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  1. 1. Student Affairs Case Study Competition 2007 Danielle Nied, Alana Barnes, Ben Parks & Jessica Berkey Western Illinois University
  2. 2. About Neo University StudentAffairs.com Princeton Review says, “Neo University is claims, “Neo University a young institution that is the wave of the is full of potential.” future.” Core Values: Educational Opportunity Discovering New Knowledge Social Responsibility Engagement in Learning Collaborative Ethos Freedom of Thought & Expression Preparation for Future Respect Dignity of Individuals Institutional Characteristics: • Midsize public institution (comprehensive) • 2 residential campus locations approximately 2 hours apart • Located in a suburban area • Student population: primarily undergraduate 85% (90/10 full-time, part-time ratio) • Distance Education program recently founded, decentralized throughout various academic departments • Student demographics: 50% residential, 40% commuter, and 10% non-traditional
  3. 3. About Neo University Neo University’s Dean’s Council includes the following members: • Vice President for Student Affairs • Provost & Vice President for Academic Affairs • Vice President for Administrative Services • Associate Vice Presidents of Student Life • Associate Provost for Academic Affairs • Associate Vice President for Information Technology Services • Associate Vice President for Marketing & University Relations • University Counsel • Undergraduate and Graduate student representatives The following series of slides is the presentation that our team has prepared to respond to the case study expectations. Our team, a group of 4 Student Affairs Professionals from Neo University, has prepared a presentation to the Dean’s Council addressing “5 Hot Topics” within current technology to be embraced at Neo University.
  4. 4. New Directions for Technology at Neo University “Wired to Today… Connected to the Future”
  5. 5. Presentation Goals • Connecting Theory to Practice • Selection Criteria for Technologies • 5 HOT Technologies I - Podcasts II - Teleconferencing III - Online Communities IV - Blogs V - Institutional Spam • Implications of Practice - New Technology @ Neo U. • Directions for the Future – An Implementation Plan
  6. 6. Connecting Theory with Practice Theory drives practice at Neo University Therefore we have intentionally selected 5 proposed technologies that have considerable impacts on the student experience based on the following theories/concepts from student affairs literature: Affective Development (Morals, Values, and Ethics) Holistic Development • Working in a challenging environment • Interpersonal and communication skills of • Open forums of information today and the future • Technologies challenge ethical Identity Development responsibilities • Understanding and respectful portrayal of (Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998) self Cultural Perspectives • Connectedness of self to others • Shifting from a mono-paradigmatic to a Typology Theory multi-paradigmatic perspective is the heart • Engaging various learning styles in the of the multicultural process. This shift means technologies used to interact and teach adjusting the institution to the students individual, rather than adjusting the individual to the institution. • Millennial student characteristics in focusing on: • The required changes are in ourselves and teamwork, technology, structure, entertain in our management system if we are to ment & excitement, and experiential adopt information technologies. activities • There is a need to become bicultural - a Cognitive Development culture of interpersonal interaction, and a culture of computer mediated information • Moving from absolute knowledge to exchange. contextual knowledge • Using technology for generic academic • Focus on support through experiential tasks appears to play a positive role in learning student achievement. (http://studentaffairs.com/ejournal/Spring_2000/article4.html)
  7. 7. Selection Criteria for Technologies When selecting the 5 technologies our team considered the following: • Institutional needs • Trends in student use & expectations • Fit within our campuses & community culture • Measurable learning outcomes • Parallel technology in marketplace • Increase efficiency and effectiveness • Increased access to resources
  8. 8. Technology I: Podcasts
  9. 9. Why Podcasts? • Students presently have access to hardware • Stop duplicating resources with multiple presentations • A consistent message will be readily available • Resources available in entertainment means • Messages can be sent to large number of recipients
  10. 10. What is a Podcast? Podcasts are multimedia files, primarily audio recordings but include video as well. These files can be downloaded for playback on computers, iPods AND MP3 players. Who can utilize Podcasts? With access to the proper equipment, podcasts can be created and utilized by faculty, staff, students and administrators.
  11. 11. How to Integrate Podcasts into Neo University? In the collegiate environment, podcasting is typically used to record classroom lectures and discussions. Other possibilities include: • Faculty record their lectures and place them in an online data base or website, such as iTunes U, for students to download and review. • Student affairs professionals have also begun to use podcasts by placing various trainings or resources online. • Students can create virtual presentations to share for distance learning assignments.
