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Branches of linguistics


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Branches of linguistics

  2. 2. LINGUISTICS Linguistics is the scientific study of natural language. Someone who engages in this study is called a linguist.
  3. 3. BRANCHES OF LINGUISTICS •Language in general and language in particular can be studied from different points of view •The field of linguistics as a whole can be divided into several subfields according to the point of view that is adopted
  4. 4. FIRST DISTINCTION GENERAL LINGUISTICS • Studying language in general • Supplies the concepts and categories in terms of which particular languages are to be analysed DESCRIPTIVE LINGUISTICS • Studying particular languages • Provides the data which confirm or refute the propositions and theories put forward in general linguistics
  5. 5. SECOND DISTINCTION Diachronic (Historical) Linguistics • Traces the historical development of the language and records the changes that have taken place in it between successive points in time: ‘diachronic’ is equivalent to historical • Of particular interest to linguists throughout the nineteenth century Synchronic Linguistics • Non- historical: presents an account of the language as it is at some particular point in time
  6. 6. THIRD DISTINCTION Theoretical Linguistics • Studies language and languages with a view to constructing a theory of their structure and functions and without regard to any practical applications that the investigation of language and languages might have • Goal: formulation of a satisfactory theory of the structure of language in general Applied Linguistics • Application of the concepts and findings of linguistics to a variety of practical tasks , including language teaching • Concerned with both the general and descriptive branches of the subject
  7. 7. FOURTH DISTINCTION Micro linguistics • Adopts the narrower view • Concerned solely with the structures of the language system in itself and for itself Macro linguistics • Adopts the broader view • Concerned with the way languages are acquired, stored in the brain and used for various functions; interdependence of language and culture; physiological and psychological mechanisms involved in language behaviour
  8. 8. FOURTH DISCTINCTION (CONTD.) Micro Linguistics • Phonetics • Phonology • Morphology • Syntax • Semantics • Pragmatics Macro linguistics • Psycholinguistics • Sociolinguistics • Neurolinguistics • Discourse Analysis • Computational Linguistics • Applied Linguistics
  9. 9. MICROLINGUISTICS • Phonetics is the scientific study of speech sounds. It studies how speech sounds are articulated, transmitted, and received. • Phonology is the study of how speech sounds function in a language, it studies the ways speech sounds are organized. It can be seen as the functional phonetics of a particular language. • Morphology is the study of the formation of words. It is a branch of linguistics which breaks words into morphemes. It can be considered as the grammar of words as syntax is the grammar of sentences.
  10. 10. MICROLINGUISTICS • Syntax deals with the combination of words into phrases, clauses and sentences. It is the grammar of sentence construction. • Semantics is a branch of linguistics which is concerned with the study of meaning in all its formal aspects. Words have several types of meaning • Pragmatics can be defined as the study of language in use in context.
  11. 11. MACROLINGUISTICS • Sociolinguistics studies the relations between language and society: how social factors influence the structure and use of language. • Psycholinguistics is the study of language and mind: the mental structures and processes which are involved in the acquisition, comprehension and production of language. • Neurolinguistics is the study of language processing and language representation in the brain. It typically studies the disturbances of language comprehension and production caused by the damage of certain areas of the brain.
  12. 12. MACROLINGUISTICS • Discourse analysis, or text linguistics is the study of the relationship between language and the contexts in which language is used. It deals with how sentences in spoken and written language form larger meaningful units. • Computational linguistics is an approach to linguistics which employs mathematical techniques, often with the help of a computer. • Applied linguistics is primarily concerned with the application of linguistic theories, methods and findings to the elucidation of language problems which have arisen in other areas of experience
  13. 13. MACROLINGUISTICS • Forensic linguistics, legal linguistics, or language and the law, is the application of linguistic knowledge, methods and insights to the forensic context of law, language, crime investigation, trial, and judicial procedure. It is a branch of applied linguistics. • There are principally three areas of application for linguists working in forensic contexts: • understanding language of the written law, • understanding language use in forensic and judicial processes, and • the provision of linguistic evidence