not to remove the product from shelves while it had the cans and thesituation investigated. This led to an arrest, which Pepsi made public and then followed with their firstvideo news release, showing the production process to demonstrate that such tampering was impossiblewithin their factories. A second video news release displayed the man arrested. A third video news releaseshowed surveillance from a convenience store where a woman was caught replicating the tamperingincident. The company simultaneously publicly worked with the FDA during the crisis. The corporationwas completely open with the public throughout, and every employee of Pepsi was kept aware of thedetails. This made public communications effective throughout the crisis. After the crisis had beenresolved, the corporation ran a series of special campaigns designed to thank the public for standing bythe corporation, along with coupons for further compensation. This case served as a design for how tohandle other crisis situations.
  15. 15. EXAMPLE OF UNSUCCESSFUL CRISIS MANAGEMENT:Ford and Firestone Tire and Rubber Company The Ford-Firestone Tire and Rubber Company dispute transpired in August 2000. In response toclaims that their 15-inch Wilderness AT, radial ATX and ATX II tire treads were separating from the tirecore—leading to grisly, spectacular crashes—Bridgestone/Firestone recalled 6.5 million tires. These tireswere mostly used on the Ford Explorer, the worlds top-selling sport utility vehicle (SUV).The two companies committed three major blunders early on, say crisis experts. First, they blamedconsumers for not inflating their tires properly. Then they blamed each other for faulty tires and faultyvehicle design. Then they said very little about what they were doing to solve a problem that had causedmore than 100 deaths—until they got called to Washington to testify before Congress.DIGITAL COMPLAINT SERVICES:Complaints procedure:You can complain to us if youre not happy with the service youve had, or appeal if you think yourdriving examiner didnt carry out your driving test in line with the regulations. a. Right to appealYou have the right to appeal if you think your driving examiner didn’t carry out your practical drivingtest in line with the regulations. You should appeal to: a magistrates’ court if you live in England or Wales a sheriff’s court if you live in ScotlandYou have 6 months after your test to do this in England and Wales, and 21 days after your test inScotland.However, we cannot change your test result. b. Complaints about theory and practical driving testsThere are 4 stages you should follow if you want to make a complaint about a theory or practical drivingtest.We don’t usually consider complaints made more than 6 months after the date of your test.Stage 1Contact us by email, phone, or letter if you want to complain about: booking your test test cancellations
  16. 16. the conduct of your test the result of your test out-of-pocket expensesWe need to know: the type of test you took, the date, time and place you took your test, and why you’re complaining what outcome you’re looking forYou’ll need to include 2 of the following 3 pieces of information about you: your driving licence number your theory test pass certificate number your practical test booking referenceTheory testsEmail: customercare@pearson.comTelephone: 0300 200 1122Monday to Friday, 8am to 4pmWrite to us:DSAPO Box 381M50 3UWPractical testsEmail: 0300 200 1122Monday to Friday, 8am to 4pmWrite to us:DSAPO Box 280Newcastle-Upon-TyneNE99 1FPWe aim to answer complaints within 10 working days of getting them. This does not include Saturdays,Sundays and bank holidays in England and Wales.Stage 2You can write to DSA’s Head of Corporate Correspondence if you’ve been through stage 1 and aren’thappy with the response.Email: to us:
  17. 17. Head of Corporate CorrespondenceDriving Standards AgencyThe Axis Building112 Upper Parliament StreetNottinghamNG1 6LPStage 3You can write to DSA’s Chief Executive if you’ve been through stage 2 and aren’t happy with theresponse.Email: to us:Chief Executives OfficeDriving Standards AgencyThe Axis Building112 Upper Parliament StreetNottinghamNG1 6LPStage 4You can ask DSA’s Chief Executive to pass your complaint to the Independent Complaints Assessor(ICA) if you’ve been through stage 3 and aren’t happy with the response.The ICA looks at whether we have: handled your complaint appropriately given you a reasonable decisionIt doesn’t cost you anything to have your complaint assessed by the ICA.The ICA will decide if they can accept your complaint. They’ll write to you if they can’t and tell youwhy.When the ICA has completed their review they’ll send you and DSA a formal report with their findingsand any recommendations that they consider appropriate.Taking things furtherYou can ask the Parliamentary and Health Service Ombudsman to look at your complaint if you’re stillnot happy and you’ve either: had your complaint investigated by the ICA asked for your complaint to be investigated by the ICA but they didn’t investigate it c. Our service standards
  18. 18. We aim to carry out all areas of our work in a fair, independent, polite and helpful way.Our customer promisesWe have 8 customer promises. They are: we will give a full response to enquiries quickly – we’ll respond to 90% of general enquiries within 10 working days we will give a full response to complaints quickly – we’ll respond to 90% of complaints within 10 working days we will respond to telephone calls promptly and try to resolve all enquiries at the first call – we’ll answer 70% of telephone calls within 30 seconds we will use reliable and accurate methods to measure customer satisfaction on a regular basis we give you information that is clear, accurate and complete – if we don’t have all the information required, we’ll tell you when you will get the information you asked for our staff are polite and friendly to you at all times and understand your needs we make information about the full range of services we provide available to you, including how and when you can contact us, how our services are run and who is in charge we make particular efforts to identify hard-to-reach and disadvantaged groups and individuals and have developed our services in response to their specific needs – we have policies and procedures that support the right of all customers to expect excellent levels of serviceDriving test availabilityOur service standard is that we will: give you an appointment at you preferred theory test centre – 95% within 2 weeks of your preferred date make appointments available within 9 weeks at car driving test centres in 90% of casesCASE STUDY :My complaint id is 4727099 at Airtel Digital TV Customer Care.I got an airtel tv connection coupen against the purchase of LCD tv. Keeping faith in airtel i have appliedfor DTH connection by recharging my Customer Id 3006237581 with Rs. 500 & got timeof installation on 21st Nov 2010. But nobody turnaround, whole day i wait for engineers to come but noone come. I made complaint twice still nobody came. After such service i have applied for Disconnectionof Airtel tv on evening of 21st nov 2010 & asked the refund of Rs. 500 which i have paidagainst activation of Customer id. Whenever i have called the customer executive he/she says it will berefunded to you by DD within 7 working days. Almost 2-3 weeks i heard the same thing from customerexecutives. But nothing has been done in such context. Last time when i called up they said me to collectfrom nearest dealer named as AR Global Services, B-303, Chattarpur Enclave, New Delhi. by stating thecomplaint id but they refused to make any such payment & spoke very harshly to me.
