<ul><li>Scotland is in the north of United Kingdom. </li></ul><ul><li>Regions: </li></ul><ul><li>Highlands. </li></ul><ul><li>Aberden. </li></ul><ul><li>Perthshire. </li></ul><ul><li>Argyll. </li></ul><ul><li>Edinburgh. </li></ul><ul><li>Glasgow, Clyde valley. </li></ul><ul><li>Sourth Scotland. </li></ul>1.Were is Scotland?
2.History. When the Romans arrived first called Caledonia ("Land of the Caledonians") to Scotland, the Caledonian pine forest along from north to south and from east to west across the country. Scottish Figures: William Wallace: William Wallace was a Scottish who led his country against the British occupation and against King Edward I of England in the Wars of Scottish Independence. He was born in 1270 B.C in Elderslie and he was died on 23 August 1305 B.C. On September 11 1297,Wallace completely razed to the English army commanded by the Earl of Surrey at the Battle of Stirling . . When she returned from Stirling, Wallace was named "Guardian of Scotland." Later, he sent an army to conquer York, the largest city in northern England. On 1 April 1298, English troops under the command of the King of England Edward I Longshanks on, and Scottish troops clashed in Falkirk. Wallace had a secret weapon: the "Schiltroms", groups of soldiers with a spear of 2 m used to stop the cavalry charge. The English first attacked with the cavalry, which was effectively stopped, but after them came the dreaded archers of Wales, long-throw, which devastated the Scots.
Mary Stuart: She was a queen of Scotland and she was the daughter of the king of Scottland Jacobo V and Mary of guise . She was born on 8 December 1542 and she died on 24 july 1567. She was crowned on 9 september 1543 and she was married with Francisco II of France and he was queen consort of France. Bonnie Prince Charles: He was an aristocrat and he was born on 31 septembre 1720 and he was died on 31 junuary 1788. He was the son of Jacobo III and the princess Clementine.
3.Famous people of Scotland. Walter Scot: Sir Walter Scott, 1st Baronet (15 August 1771 – 21 September 1832) was a Scottish historical novelist, playwright, and poet, popular throughout much of the world during his time. Robert Louis : Balfour Stevenson (13 November 1850 – 3 December 1894) was a Scottish novelist, poet, essayist and travel writer. His best-known books include Treasure Island, Kidnapped, and Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde was first published in 1886. The work is commonly known today as The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde or simply Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. It is about a London lawyer named Gabriel John Utterson who investigates strange occurrences between his old friend, Dr Henry Jekyll, and the misanthropic Edward Hyde.
<ul><li>Sir Arthur Ignatius Conan Doyle : (22 May 1859 – 7 July 1930) was a Scottish physician and writer, most noted for his stories about the detective Sherlock Holmes, generally considered a milestone in the field of crime fiction, and for the adventures of Professor Challenger. He was a prolific writer whose other works include science fiction stories, plays, romances, poetry, non-fiction, historical novels and humours. </li></ul>Sir Thomas Sean Connery : (born 25 August 1930), better known as Sean Connery, is a Scottish actor and producer who has won an Academy Award, two BAFTA Awards and three Golden Globes . Connery is best known for portraying the character James Bond, starring in seven Bond films between 1962 and 1983 .[ In 1988, Connery won the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actor for his role in The Untouchables.
4.Nessie The Loch Ness Monster (Scottish Gaelic: Niseag) is a cryptic that is reputed to inhabit Loch Ness in the Scottish Highlands. It is similar to other supposed lake monsters in Scotland and elsewhere, though its description varies from one account to the next. Popular interest and belief in the animal has varied since it was brought to the world's attention in 1933. Evidence of its existence is anecdotal, with minimal and much-disputed photographic material and sonar readings. The most common speculation among believers is that the creature represents a line of long-surviving plowshares. The scientific community regards the Loch Ness Monster as a modern-day myth, and explains sightings as a mix of hoaxes and wishful thinking. Despite this, it remains one of the most famous examples of cryptozoology. The legendary monster has been affectionately referred to by the nickname Nessie.
5.Government Given that Scotland is one of the constituent countries of the United Kingdom, the Scottish head of state is the British monarch, I, Queen Elizabeth II in the UK since his coronation in 1952. In Scotland, the Queen uses the title of Queen Elizabeth ("Queen Elizabeth") instead of "Isabel II", since there has never been a Queen "Elizabeth I of Scotland." Constitution, the United Kingdom is a unitary state with a sovereign parliament and government.
6.Clans A clan is a group of people united by actual or perceived kinship and descent. Even if lineage details are unknown, clan members may be organized around a founding member or apical ancestor. The kinship-based bonds may be symbolical, whereby the clan shares a "stipulated" common ancestor that is a symbol of the clan's unity. When this ancestor is not human, it is referred to as an anomaly totem. Clans can be most easily described as tribes or sub-groups of tribes. The word clan is derived from 'clean' meaning 'family' in the Irish and Scottish Gaelic languages.
Kilts : The kilt is the garment most typical of Scotland. It consists of a skirt but has the peculiarity that the men wear (currently used only for special occasions such as weddings, conventions, etc.).. The kilt clear difference from the different clans of the Highlands region. The particular design of each type of graph (for each clan), is called tartan. Tartan : The colours of the tartan represent the colours of the clan to which they belonged. It consisted of a long strip of cloth that men wore around the body holding the remaining adjusted on the shoulder with a brooch. Tartan placement is considered an art, which were perfectly placed folds Due to the heavy rains that fall in Scotland throughout the year, is said to have used these slopes to prevent getting wet in their pants low, however, has recently been proven that if you wear the kilt, it is because sheep are able to hear the zip of a kilt pantalón. The El origin is in the garment called feileadh mor, a long tunic, and not made up, about five feet long, which was collected and then tied with a belt around waist to cover both the body and legs.
