Good MorningI am a post grad student – doing events marketing managementWhy am I doing a lecture on wine tourism.I am doing a dissertation on wine tourism in the UKI have had some experience in wine tourism and tourism in general After I graduated I worked in the UK for a few years but then decided to work a season as a chalet host in Italy, one season in Italy turned into 8 years. In those years I worked as a holiday rep and a tour guide in a few countries but mostly Italy, the last two years I was based at a vineyard in central italy.
I believe we have 1½ hrs so in the first part of the lecture I would like to talk about the wine market in Britain, wine tourism in general and then focus more on wine tourism in the UK, the advantages and barriers. And what the future potentially holds
In the sencond part of the lecture I want to talk a little about me and my dissertation. So I would like to look a little at tourist motivations then talk more specifically about what I am going to study and how I am going to do.
Johnson – highlights that it people participate for the purpose of recreation so intentionally excludes those who are involved in business sellers, buyersHall expands the definition to include the attribute of the wine or wine region are the principle motivating factors
Alonso expands it even further to include more than just the wine and the specific attribute of the wine producing region but also the other attractions that a wine producing areas offers over and above just the wine. Including not just the product itself but also food and other areas of tourism which expands wine tourist beyond those who have a specific interest in wine to those who may have a mild interest or also who may be passing
The grand tour of the 17th and 18th century incorporated visits to vineyards, though some people believe that the ancient greeks and romans started the trend.Wine tourism as we recognise it didnt really come into play until the mid 19th centuryClassification of wines lay the foundations for the French appellation system and gave wine producing regions a specific identity, and marketing edge
Wine Lover – great interest in anything related to wine, high income, read specialised publications, likely to purchase wine at the wineryWine interested – great interest but wine is not the only reason for the visit,read specialised publicationsWine curious – moderate interest, unfamiliar with th winemaking process, perceive activities related to wine as way of socialisingSpecilialist – visits a vineyard, winery or wine show for recreation, primary motivation is the wineGeneralist – primary motivation likely to be other that the wine
Since the mid 1300’s wine producing regions have flourished through their connections with the UK, the british were renowned for selecting, importing, bottling and cellaring wines. Britain is still today considered the hub of the international wine tradeThat placed us 6th in the world in terms of volume of wine consumedWe have an enormous selection of wines coming into the country from all over the world, with the huge selection that we are confronted with every time we walk into the store, it’s tough for wineries to get their wine recognised over the mass.Wine tourism is one way that helps their product stand out from the crowd,
Just to clarify, English wine is not British wine. British wine is made from grapes bought in.English and Welsh wines are made from grapes cultivated here.It is believed that the cultivation of vines began in the UK after the invasion of the Romans, but didn't really become established until the 11th century when the Doomsday book recorded the existence of 40 vineyards in 1086. A reported change in the British climate (it got wetter) and the dissolution of the monasteries combined with the plague led to the decline.
WeatherSimilar climate to that of the Champagne region of France, soil composition is also quite similar, lots of lime, good drainageLower temperatures may make it challenging for producing red wines, we have a great climate for whites and sparkling winesQualityIn the past the quality of wines produced in the UK has not been great. However, advancements in wine making techniques and greater research in the area has greatly improved our knowledge and English wines are now winning awards. In the Decanter World Wine Awards, vineyards such as Ridgeview, Camel Valley, Breaky Bottom and Denbies have received gold and silver in the sparkling wine category. And in some blind tastings English sparkling wine has been selected over ChampagneIf English wines are so great what is the problem? – Awareness... Wine tourism can help with that!
Wine tourism can greatly contribute to a regions economy and image.Wine tourism is recognised as not only contributing to a countries economy but also to it’s attractiveness as a visitor destination
It’s a valuable educational tool - improving peoples awareness of the industry and appreciation of what goes into the wine production process will hopefully lead to increased consumptionFor many small wineries, the cellar door is the main opportunity for them to sell their wines, they may be unable to sustain supplies to larger retailersBy meeting potential customers in person, introducing them to the winery, you can develop a relationship with them, establish a loyal customer base. By creating an unforgettable experience will also help recall those wines when it comes to purchase.Improved profit margins through direct sale – cutting out themiddle manGain some insight as to peoples opinion of the products, trial new products.