  19. 19. From last 1.5 month i am totaly harassed with the behavior & negligence of Airtel DTH service people. Iam attaching the 1st written complaint i have sent to Airtel TV with this mail; Recently i skoke to MrDaya Krishnan (Regional Head, Delhi) aswell but still no action has been taken till now. For such a smallthing i have to catch so many people. Instead of getting service i got only harasment, negligence & a suchbad service experience which i would never forget. Please do something against it, as this will ruining theBrand Identity of Airtel DTH service.Please do the needful as other DTH services are counting just because of their customer relations. Thiswill Airtel to loose the prospective customers. As a Tata sky user i tried & take a chance to go with Airtelbut after getting such service i have decided never ever go for Airtel in future. I hope you will take actionagainst it, otherwise i realy dnt knw where to go further a consumer forum or somewhere else.CYBER LAW:CYBER LAW:  Cyber law is a term which refers to all the illegal and regulatory aspects of Internet and WWW.  Anything concerned with legal aspects and others in cyberspace comes within the ambit of cyber law.  Cyber space: Global network of interdependent information technology infrastructure telecommunication networks and computer processing systems in which online communication takes place.  The growth of E-Commerce has propelled the need for vibrant and effective regulatory mechanisms which would further strengthen the legal infrastructure.NEED FOR CYBER LAW:  When internet was developed, Internet could transform itself into an all pervading revolution which could be misused for criminal activities .  Today, there are many disturbing things happening in cyber space.  Due to anonymous nature(without author) of the internet, it is possible to engage into a variety of criminal activities with impunity(harm).IMPORTANCE OF CYBER LAW: Cyber law is important because it covers almost all aspects of transactions and activities on andconcerning the internet, the world wide web and cyber space.CYBER LAW CONCERN US:
  20. 20. The time you register the Domain Name, to the time setup website, promote your website,conduct E-Commerce transaction and at every point of time, various cyber law issues involved.CYBER CRIME: Any crime with the help of computer & telecommunication technology with the purpose ofinfluencing the functioning of the computer and computer system.CATEGORIES OF CYBER CRIME: 1. Against a person: Cyber Stacking: Technology based ―attack‖ on one person who has been targeted for reasons of anger,revenge or emptying bank account. Impersonation: Criminals will hide behind fake promotions like contest forms, coupons, free giveaways and gift vouchers to get people to give up their person information. They make feel secure and gain by asks you to check the bank password online. Loss of Privacy: Privacy of a person will be lost due to attacks or hacking the information of a person. 2. Against Property: Unauthorized computer trespassing through cyberspace(i.e) outsider enters and reads the file of an property. Computer Vandalism: Programs performs malicious function such as extracting a user’s password or other data’s. Harmful Program Transfer: Criminals transfer harmful viruses and malicious code to the computer. E-Cash: It allows fund transfer and purchasing items by credit card. Criminals try to hack the password of the user account. Money laundering: Creating appearance large amount of money obtained from serious crimes such as drug trafficking or terrorist activity. Copyright: Misusing the copyright of others product. 3. Against Government: Hacking: Hacking the official websites of an government. Example-NASA website hacking. Cyber Extortion: Online crime in a which a website, e-mail server or computer system. Cyber Terrorism: Involving terrorist activities ,large scale disrupting of computer networks. Computer viruses: Transfers the viruses to the official websites of the government. Counterfeiting currency & Industrial espionage: Imitation of currency without legal sanction of government and an attempt to access to information about a company’s plans or trade secrets.CYBER LAWS:  Information Technology ACT,2000(IT ACT) ,which came into force on 17th oct 2000 to provide legal recognition to E-Commerce and to facilitate filing of electronic records with the
  21. 21. government. It penalizes various cyber crimes and provides strict punishments such as imprisonment terms upto 10 years and compensation upto Rs.1 crore.  Information Technology( Use of Electronic Records and Digital signatures) Rules, 2004 has provided the necessary legal framework for filling of documents with the government as well as issue of licenses by the government. It provides for payment and receipt of fees in relation to the government bodies.  Information Technology(Certifying Authority) Regulations,2001 came into force on 9th July 2001 to provide further technical standards and procedures to be used by a certifying authority. It provides guidelines for submission of application for license to operate as a certifying authority.SOME E-BUSINESS APPLICATIONS:Applications can be divided into three categories: 1. Internal business systems: Customer Relationship Management (CRM) Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) Document Management System (DMS) Human Resources Management (HRM) 2. Enterprise communication and collaboration: VoIP Content Management System E-mail Voicemail Web Conferencing Digital work flows (or business process management) 3. Electronic Commerce - business-to-business electronic commerce (B2B) or business-to- consumer electronic commerce (B2C): internet shop supply chain management online marketing offline marketing