Typicals scotish family names <ul><li>Mac and Mc indicating that someone was someone's son. </li></ul><ul><li>Smith (blacksmith), Stewart (steward) and Taylor (tailor). </li></ul><ul><li>Woodward, Hunt and the forest. </li></ul><ul><li>Campbell (of caimbeul, meaning "crooked mouth") </li></ul><ul><li>Goodchild, Puttock (greedy) or Wise. </li></ul><ul><li>The meaning of McDonald is son of Donald. </li></ul><ul><li>The meaning of watson is don of Watt. </li></ul><ul><li>The meaning of Gray is grey. </li></ul><ul><li>The meaning of Duncan is brown warrior. </li></ul><ul><li>The meaning of simpson is son of sim. </li></ul>
National day :St Andrew's Day, November 30 Area :78.782 km² Population :5.116.900 hab. Capital city : Edinburgh Major cities:Edimburgh,Glasgow and Aberdeen Official language :English Nationality : Scottish Anthem : God Save The Queen Main Religions : Christianity Currency : Pound Highest point : Ben Nevis Lowest point : Loch Morar Longest River : River Tay Largest lake : Lake of Menteith Official animal : Unicorn
7. Food HAGGIS : Haggis is a dish containing sheep meat (heart, liver and lungs), minced with onion, oatmeal, fat, spices, and is traditionally cooked over low heat in the animal's stomach for approximately three hours. The modern and commercial haggis is prepared in a box instead of in the stomach. Shortbread : A shortbread cookie is a type of unleavened bread, which is traditional in Scotland and is made with one part white sugar, two parts butter, oatmeal. . The use of white flour is common today, and other ingredients such as rice or corn flour are sometimes added to alter its texture. the Shortbread is so named because of its crisp texture and the cause of this texture is its high fat content, provided by the butter. Whiskey : Is an alcoholic beverage obtained by the distillation of a fermented mash of grains such as barley, wheat, malt, rye and corn, and subsequent aging in wooden barrels, traditionally white oak. Scotch Whisky is divided into five distinct categories: single malt, single grain, blended malt, Grain and Blended Scotch Whisky blend. Scotch whisky must be aged in oak barrels for at least three years. A whiskey with a statement of age is known as the Guaranteed old whiskey.
8.sports. Golf The popular sport in Scotland is Golf, It originated in Scotland during the Middle Ages. Golf has its origins in the fifteenth century in Scotland, there are pastors entertained with you reach agoal. Later the rules were sticks hitting boulders until created.
9.Music The instrument traditional in Scotland is the Gaita. Scotland has no national anthem, but the best known songs are "Flowers of Scotland" and "Scotland the brave", these were the songs that came to be the anthem. Auld Lang Syne was a Scottish poem written by Robert Burns in 1788 and was put to the tune of a traditional folk song is well known in many countries, especially in the English speaking world,. Its traditional use is to celebrate the start of the New Year. By extension, also sung at funerals, graduations and as a final farewell or other occasions.
10.Edinburgh Edinburgh Is the capital and second largest city in Scotland after Glasgow. Is located on the east coast of Scotland on the banks of the fjord the river Forth and the local unitary authority of the City of Edinburgh. Is the capital of Scotland since 1437 and the seat of Scottish government. The city was one of the most important centres of education and culture during the Age of Enlightenment, thanks to the University of Edinburgh. The origin of the name of the city is believed to come from British Eidyn Din (Fortress of Eidyn) of the time was only a foot. The city is affectionately nicknamed Auld Reekie, which means "Old Fireplace" or "Old Smokey" in Scots. This is because during the times when the wood and coal were the only fuels available, all the chimneys poured large amounts of smoke into the air. Auld Reekie also referred to the appalling sanitary conditions that caused a bad smell in the city
11.Festivals and celebrations Hogmanay. Is the Scots word for the last day of the year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year in the Scottish manner. It is, however, normally only the start of a celebration which lasts through the night until the morning of New Year's Day (1 January) or, in some cases, 2 January which is a Scottish Bank Holiday. Up-Helly-Aa refers to any of a variety of fire festivals held in Shetland Islands, Scotland, in winter every year to mark the end of the Christmas season. The festival includes a parade of up to one thousand geezers in Lerwick and has considerably lower numbers of rural festivals, marching squads trained by the city or town in a variety of themed costumes. held in late January. Robert Burn's Night :Scotland is a celebration where we remember the life and work of poet Robert Burns, author of poems in Scots and English in Scotland as "Auld Lang Syne." This dinner is usually held to mark the poet's birthday (on January 25), although in principle it can be done any time of year. Burns dinners are especially common in Scotland, but can also be found wherever there is a Club of Burns, a Scottish Society, Scottish exports and lovers of the poetry of Robert Burns.
The Edinburgh Festival : Edinburgh is best known for the Edinburgh Festival, which is a series of separate events running from the end of July until early September each year. The longest established festival is the Edinburgh International Festival. The International Festival centres on a programme of high-profile theatre productions and classical music performances, featuring international directors, conductors, theatre companies and orchestras. Hogmanay
By : Lorena López , Alberto Sanchez, Jose Antonio Martín and Victoria Bacas.