  12. 12. How to Implement Podcasts at Neo University: Hardware In order to create a podcast there are a few of necessary tools: a computer, a microphone and an audio recording program. Software There are also a few essential programs in order to finish the creation process and post your podcast. These include: an audio capture program, an audio editing program if needed, a feed aggregator such as iTunes, and a website and XML program if desired. Practicality Anyone can record a podcast live during a lecture or training session or even in the comfort of their office. If you would like to post your podcast “as is” you need to upload the entire recording. Editing and posting a podcast are relatively simple once you are familiar with these programs. Also, university technology support services can assist anyone with posting podcasts to the university database.
  13. 13. ASSESSMENT of Podcasting BENEFITS CHALLENGES Impact on students Costs • Assist student learning and knowledge • It can be expensive for podcasting. There is a combination of needing computers with capable development hardware, software programs, training for • Meet some students‟ preferred learning style faculty, students, and staff. The key is to start small with classroom materials and leave room for growth. (Read, 2007) • Effectively convey a consistent message to all students Intellectual Property • Allow for a focus on learning outside of • A concern raised by many faculty and institutions. Some colleges have restricted the availability of classroom time podcasts to registered students. Others have placed them freely available on the world wide web. Intellectual property policies need to be created and Learning outcomes for students implemented prior to this technological shift. • Develop a new classroom pedagogical (Read, 2007) perspective • Increase study habit efficiency Plagiarism • Develop online learning efficiency • There is a need for new institutional policies to be adopted in order to hold students accountable with • Active learning these matters. Institutional impact Access • Support institutional values • A continuing challenge for some students. A computer and internet are essential for a student to • Increase student achievement utilize a podcast. Also, issues of • Increase recruitment and retention rates classism may arise as this technology is based of an • Provide professional development for faculty expensive audio device, the iPod. and staff • Place institution at forefront of integrating technology and learning
  14. 14. Best Practices in Podcasting A Podcast Library Yale University Key Point… • Institutions provide students and external parties with free access to both audio and video podcasts including: • Present‟s Address • Guest Speakers • Convocation • Press Releases • Academic Lectures
  15. 15. Technology II: Teleconferencing
  16. 16. Why Teleconferencing? • Address new student demographics (part-time, adult learners, online students) • Increase access to services for students that may not be physically present on campus • Best prepare students for future workplace environments • Ensure reach of student affairs information • Help students understand and use the information that they already have access to using technology • Address changing student learning styles
  17. 17. What Is Teleconferencing? Teleconferencing is the use of electronic channels to facilitate real-time communication among groups of people at two or more locations. Teleconferencing is a generic term that refers to a variety of technologies and applications including audio-conferencing , audio-graphics, video- conferencing, business television and distance learning or distance education. (www.martech-intl.com/best2/glossary.htm) The 4 Forms of teleconferencing are: (1) Audio-conferencing: Two-way electronic voice communication between two or more people at separate locations. (www.acponline.org/computer/telemedicine/glossary.htm) (2) Video teleconferencing (aka. Videoconference): Two-way electronic form of communications that permits two or more people in different locations to engage in face-to-face audio and visual communication. (www.dtic.mil/ieb_cctwg/contrib- docs/VTC001/sect3.htm) (3) Audio-graphic teleconferencing: Teleconferencing in real time using both an audio and a data connection between two or more computers. Also known as electronic white boarding. (ww.metrodata.co.uk/technical_services/glossaries/videoglossary.htm) (4) Web/Computer teleconferencing: use of teleconference technologies to facilitate a virtual meeting or presentation. Common Features: All forms of teleconferencing apply a telecommunication channel to mediate the communication process, link individuals or groups of participants at multiple locations and provide for live a two-way communication or interaction. (http://travel.syl.com/educationalteleconferencesnewtoolofinstructionindistancelearning.html)
  18. 18. How to Integrate Teleconferencing into Neo University? Uses with Students Uses within Student Affairs & Faculty • Distance education • Recruitment processes • Online courses • Creating partnerships • Academic advising • Multi-campus institutions • Counseling • Professional development • Orientation • Teaching pedagogies • Service learning programs • Study abroad programs • Summer leadership programs All of these uses ensure effective All of these uses ensure that connectivity of students to internal University staff are information which reinforces accessible to students when their connection to the needed and are able to institution. connect with professionals from across the country.
