b) Physical, chemical & biological properties
c) Chemical Specifications
d) Manufacturing process description
Top 10 companies of industry:
1) Asian Paints
2) Kansai Nerolac Paints Ltd
3) Berger Paints India Limited
4) Shalimar paints
5) Jenson & Nicholson (I) Ltd
6) Snowcem Paints
7) British paints
9) Dulux Paints
10) Nippon Paints
History of Alpha Paints Pvt. Ltd.:
Nature and type: Paint manufacturing for industrial use
Year of establishment: Established in the year 1971 by the owner’s father
Investment: They found investment from personal resources
Motto and goal: To increase the profit and value in the market.
Mission: Mission is to manufacture paints that are used in industries which prevents corrosion of
Administrative office: GIDC estate, Odhav, Ahmedabad
Annual turnover: Rs 4crore
Working hours: 8:30 to 5:30
Location with details:
The head office and manufacturing plant of ‘Alpha Paints Pvt. Ltd. is situated at- C1/9
GIDC Estate, Opp. Ambikanagar, Odhav, Ahmedabad, Gujarat-382415.
Land area covered in area:
The factory has covered 1800 square meters of the land.
Division of land area:
The whole land area is divided into 3 sections: Clerical office, Manufacturing plant &
Advantages of location:
All the facilities such as, electricity supply, water supply, disposal facility of wastage
etc. is good in this location.
There are also complementary industries, which can fulfill the need of spare parts or
any other supportive items.
As it is reserved industrial area, the advantages provided by the state government can
easily be taken.
In case of continuously operated ball mill, the ceramic balls are fed up to 1/3rd
portion of its volume.
As the shell rotates, the balls are lifted up on the rising side of the shell and then they
cascade down (or drop down on to the feed), from near the top of the shell. In doing
so, the solid particles in between the balls are ground and reduced in size by impact.
This bead mills are batch process machine for size reduction and dispersing of paints,
inks, coatings etc. The bead mills are widely used in labs for processing of small daily
batches. The bead mill consists of a grinding vessel inside which rotates a shaft fitted
with impeller disc. The grinding media and the charged material are filled into the
vessel and the shaft is run at a very high speed for a particular time till dispersion is
achieved. Vessel with jacket arrangements is provided as a standard.
Mixer or Blender is a machine which is used for mixing up the ingredients or
materials such as binder and solvent.
There is a small scale high speed mixer installed in manufacturing plant.
Furniture & Office Equipments:
Vehicles for transportation:
They are using 'Tempo’, as well as ‘Trucks’ for transportation.
Number of vehicles:
They have not bought any of the vehicles for the transportation. They depend on the
local transportation services.
Small, medium, large:
They use all the sizes of truck or tempo as per the requirement as well as
They do not own any of the vehicles for the purpose of transportation. They are
using hired vehicles for the purpose of transportation of raw materials and finished
A pigment is a material that changes the color of reflected or
transmitted light as the result of wavelength-selective absorption. This
physical process differs from fluorescence, phosphorescence, and other forms
of luminescence, in which a material emits light.
A Binder or Resin (such as Linseed oil) is what holds the pigment to
The binder exists to hold the pigment to the surface. The binder is a
polymeric substance, and is either dissolved in the paint or
suspended in it by emulsifiers.
A good paint should consist of just paint and binder. Cheap paints
contain fillers to make the manufacturing of the paint cheaper. You
can tell by the intensity of the color whether filler has been used.
Linseed oil dries through the process of oxidation to a strong but
It is the flexible quality of the oil film that allows for its use on
Cold pressed linseed oil is generally used in paint making though
small proportions of poppy and walnut oils are also used.
A solvent is a substance that dissolves a solute (a chemically different liquid, solid or
gas), resulting in a solution. A solvent is usually a liquid but can also be a solid or a
gas. The quantity of solute that can dissolve in a specific volume of solvent varies
Common uses for organic solvents are in dry cleaning , as paint thinners , as nail
polish removers and glue solvents, in spot removers, in detergents and in perfumes .
Solvents find various applications in chemical, pharmaceutical, oil and gas industries,
including in chemical syntheses and purification processes.
Detailed organization structure
Description of Work
Number of employees
Procedure of recruitment
Training and development of worker
Payment of salary
1) Preassembly & Premix:
The first step in the manufacturing process is preassembly and
In this step, the liquid raw materials (e.g., resins, solvents, oils,
alcohols, and/or water) are "assembled" and mixed in
containers to form a viscous material to which pigments are
At this stage, the particles are rather large (250 pm) and not
The premix stage results in the formation of an intermediate
product which is referred to as the base or mill base dispersion.