The first thing that springs to mind when we think of the UK is not wine, in fact people associate the UK with very bad wine, without really knowing why. Wineries such as Denbies are trying to draw people in by using other attractions – restaurant, association with other tourist landmarks in the area, special events such as murder mystery dinners etc, and by getting their foot in the door overcome the prejudices against English wines by educating people about them – tastings, toursScepticism from retailers – again related to a lack of awareness of English wines, lack of familitarity with the productCosts: Development of the winery to accommodate visitors requires capital, an initial investment of funds to provide the appropriate facilitiesSpace: Small wineries may just not have the room to spare to add in tasting roomsTime: Wine makers may be reluctant to give up their time to conduct tours and tasting to visitors who have no intention of buying
On request only visits: this means that the winery should have contact details for everyone who has ever visited the vineyard, however this doesn’t mean that they made the reservation by email – if the winery didnt take an email address for the visitor then there is no way of including that person in the studyEqually to be considered with the larger vineyards such a Denbies who do not require prior reservation, they may not have email details for any of those visitors who made unplanned visits which cuts out an important section of the population group
This is the single most influential factor. If the wineries aren’t interested in developing wine tourism to their property what motivation will they have to get involved. Some wineries, including Breaky Bottom, although they will arrange visitations to the vineyard/winery actively discourage visitors unless they are serious buyers. They are reluctant to give up their time for visitors who are just curious.
Outline – Part One• Wine in the UK• Definition of wine tourism• The story of wine tourism?• The wine tourist• English wine and wine tourism in the UK• The impact of wine tourism• What are the prospects for wine tourism inthe UK?
Outline - Part Two• My dissertation• My aims and objectives• How do I intend to to accomplish this• Potential issues to face
What is wine tourism• Can be included under:– Agri tourism– Eco & Sustainable tourism– Culinary tourism• Incorporates:– Vineyards, winery & cellar door visitations– Tasting events– Festivals & shows
• Johnson, 1998“visitation to vineyards, wineries, wine festivalsand wine shows for the purpose of recreation”• Hall et al, 2000“visits or tours to vineyards, wineries, winefestivals and wine shows for which winetasting and/or experiencing the attributes of agrape wine region are the prime motivatingfactors”Definition
• Alonso et al, 2008“wine tourism amalgamates the wine product,food and tourism to form an attractivecombination, a bundle of tangible andintangible elements or the ‘growing link’, andavailable to people visiting rural areas wheremany wineries are located”
Wine and Tourism: the link• Wine Industry to Tourism:– Adds to the attractiveness of a destination– Acts as a motivator to visitors to the area• Tourism to the Wine Industry– Helps build customer relationships– Provides a commercial opportunity
The history of wine tourism• The Grand Tour of the 17th & 18th Century• Mid 19th Century:– Development and expansion of the railways– Rise of the middle classes• Classification of wines for 1855 ParisExhibition
Who is the wine tourist?• Mitchell and Hall, 2006– 30-50 years old– Moderately high income– Consume wine on a regular basis• Marzo-Navarro and Pedraja-Iglesias, 2010– Nearly 50% 30-49– Income €18,000-€40,000– More men than women
• Wine tourist demographic profile differsdepending on their level of interest in wine• Hall, 1996 identified 3 groups:– Wine lovers– Wine interested– Wine curious• Johnson, 1998 identified 2 groups– Specialist– Generalist
Tourist motivations• To taste the wine• Education• Socialise• The scenery• A day out in the country
The British and their wine• Britain is considered the hub of theinternational wine trade• Largest importer of wine in the EU by value• Second largest in the EU by volume• In 2011 we drank 147,176 cases of wine• The wine industry contributed £11.9 bill(The WIne,Trade and Spirit Association, 2012, Key Note, 2012, DEFR$A, 2009)
English Wine Industry• English wine vs British wine• Possibly dating back to the Roman invasion• Grew with the spread of Christianity with wineproduced in the monasteries• First commercial vineyard planted inHambledon in 1951, today there are over 400vineyards across the UK
What comes to mind when youthink of English Wine?• Weather...• Quality...