  19. 19. How to Implement Teleconferencing at Neo University: Hardware • Teleconference Equipment: Audio or video equipment that enables a meeting for consultation and discussion to take place telephonically in which the participants are each located in remote locations from each other. Most people have used dial-in "meet me" teleconferencing services where users call a toll-free number, enter an access code, (www.pps.noaa.gov/definitions.htm) • Video teleconferencing unit (VTU): Equipment that performs video teleconference functions, such as coding and decoding of audio and video signals and multiplexing of video, audio, data, and control signals. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Video_teleconferencing_unit) Software • Needed primarily for videoconferencing using the Internet • Basic Microsoft/Macintosh programs are used to enhance the visual experience • NetMeeting: A product developed by Microsoft that enables groups to teleconference using the internet as the transmission medium. NetMeeting supports VoIP, chat sessions, a whiteboard, and application sharing. (http://www.webopedia.com/TERM/N/NetMeeting.html) • Shared access to information systems (including enrollment & course management programs) Training Policy Considerations • Comprehensive user manuals • Privacy Policy • Ongoing information sessions for staff • Access Policy • Online tutorials for students and staff • Usage Policy • Support from Information Technology Services
  20. 20. ASSESSMENT of Teleconferencing BENEFITS CHALLENGES Impact on students Substitution Apprehension • Ensure campus environment is transient to the • Value of face-to-face interaction debate workplace • Managing change • Accessibility based on personal preference and student needs Ethical and Legal Implications • Instill responsibility • FERPA Learning outcomes for students • Identity theft • Consistent with changing pedagogies in classrooms Initial investment in resources • Support for acquiring new skills that are • Training time (for both staff & students) valued • Cost of equipment • Challenge interpersonal skill development • Recognize value-added in face-to-face Promotion to students interactions • Equal access • Increase of the distance learning efficiency • Communicate expectations Faculty and Student Affairs Professionals Impacts • Reach a greater number of students • Save on travel costs • No need to track down students (share contact info to make teleconference appointment) • Professional development opportunity • Effectively and intentionally communicate same message using methods that are common in millennials (speak the same language) • Effectiveness in the reach and usage of services
  21. 21. Best Practices in Teleconferencing New Student Orientation Carleton University Key Points… CU in Cyberspace is an opportunity to access online video conference of orientation presentation and chat online with current students and Carleton University staff who can answer the questions you may have about coming to Carleton. What topics will be addressed during CU in Cyberspace? •Student Life •University Ser vices • Registration •International/Exchange student chat •Engineering and Design student chat With CU in Cyberspace, incoming students have access to Orientation presentations that they would typically see at a traditional campus orientation session.
  22. 22. Best Practices in Teleconferencing Student Affairs Professional Development The National Resource Center for The First-Year Experience and Students in Transition Key Points… • Access to these training opportunities is essential for the advancement of faculty and staff on campus. •Opportunities to collaborate exist in using these technologies.
  23. 23. Best Practices in Teleconferencing Distance Education Cornell University Key Points… • Specialized offices within the Academic divisions of institutions offer specialized training and support for faculty and instructors to design valuable teleconferencing materials. • For students who enroll in distance education, the quality of these materials are invaluable. • Teleconferencing can also be used as supplemental for instructors who want to intentionally incorporate technology into their teaching pedagogies.
  24. 24. Technology III: Online Communities
  25. 25. Why Online Communities? Trends in online communities clearly indicate that students connect with this means of communication and use it consistently to connect with peers. • According to an article in USA Today, students are reported to spend an average of 21.3 hours online each week. (Jayson, n.d.) • There are an estimated 300 websites that make up the social networking universe. ( Knowledge @ Wharton, 2005) • Facebook currently has over 16 million registered users. (www.facebook.com, 2007) • My Space has more than 41 million subscribers and gains approximately 150,000 new users daily. (Dyrli, 2006)
  26. 26. What are Online Communities? Wikipedia (2007) defines an online community as “a group of people that may or may not primarily or initially communicate or interact via the Internet. Online communities have also become a supplemental form of communication between people who know each other in real life.” Popular online communities and social networking sites among American college students include: • Facebook • My Space • Xanga • Live Journal • Blog Spot
  27. 27. How to Integrate Online Communities into Neo University? Uses with students • As a means of social networking. • As a form of self-expression. Uses with student affairs professionals and faculty • As a tool to recruit and retain students. • As a marketing tool for University and community events. • To disseminate information to current students. • According to an article in the USA Today, “To better communicate with a generation that socializes online on websites such as My Space and Facebook, many colleges are launching in the social networking frenzy.” (Kornblum, n.d.)
