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  1. 1. Streaming Video over the Internet: Approaches and Directions Dapeng Wu, Yiwei Thomas Hou et al. Presented by: Abhishek Gupta {}
  2. 2. Introduction <ul><li>Issues in Video Streaming. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transmission of Real Time Video typically has bandwidth and delay requirements. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Current Internet does not offer any QoS guarantees to streaming video. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>For multicast it is difficult to achieve both efficiency and flexibility. </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Key areas in streaming video. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Video Compression – Scalable and Nonscalable coding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Application-layer QoS control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous media distribution services. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Streaming servers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Media synchronization mechanisms. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protocols for streaming media. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Architecture For Streaming Video
  5. 5. Video Compression <ul><li>Nonscalable Video Coding. </li></ul>Nonscalable video Encoder Nonscalable video Encoder
  6. 6. Video Compression(contd.) <ul><li>Scalable Video Encoding. </li></ul>Scalable video encoder Scalable video decoder
  7. 7. Application Requirements from Encoder and Decoder <ul><li>Bandwidth – Rate control. </li></ul><ul><li>Delay - Buffering. </li></ul><ul><li>Loss – Multiple description coding. </li></ul><ul><li>Video Cassette recorder like functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Decoding Complexity. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Application Layer QoS Control <ul><li>Congestion Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source Based – Probe based, Model based (“TCP friendly”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Receiver Based – Channel based, Model based. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hybrid Rate Control – Destination set grouping and layered multicast scheme. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rate Shaping – Match the rate of a pre-compressed bitstream to a target rate by use of filters. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Application Layer QoS Control (contd.) <ul><li>Error Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Forward Error Correction (FEC) – Channel coding, Source coding, Joint channel/source coding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Delay-Constrained Retransmission. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Error-resilient coding – Multiple description coding. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Error concealment – Spatial and Temporal Interpolation. </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Continuous Media Distribution Services <ul><li>Network filtering. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved video quality. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth efficiency. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Application level multicast. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Media bridges-Interconnection of media multicast networks enabled through application level peering relationships. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Content replication. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Caching </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mirroring </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Streaming Servers <ul><li>Components. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Communicator – Application layer and transport protocols. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operating System – Real time support for streaming applications. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Storage System – Support for continuous media storage and retrieval. </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Streaming Servers (contd.) <ul><li>Real Time Operating Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Process management – EDF and rate- monotonic scheduling. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resource Management - Admission Control, Resource Allocation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>File Management </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Streaming Servers (contd.) <ul><li>Storage System </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase throughput with data stripping. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increase capacity with tertiary and hierarchical storage. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use SAN, NAS. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fault tolerance. </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Media Synchronization <ul><li>Intra-stream synchronization – Within a time dependent data stream. </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-stream synchronization – Between different time dependent data streams. </li></ul><ul><li>Inter-object synchronization – Between time dependent and time independent data. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Protocols for Streaming Video <ul><li>Network layer protocols – IP. </li></ul><ul><li>Transport protocols – TCP, UDP, RTP, RTCP. </li></ul><ul><li>Session control protocols – RTSP, SIP. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Protocols for Streaming Video (contd.) Protocol Stacks for Media Streaming
  17. 17. Protocols for Streaming Video (contd.) <ul><li>Transport Protocols – RTP and RTCP. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RTP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Time Stamping </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sequence numbering </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Payload type identification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source identification </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RTCP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>QoS Feedback </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Participant information </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Control packets scaling </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inter-media synchronization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Minimal session control information. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Protocols for Streaming Video (contd.) <ul><li>Session control protocols – RTSP and SIP </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RTSP </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Support VCR like options </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Provide means for choosing delivery channels and delivery mechanisms based upon RTP. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media retrieval </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Adding media to existing session. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SIP – Similar to RTSP but supports user mobility. </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Future Directions <ul><li>Video Compression – How about using a combination of encoding schemes? </li></ul><ul><li>Application Level QoS – The effectiveness of TCP like rate control. </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous media distribution services – A scalable, cost-effective, efficient and incremental deployable infrastructure for continuous media distribution. </li></ul><ul><li>Streaming servers – VCR like control, Storage mechanisms, scalability, fault tolerance. </li></ul><ul><li>Media synchronization – Synchronization in multicast video while supporting VCR-like interactive functions. </li></ul><ul><li>Protocols – Caching, support for pause/resume operation in caches, security in protocols. </li></ul>