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  1. 1. LEDC CASE STUDY : GUJERAT, INDIALevel of development : MEDC or LEDC? Why did it happen?The area is relatively poor in natural resources. They India lies on a collision plate margin. The Indo-have 24 percent of the household below the poverty Australian and the Eurasian Plate collide into eachline. Literacy averages 61 percent overall. Their infant other at the rate of around 2cm per year. As neithermortality rates are 64 per thousand births. Sixty plate can subduct (both plates are continental) thepercent of people in rural areas, and 87 percent of land where the two plates meet is forced upwards. Aspeople in urban areas of Gujarat have access to safe the two continental plates move towards each otherwater.Other indicators of poverty (child malnutrition pressure builds up. Eventually this pressure is releasedlevels) show that the poor–especially women and – this caused the earthquake in India.children–may be more disadvantaged than the figuresabove suggest. The National Family Health Survey(1998-99) found that over 45 percent of children inGujarat were wasted, and over 50 percent werestunted (an indicator of chronic malnutrition).
  2. 2. Where did it happen? When did it happened? On January 26th 2001, an earthquake that measured 7.9 on the Richter Scale occurred at around 8.46 a.m. local time. What happened? Almost 20,000 people confirmed as dead, and another 166,000 injured. Add to that a further 600,000 left homeless, almost 350,000 homes destroyed and another 844,000 damaged and it becomes obvious that this was a major humanitarian disaster. The Indian government has calculated that in one way or another, the quake had an effect on 15.9 million people - nearly half the population of India.The earthquake occurred in north-western India. Theepicenter was 20 km north-east of the city of Bhuj inthe north-western state of Gujerat. The area thatwas affected the most wereKutch, Ahmedabad,Jamnagar, Patan, Rajkot, and Surendranagar.
  3. 3. Primary effects Secondary effects The ancient walled city of Buhj was almost An estimated 1 000 000 people were made totally destroyed, as was nearby Anjar. homeless and in need of immediate relief At least 20 000 people killed including water, food, shelter and protection Initial figures suggested approx. 150 000 people from disease. injured After the initial earthquake thousands slept in The high death toll was due to the poor the open air (for fear of being caught in construction of the buildings. collapsing buildings) – danger of exposure 350 000 buildings destroyed and 750 000 Victims were all vulnerable to diseases (typhoid, damaged cholera and gastroenteritis) 400 school children and their teachers were Many hospitals were destroyed – patients covered by tons of falling masonry. treated in the open air (desperate need for beds 16 million people were affected in India and medical supplies for the wounded). More than 50 high-rise buildings collapsed close Gas pipelines, power supply stations, phone lines to the epicenter. and water services were severely affected. Tens of thousands of people fled Gujerat as aftershocks continued. Approx. 350 aftershocks, the largest measuring 6.0
  4. 4. Short – term responses Long – term responses Indians troops, from neighboring Pakistan and The Indian government received help from the from across the world came to help. World Bank ($500 million) and the Asian But due to the damage to the transport system, development bank ($150 million) power and communication, this made finding who Quake - proof housing was introduced. needed help and getting it to them very difficult. But because of the extra cost and need for more Many people were immediately mobilized to help homes very quickly, some builders did not comply themselves, digging out their neighbors and with the new standards and government did not providing whatever assistance they could. force them. The national and state governments quickly The World Bank and the ADB jointly undertook a provided assistance in many forms including cash, preliminary assessment of damage and medical supplies, communications teams, reconstruction needs resulting from the shelters, food, clothing, transport and relief earthquake. workers The assessment encompassed extensive field Officials returned to work quickly to help visits in rural and urban areas throughout the coordinate relief activities even though they too disaster area, and widespread consultation with had lost their own families. villagers, urban dwellers, NGOs, industries, and Local industries donated equipment and UN and bilateral agencies working in the area. personnel for the search and rescue operation. The field visits were conducted between The NGO network in Gujerat quickly rallied to February 12 to 22, 2001, and covered the support community efforts. districts most affected by the earthquake. The Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian These include Kutch, by far the most severely Affairs (OCHA) sent a five-member UN Disaster damaged; and other seriously affected districts Assessment and Coordination team on January such as Ahmedabad, Jamnagar, Patan, Rajkot, 27, the day following the disaster. and Surendranagar.
  5. 5. Resources DetailsRailways Damage to track between Viramgam to Gandhidam; Gandhidham to Bhuj; Viramgam to Okha; and Palanpur to Gandhidam. Heavy damage to various station buildings, station cabins, bridges, residential quarters and signalling systems. Rail links as far as Bhuj have been restored.Roads 650 kilometres of national highways damaged, 100 kilometres severely. National highways are now traffic-worthy.Bridges Many minor and major bridges damaged including the Syurajbari bridge at Bachau. Most main road bridges have been repaired and are capable of accepting limited weight traffic.Ports Berths 1-5 at Kandla Port suffered major structural damage.Telecommunications 147 exchanges, 82,000 lines and optical fibre systems damaged. All exchanges and at least 40,000 lines have been restored.Power 45 sub-stations and power supply to 50% of feeders in Kutch damaged. Power supply to nine towns & 925 villages affected. All substations and 225 feeders have been restored and there is now power to all villages in Kutch.Water Water supply to 18 towns and 1340 villages damaged or destroyed. Piped water restored to 9 towns and 480 villages. Tube wells are gradually being restored.
  6. 6. Fuel Jamnager refinery shutdown 26 January by power failure. Crude oil and product pipelines were shut down for checking. Crude oil pipeline for one day, product pipelines for nine days. Availability of product not affected as alternative arrangements have been made.Schools Kutch District had 1359 primary schools with 5168 schoolrooms. Of these, 992 schools and 4179 classrooms were destroyed. There were 38 secondary schools of which six were destroyed, 14 suffered heavy damage and 12 were partially damaged. Of 128 non-government schools, nine were destroyed, 11 suffered heavy damage and 99 were partially damaged.