  28. 28. How to Implement Online Communities at Neo University: Online communities meet students‟ Neo U. must also address the use of information access needs. At Neo University external online communities to we need to ensure that student resources are ensure the safe use of Facebook, My available and easily accessible online. An Space, and other social networking online community would assist Neo University websites; including: to control and monitor what information • Students should censor what they students access and post. post on their individual sites, and should have privacy protection set An online community for Neo University at the highest level. students would help students stay current with • Suggest students “limit the amount campus activities, build initial connections of personal information [they] reveal with other students, and access University and always observe common services by providing the following features: courtesies and maintain a healthy • Student profiles level of skepticism and caution in • Messaging system [their] communications on these • Campus calendars sites.” http://safecomputing.osu.edu/socialnet.htm) • Campus newsletter subscription • Web storage space • Web space for a Student Portfolio
  29. 29. ASSESSMENT of Online Communities CHALLENGES BENEFITS Privacy and Security Student Connectivity • An article in Newsweek claims, “Such online • “The ability to interact with likeminded services can create the illusion of privacy individuals instantaneously from where none actually exists”. (Stone & anywhere on the globe”. Brown, 2006) (Wikipedia, 2007) • Students often post personal information about themselves, including contact Student Mattering information, on the various websites. • The use of online communities as a Appropriate Material retention tool. • Students do not seemed concerned with their image or creating a positive image of Institutional Communication themselves, and are therefore posting inappropriate photos, blogs, and comments • The ability to market and advertise on their personal sites and the sites of others. University and community events to a large population of students at a Ethics minimal cost. • Currently, there is debate surrounding the ethical dilemma that can arise when Educational Opportunity university officials and potential employers “police Facebook” and other networking • Provide opportunity to educate students websites. on appropriate use of this technology and the potential risks involved. Popularity • A Neo U. Online Community does not guarantee that students will stop using other popular online communities (Facebook, etc.). Therefore orientation or training of using this Online Community should include responsible use of these systems.
  30. 30. Best Practices in using Online Communities Institutional Online Communities The College of William and Mary’s Student Information Network Key Points… •This site was designed by students for students. •This online community is used to post campus events, student surveys, a ride board, the movie schedule, and even a book exchange! •Other institutions that currently offer Online Communities to their students include: • Wellesley College • My Wellesley • Purchase College • Self Service • Seton Hall University • My Web @ SHU • Capital University • Inside Capital (Kornblum, n.d.)
  31. 31. Best Practices in using Online Communities Education Surrounding Facebook Cornell University Key Points… • This institution directly addresses it‟s student use of Facebook and similar online communities • 5 concepts to keep in mind when using Facebook or MySpace: (1) Invincibility (2) Caching (3) Institutional IT Policy - Monitoring (4) The Law (5) Institutional IT Policy - Student Responsibility (Mitrano, 2006b)
  32. 32. Technology IV: Blogs
  33. 33. Why Blogs? There are several factors that advocate for blogging, including: • College students currently use this technology for personal use • Forum to reflect on college experiences • Peer tutoring • Recruitment tool for sharing institutional experiences with prospective students • Post information requests and receive response without having to leave your room
  34. 34. What are Blogs? The term “blogs” is an abbreviation for web logs. Blogs are similar to keeping an online journal. An initial topic or discussion can be posted with subsequent comments made in chronological order. Group or individual blogs can be created. All blogs are posted on the internet and/or University program. Who can use Blogs? With access to the internet, blogs can be created and utilized by faculty, staff, students and administrators.
  35. 35. How to Integrate Blogs into Neo University? How is it used? In the collegiate environment, blogs are used by faculty to create dialogue amongst their students outside of the classroom. Also some faculty ask students to keep individual blogs as reflections of learning. Student affairs professionals have also used blogs as discussion forums amongst student groups.