Then it is sent to grinding operations.
2) Dispersing the pigment:
This process occurs in three stages (i.e., wetting, grinding, and dispersion)
The wetting process actually begins in the premix step, when the pigment is
charged to the liquid vehicle.
Grinding is the mechanical breakup and separation of the pigment particle
clusters into isolated primary particles.
The goal of pigment grinding is to achieve fine, uniformly-ground, and
smooth, round pigment particles which are permanently separated from other
3) Thinning the paste:
Material letdown, or thinning, is the process by which a
completed mill base dispersion is let down or reduced
with solvent and binder to give a coating which is
designed to provide a durable and serviceable film that is
easily applied to the surface.
The volume of the paint may increase significantly at this
point depending on the final product specifications.
4) Tinting (Shading):
Tinting is the process of adjusting the color of completed mill base
dispersions. Normally, an operator will collect a sample of the paint or ink
once it exits the milling equipment.
This sample will be taken to the laboratory and compared to the desired
color standard. Various combinations of pigments, solvents, resins, and pastes
are added to the material to meet the color requirements.
5) Blending (Mixing):
Blending operations occur once the necessary additions
have been made to the completed mill base dispersion.
Blending is the process of incorporating the additions into
the material in order to meet the desired product
specifications. Step 6
6) Quality Control:
a) Examining Viscosity:
For examining the viscosity, the ford
cup is fed fully with the paint. Then,
the paint flows from the hole of ford
cup. One experienced observer notices
the time limit of the flow of paint. If
the paint flows very quickly than, the
paint is thin and it flows slowly than,
the paint is thick.
b) Examining Consistency:
To test the consistency, the examiner
spreads the paint on hegment gauge.
Then, as per the requirement of paint
specifications he detects the steadiness
or consistency of the paint.
Ford cup Hegment gauge
7) Treating Wastages:
A manufacturer has an in-house wastewater treatment facility
that treats all liquids generated on-site, even storm water run-
The facility is monitored 24 hours a day, and the
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) does periodic records
and systems check of all paint facilities.
The liquid portion of the waste is treated on-site to the
standards of the local publicly owned wastewater treatment
facility; it can be used to make low-quality paint.
Waste solvents can be recovered and used as fuels for other
industries. A clean paint container can be reused or sent to the
After the paint has been manufactured, the next process comprises of packaging of
these paints. This packaging process is manual.
First of all the paint is fed in the company’s own tin cans of different volumes. The
cans are available for 1 liter, 5 liter and 10 liter.
Then, the cans are sealed with the caps with the help of machinery, which can be seen
in the above images.
Finally, the sealed cans are kept in the boxes.
After the packaging process the product is stored. For that there is a godown reserved,
inside the manufacturing plant for storing the finished goods. There are two security
guards are engaged for taking care of the finished goods.
This area covers 1/4th of the manufacturing plant.
There are two security guards engaged in taking care of the godown and the finished
This type of paint is most often used to paint the outside of the
house and indoors in areas that have a lot of moisture such as
in kitchens and bathrooms because it dries very hard and resist
harsh weather conditions for a long time.
The solids in the oil-based paint are kept suspended by a
number of chemicals that are organic solvents.
Oil-based paints are sometimes called Alkyd paints. "Alkyd"
refers to the resin type that is used in the paint.
Advantages of Oil-based Paints:
1) Attractive surface shine.
2) Good "leveling" (brush strokes fill themselves in to create a
3) Hard, durable finish
Powder paints are dry paint formulations which are prepared by
mixing them with water shortly before application. They are used for
both interior and exterior applications.
Powder paints are one of the new developments in the paints sector
and currently only account for a small market share.
Advantages of Powder Paints:
a) Free from solvents and preservatives
b) Reduced weight and packaging volume
c) Low-cost packaging
d) Stability against cold during storage.
e) An improved processing consistency.
“Experience is the comb which nature gives us when we are bald”
The project on “Productions & Operations” has provided nice
experience and has been proved effective to us. The main objective of the
project that is to know the practicality of the production process is satisfied.
We have studied all the aspects of Alpha Paints Pvt. Ltd. and have
learnt the formation of production including the concepts of raw materials,
machineries used in company, manpower, manufacturing process, and final
product, throughout the whole project.
Finally, we may add up that the theoretical aspects which are taught to
us, now we have understood very nicely.