Wine tourism in the UK• The first purpose built winery, vineyard andtourist attraction is Denbies, established in 1986.• English wine tourism further developed in the1990’s with the involvement of the English WineProducers to promote awareness of English winesand the introduction of EWW in 2001• Today approximately 90 English wineries opentheir doors to the public
The impacts of wine tourism• Australia, 2009: AUD$7.1bn• California, 2009: 20 million visitors, $2.1bnaccounting for over 10,000 jobs in NAPA• USA, 2008: $700mn• France, 2004: 7.5 million visitors• Italy, 2004: 4 million visitors• South Africa: Wine tourism contribute 2.2% ofthe national GDP
The advantages• Increased awareness• Sales opportunities• Build relationships• Improved profit margins• Market research opportunities
The barriers• Negative public perception• Scepticism from retailers• Increased costs• Space• Time
Prospects for wine tourism in the UK• Salvat & Boque (2010) Report that thedomestic market makes up the larger share ofvisitors and that 15% of visitors at can beconsidered wine experts• Depends on the owner.• Appeal to a broader audience to increaseawareness– Experiential model: Denbies
Working titleThe motivations for visitors toparticipate on wine tourism in the UK
Previous research• Past research has been focussed on the wellestablished wine producing regions:– Australia & New Zealand– South Africa– USA• And to a lesser extent:– Spain, Chile
Previous research• The profile of the wine tourist• Motivations and behaviour of the wine tourist• Incentives and barriers to the development ofwine tourism• Potential growth offered to ruralenvironments• Economic benefits of the cellar door
Research in the UK• There has been very little research in any areaof wine tourism in the UK• Perspective of the winery rather than from thetourist
My research questions• Who is participating in wine tourism inEngland in terms of their demographiccharacteristics• What are the visitors motivations forparticipating in wine tourism in England
The Ideal• Online survey by email to those who havevisited vineyards who participate in winetourism in England• Questionnaire based on Best-Worst scalingtechnique• Quantitative data analysis using SPSS
Limitations• The majority of English vineyards open to thepublic provide visitations on request only.• Email restricts my sample population to thosewho have access to the appropriatetechnology• Focuses on winery and vineyard visitations,thereby excluding those participating in otherforms of wine tourism
Potential issues• Lack of support or interest from wineries– Less motivation to participate in the study– Access to the client database• Lack of response to the survey– No data, no study
References and additional reading• KEY NOTE (2012) Market Update: Wine. 22 June 2012.• MARZO-NAVARRO, M and PEDRAJA-IGLESIAS, M (2009) Profile of a wine tourist and the correspondence betweendestination and preferred wine: A study in Aragon, Spain. Journal of Travel and Tourism Marketing, 26 pp. 670-687• MARZO-NAVARRO, M and PEDRAJA-IGLESIAS, M (2010) Are there different profiles of wine tourists? An initial approach.• HALL, C. M., SHARPLES, L., CAMBOURNE, B. and MACIONIS, N. (2002) Wine Tourism Around the World: Development,management and markets. Oxford: Butterworth-Heinemann• CARLSEN, J. and CHARTERS, S. (Eds.) (2006) Global Wine Tourism: Research, Management and Marketing. Oxfordshire: CABIInternational• THE WINE TRADE AND SPIRIT ASSOCIATION, 2012. UK Wine and Spirit Market: 2012 Overview [pdf] July 2012. Available at:<http://www.wsta.co.uk/images/mr/2012marketoverviewweb.pdf>• STEWART, J. W., BRAMBLE, L. and ZIRALDO, D (2008) Key Challenges in wine and culinary tourism with practicalrecommendations. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management, 20 (3) pp. 303-312• MARZO-NAVARRO, M and PEDRAJA-IGLESIAS (2012) Critical factors of wine tourism: incentives and barriers from thepotential tourists perspective. International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management 24 (2) pp. 312-334• PIKKEMAAT, B., PETERS, M., BOKSBERGER, P. and SECCO, M (2009) The staging of experiences in wine tourism. Journal ofHospitality Marketing and Management, 18 pp. 237-253• HOWLING, M and VAN WESTERING, J (2007) Developing wine tourism: A case study of the attitude of English wineproducers to wine tourism. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 14 (1) pp.87-95• BATRA, A (2008) An Exploratory study on Specific preferences and characteristics of wine tourists. Anatolia: An InternationalJournal of Tourism and Hospitality Research, 19 (2) pp. 271-286• ALANT, K and BRUWER, J (2004) Wine tourism behavior in the context of a motivational framework for wine regions andcellar doors. Journal of Wine Research, 15 (1) pp. 27-37• http://www.englishwineproducers.com/• http://www.denbies.co.uk/Groups/126187/Denbies_Wine_Estate.aspx• SALVAT, J.S. and BOQUE, J. B. (2010) Current Trends on Wine Tourism and regional development, New Opportunities andChallenges in Wine Tourism, Catalan 14-16 October 2010. Consortium for Increasing Competitiveness in Tourism and Leisure[on-line]. Available at:http://www.pct-turisme.cat/intranet/node/161