  36. 36. How to Implement Blogs at Neo University: Hardware: A computer and access to the internet are the only tools necessary to create a blog. Software: If the university initiates a university-only blog website or program, some software may be necessary. Otherwise, online websites are available for free use to people wishing to blog. Practicality: Anyone can create a blog. Also, anyone can post a topic or comment on a blog, unless restrictions have been set in place. Student, faculty and staff and access a blog from any time and any where. This is a convenient tool that will provide an open forum for thought.
  37. 37. ASSESSMENT of Blogging BENEFITS CHALLENGES Impact on students Active Learning • Assist student learning and knowledge • Keeping students actively engaged in online development discussions can be a challenge. Expectations need to be established for all students. • Allow for introverted students to equally participate in dialogue Quality of discussion and thought • Meet some students preferred learning styles • Some faculty have found that sometimes • Allow for a focus on learning outside of the students are not invested in the blog process. classroom “With few exceptions, the blogs would sit inactive until about 24 hours before our face- Learning outcomes for students to-face class meetings, when a flurry of posts • Develop a different classroom pedagogical and comments would erupt.” (Dawson,2007) perspective This creates concerns about students actual • Develop online learning efficiency engagement versus the need to complete and assignment or fulfill the expectation. • Engage in critical thinking about subject matters Learning Styles • Active learning • Engaging a large number of students in the Institutional Impact same material while all posses different learning styles has always been a challenge. • Support institutional values Some students may not be as technologically • Increase student learning initiatives savvy or may not process information best in • Allow for more dialogue amongst students this venue. We need to remember to engage and between students, faculty, staff and our students through as many different administrators. learning styles as possible. • Provide professional development for faculty and staff • Place institution at forefront of integrating technology and learning
  38. 38. Best Practices in Using Blogs Institutional Blog Services Princeton University Key Points… • Campus Blogs keep students up to date and informed with campus news bulletins. • Campus blogs provide detailed information on how students can create & manage their own University blog. • When University operated & managed, comments can be deleted by the administrator.
  39. 39. Best Practices in Using Blogs Prospective Student Recruitment Ball State University Key Points… • It is becoming increasingly popular for Admissions offices to have new students „blog‟ their freshman experiences. • These blogs are used as a recruitment tool to help prospective students determine if an institution is a good fit for them. • These sites also allow institutions to have their current students promote their campus.
  40. 40. Technology V: Institutional Spam
  41. 41. Why Institutional Spam Policies? • Institution speaks with one consistent, unifying voice • Millennial students desire structured policies to govern their daily lives (http://www.generationsatwork.com/articles/millenials.htm#12%20Cool%20Ideas%20for%20Managing%20Millennials) • Ensure equal access to relevant information for ALL members of campus community • Ensure that important messages do not get lost in sea of competing ideas • Define appropriate use of institutional communication • Maximize the efficiency of institutional communication • System-wide electronic messages by voice or e-mail should be reserved for “rare and truly urgent emergency notices, such as safety or security alerts” (http://www.itc.virginia.edu/policy/massmail.htm) • Protect institution against potential future legal liabilities • Commercial spam is widely detested • Has caused lost productivity in addition to the cost of additional spam-blocking software
  42. 42. What is Institutional Spam? Institutional Spam is the unsolicited bulk messages sent to large numbers of recipients by institutions of higher education (Adapted from Webster‟s Online Dictionary) • Most widely recognized form of spam is email, but can be applied to instant messaging, newsgroups, search engines, blogs, mobile phones, and fax transmissions (Adapted from Wikipedia) • Some spam is sent to ALL members of campus community, while other spam is sent to select groups • Ex. only students with sophomore standing • Other constituencies – faculty, students, staff, alumni • Content of messages can range from vital (emergency notifications and registration deadlines) to very specific events, speakers, and campus organizations • Many institutions have developed specific policies outlining: • Approval process for submitting requests • What is considered appropriate
  43. 43. How to Integrate Institutional Spam Policies into Neo University? Essential elements… At other institutions, 3 models • Identify who has the authority to exist, they are: send and regulate large-scale (1) Centralized Model – president‟s messages cabinet directs uniform policy • What is the responsibility of e-mail list implementation “owners”? • Involuntary standing lists – (2) Decentralized Model – individual recipients may not remove name departments create own policy from list. and procedures • Ex. course members, committees, department (3) Increasingly common to have staff, student organizations both university-wide policy AND • Voluntary standing lists – departmental standards. (http://www- individuals subscribe and may cdn.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/pub7007h.pdf) remove their name at any time. • Ex. interest groups, service providers • Involuntary ad-hoc communications • Ex. overdue library books or parking tickets, all third-year students, all History majors. (http://www.itc.virginia.edu/policy/massmail.html)
