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  1. 1. eLearning Issues of Web Based Video Conferencing: A Work Based Learning Case Study Anthony ‘Skip’ Basiel Centre for Excellence in Work Based Learning, Middlesex University, London - UK [email_address] See Breeze summary recording at:
  2. 2. Overview <ul><li>National Centre for Work Based Learning Partnerships (NCWBLP) Context </li></ul><ul><li>Web Video Conference (WVC) Review </li></ul><ul><li>Project Aims and objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Research question </li></ul></ul><ul><li>WBL epistemology </li></ul><ul><li>Case study methodology </li></ul><ul><li>Context of DProf. Interview </li></ul><ul><li>Data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Findings </li></ul><ul><li>Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>Summary discussion: Breeze Recording </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get permission </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. National Centre for Work Based Learning Partnerships (NCWBLP) Context <ul><li>Centre for Excellence WBL </li></ul><ul><li>International offices </li></ul><ul><li>WBL pedagogical curriculum model: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Interview (online) => </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RAL (APEL) => </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RM/PP => </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects / (online) presentations </li></ul></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  4. 4. WVC Review <ul><li>ISDN: quality & costs </li></ul><ul><li>Web-based systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IP-2-IP (Netmeeting), </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Local Software with distributed server (MSN, Yahoo, Skype) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flash communication server – download browser plug-in (Adobe/Macromedia Breeze) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Issues: connection speed, security, sound </li></ul>
  5. 5. Project Aims, Objectives and Research Question <ul><li>Aim: critically review the process of conducting a Professional Doctorate interview online. </li></ul><ul><li>Objectives: produce technical and pedagogical guidelines to inform good practice for future web video conferencing </li></ul><ul><li>“How can a web-based video conferencing system be used to support the process of a Professional Doctorate interview?” </li></ul>
  6. 6. WBL epistemology <ul><li>The goals of any DProf. interview are to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>establish the identity of the candidate, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>determine the candidate’s eligibility for the DProf. programme, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>highlight and address any logistical concerns </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Related to Constructivist approach: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Value of prior knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Importance of autonomous learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Value of online research community </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Case study methodology <ul><li>There presently is not and appropriate content analysis scheme available for video conferencing according to Hearnshaw (2000). </li></ul><ul><li>Henri’s (1992) categories are comprised of: </li></ul><ul><li>Participative – messages posted by one or many </li></ul><ul><li>Social – statement not related to formal content </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive – chain of connected messages </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive – statement related to the learning process </li></ul><ul><li>Metacognitive knowledge and skills – showing awareness of self-regulated learning. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Context of DProf. Interview <ul><li>The DProf. interview stakeholders were in three categories: </li></ul><ul><li>Academics: </li></ul><ul><li>> the lead interviewer [J], </li></ul><ul><li>> DProf. Curriculum Leader [P], </li></ul><ul><li>the observer [F] </li></ul><ul><li>Administrative support: </li></ul><ul><li>> DProf. administrator [S] </li></ul><ul><li>Interviewee: </li></ul><ul><li>> DProf. Candidate in France [I] </li></ul><ul><li>> Researcher/observer [R] </li></ul><ul><li>> Office employee [A] </li></ul>
  9. 9. Data collection & analysis <ul><li>Observation of the ‘live’ interview </li></ul><ul><li>Paper and online questionnaires to staff and interviewee </li></ul><ul><li>Follow-up face-to-face and phone interviews with all stakeholder for data triangulation. </li></ul><ul><li>This case study was a sub-project to a School-wide study on the issues of using WVC in an educational context: </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  10. 10. Findings: Pedagogy 1.6 Expand investigation to mobile/wireless technologies 1.6 Interviewer positioning was poor 1.6 Lack of movement 1.5 Stakeholders will need regular sessions to support ownership going to the module leaders. 1.5 Staff development training has started. 1.5 Induction and training 1.4 Use multiple forms of media (web, CD-ROM, paper, phone, email, etc.) 1.4 We used the conference phone with PC sound as a back-up 1.4 Back-up strategies 1.3 ‘Comprehension checks’ should be placed throughout session. 1.3 Ask, “Do you understand?” 1.3 Confirmation of understanding 1.2 If sound is reliable the event can continue. 1.2 At the start – ask if everyone can hear. 1.2 Sound check 1.1 The self-view window is too small for a group. A resizable Breeze ‘pod’ for self-view could help stakeholders stay in the frame. 1.1 We used the self-view window of Breeze 1.1 Making & keeping eye contact     (designed / implemented): 1.0 Pedagogy Lesson(s) learnt: How it ‘s addressed Factors: (issues / concerns)
  11. 11. Findings: Technical 2.4 Explore wide-angle lens web cams. 2.4 Adjust seating / web cam location 2.4 Keep interview panel in the camera frame 2.3 Files need to be organised for cross reference of images. 2.3 Use the PC’s ‘Print Screen’ button 2.3 Validate student’s identity 2.2 For best results a controlled fixed location is needed for WVC to be reliable. 2.2 ‘Floating location’ using laptop and available room. 2.2 Location   2.1 Pre-tests should be done the day before and within the hour of the live event. 2.1 [S] called [I] on the conference phone before the actual session to test the connection and hardware. 2.1 Run technical pre-test     2.0 Technology
  12. 12. Findings: Policy, Procedure, etc. 4.2 Set up data projector 4.2 Laptop monitor lacked ‘eye contact’ 4.2 Sense of presence 4.1 ‘Do not disturb’ sign or phone redirect. 4.1 People calling or knocking at the door 4.1 Disruptions     4.0 Other 3.4 University needs to revisit the policy for cost and 24/7 help 3.4 Discussion of home costs by academic staff 3.4 Work from home [1] 3.3 Ask permission before image capture 3.3 Do a screen grab of the interviewee 3.3 Permission to record 3.2 Meeting information should include all time zones. 3.2 Interviewee was + 1 hr. 3.2 Set GMT time 3.1 Although the NCWBLP VLE Supervisor has been annotating the sessions there has been no formal process to feed this data into a change process. An online web questionnaire would be a good first step. 3.1 In the case study there were questionnaires and interviews, but this is not part of the DProf. interview model currently. 3.1 Collecting formative feedback from the stakeholders     3.0 Policy / Procedures
  13. 13. WVC project Surveys <ul><li>Highest: </li></ul><ul><li>Research data collection </li></ul><ul><li>Peer collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Lowest: </li></ul><ul><li>Interviews </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  14. 14. Guidelines <ul><li>Network speed needs to be reliable. We propose that a network test be done to check bandwidth speeds. </li></ul><ul><li>We need induction materials. Breeze or Captivate can produce online multimedia induction materials in Flash. </li></ul><ul><li>Wireless web cams fixed into a handheld device. </li></ul><ul><li>A fixed WVC room should be established. </li></ul><ul><li>Work from home policy should accommodate these emerging technologies and pedagogies. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Summary Breeze Recording <ul><li>? </li></ul><ul><li>? </li></ul><ul><li>? </li></ul><ul><li>? </li></ul><ul><li>? </li></ul><ul><li>? </li></ul><ul><li>? </li></ul><ul><li>? </li></ul>