  44. 44. How to Implement Institutional Spam Policies at Neo University? The overarching goal is to reduce institutional spam through a 3 phase plan: • PHASE ONE • Working Group on Institutional Communication • Student leaders, faculty members, members of Dean‟s Council • PHASE TWO • Technology Satisfaction Surveys • What is the current perception within our community? • Computer Support Services Assessment • What is the current situation by the numbers? • PHASE THREE • Implementation Campaign • Open forums and training sessions at both campuses • Individual departments implement institutional policies (Building upon www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/DEC0406.pdf)
  45. 45. ASSESSMENT of Institutional Spam Policy CHALLENGES BENEFITS Student learning • Best meets the needs of our changing student • What are students learning by simply sending a mass population, especially our sharp increases in email to promote their activity? commuter (40%) and non-traditional (10%) students Academic freedom • Creates learning opportunities for students about the • Who‟s role is it to specify what you can or cannot realities of communicating in the information age receive in your inbox? • What is spam? “One person‟s spam is another person‟s research” (www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/DEC0406.pdf) • Clarifies ambiguities in current approach Technical challenges • Research suggests that the most effective • Cost of equipment technological policies exhibit clear goals • Complexity of email systems and the need to (http://www.ascilite.org.au/conferences/brisbane05/blogs/proceedings/49_McMahon%20&%20Pospisil.pd) maintain the systems running at all times • Generates rich opportunities for institution-wide Administrative challenges conversation on technology and the dissemination of • What about existing information technology policies? information (http://wwwcdn.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/pub7007h.pdf) • Time spent to study and implement new policies • How does this policy fit with institutional priorities? The realities of commercial spam • Most software and programs to address commercial spam are constantly evolving • At Georgetown University in 2004, the average student received 167 commercial spam messages per month (www.educause.edu/ir/library/pdf/DEC0406.pdf) Legal challenges • Are we limiting speech in a reasonable way?
  46. 46. Best Practices in Institutional Spam Policy Use & Approval for Large-Scale Electronic Messages University of Virginia Key Points… • Some institutions require a progressing level of authorization for large- scale electronic messages. • Large scale messages – must be “rare and truly urgent emergency notices,” only the president or designee may approve. • Policies and procedures should be published and easily accessible for all members of the campus community.
  47. 47. Best Practices in Institutional Spam Policy Information Technologies Rights & Responsibilities Cornell University Key Points… “Many people ask why the university does not put a stop to junk mail. Most junk mail comes from sites around the Internet, not from within Cornell. We have no control over what these sites send and cannot distinguish unwanted junk mail from e-mail that people want to receive”. • The institution has created specific User Rights & Responsibilities as well as access guides for members of their community. • These policies and statements ensure that the institutions technologies are being used in a consistent manner.
  48. 48. Implications of Technology & Future Directions Final Considerations
  49. 49. Technology for the Future: Implications for Practice at Neo University • Provide support to students who • Campus culture change (technology as an enhancement to have no or limited access to student learning, not a replacement) these technologies • Considerations with Academic • Incorporate training into Freedom and Intellectual Student Orientation Property • Accessing technology • Maintaining connectivity • Safety online through technology (continued investment from students) • Develop technological • Assessment and evaluation of competencies student usage of new • Promotion in recruitment technologies • Incorporation in Neo U. campus • Involvement in creating social master plan norms that come with implementing new technologies • Investment in monitoring and (Mitrano, 2006) updating technologies
  50. 50. Final Directions for the Future Implementation Strategy Step 1: Establish Collaborative Task Force for Neo U. technologies Step 2: Assess institutional needs, issues and master plans Step 3: Assess student population and current technology usage Step 4: Use various development and learning theories to create comprehensive goals & priorities list Step 5: Complete research of options and establish a draft plan for implementing new technologies Step 6: Present technology proposal to campus through various focus groups Step 7: Incorporate focus group feedback to create final plan for new technologies, including an implementation timeline Step 8: Complete new technology training and orientation sessions Step 9: Monitor use of new technologies and re-design (based on the PTP Guide in Evans, Forney, & Guido-DiBrito, 1998)
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