Key considerations: I LOVE YOU! I DON’T! Viorica Condrat (C)
Direct speech:Conveys exactly what one has said, often: to dramatize; to create a sense of immediacy; because the precise words used were in some way important (e.g. funny or strange)It is found: newspaper reports; fiction; Viorica Condrat (C) oral narratives.
Example: The bathing on Sunday - the most auspicious day according to Hindu tradition - is taking place at 18 main locations along the river bank. Rajkumar Singh, a government worker from the state of Punjab, said: "I have travelled for three days by bus, train and foot to reach the festival. "I believe a bathe on the most auspicious day will get rid of all my sins and will help secure me and my familys future." Viorica Condrat (C)
Reported speech: used when interested not in the words that someone has chosen, but in the information they conveyed; fewer words are used to report that were originally spoken. found in: newspaper reports; fiction; talking or writing about conversations; reports; articles or speeches we have already heard or readViorica Condrat (C)
Example:One young devotee, Ashutosh Pandey, a pharmacy student, said theholy dip was a form of prayer for him."When I bathe I am praying to God for the good of my country andthe world," he said. Viorica Condrat (C)
Choosing reporting verbs: Neutral verbs say tellViorica Condrat (C) is never followed by an indirect object (e.g. him, us, them, my mother), whereas we have to use an indirect object after . We choose when the person who was spoken to is unimportant or already known. We choose when we wish to draw attention specifically to the person who is being addressed! He (that) he was ill. ill. He (that) he was He (that) he was not coming. (that) he was ill. We often introduce a report with to make clear who was spoken to. We don’t subsequently need to repeat this, and so we continue using .
To tell or to say, that is the question: We follow with clause or with a clause beginning with a question word.Viorica Condrat (C) He said He didn’t say We can follow with a variety of clause types and with a noun phrase. Clause type He told me . He told me . He told me . He told me . He told me .
Topic verbs: We use topic or “summarizing” reporting verbs such as or to report the topic rather than the detail of conversation or text.Viorica Condrat (C) We follow these verbs with a noun phrase, a question-word clause or a question-word + infinitive clause, not a clause. Clause type (noun phrase) We talked about (question-word clause) (question-word-infinitive clause) We discussed / talked about that she was ill.
Non-attitude verbs: comment on the function of what is said, but don’t involve a judgment about the attitude behind it! add answer ask explain reply mention We generally only choose these verbs (inpreference, for example, ) when the additional information they provide is important! Viorica Condrat (C)
Attitude and interpretation verbs:When we report what someone has said, we oftenmake some kind of interpretation or judgment aboutthis, and we choose our reporting verbs accordingly! cast doubt on the truth of what someone said. She claimed she’d been asleep when it took place. say something about the speaker’s attitude. Are you complaining that I don’t pay enough attention? say something about the speaker’s intention. They warned us this might happen. Viorica Condrat (C)
Attitude and interpretation verbs: accuse advise allege beg blame claim complain confirm demand deny Insinuate Insist recommend suggest threaten warn We often choose one of these verbs to establish our attitude and then, although this attitude is still relevant, we use more neutral verbs!We can Follow some of these verbs with an infinitive or a structurecontaining an –ing form. She advised me to go. Viorica Condrat (C) She accused me of lying.
Clauses that can follow reporting verbs: Clause type noun clause I insisted . clause They explained . clause They claimed . clause I asked him . clause Didn’t I suggest ? clause Are you accusing me ? I recommended later. We also use pseudo-cleft sentences in reporting speech.What I actually said was that you had to be home by midnight. Viorica Condrat (C)
Choosing tense forms: She (1) that her daughter (2) somewhere in the garden and she (3) come to the telephone. She also said that sheViorica Condrat (C) (4) her daughter my three previous messages. (1) Past simple: the key point in the past in relation to which the time of other events is defined; (2) Past continous: a temporary event which began before (1) and was still taking place at the time of (1); (3) Past form of modal verb: the time is the same as (1); (4) Past perfect: Events which had taken place before (1). “I am“I am tired.”told me he is he is tired. tired.” / He / He told me tired. When we want to make clear that the circumstances have not changed, we use a present rather than a past!
Transformation rules: Characteristic changes in tense form Present changes to past I don’t eat meat. She said she didn’t eat meat. Auxiliary verbs in the present I’m afraid they’re working She said they were working and also change to past and don’t want to stop. didn’t want to stop.Viorica Condrat (C) I’ve never travelled to the She said she had never USA. travelled outside the USA. Past simple changes to past I saw her. He said he had seen her. perfect Auxiliary verbs in the past I was looking for Julie. He said he had been looking for also change to the past Julie. perfect The following modal verbs I can see them. She said she could see them. often change: can, may, must We may go there later. She said they might go there later. I must leave. She said she had to leave. The auxiliary verbs in future I’ll see you. He said he would see me. forms change to past I’m going to be back He said she was going to be tomorrow. back next day.
Transformation rules:Viorica Condrat (C) Forms that don’t need to change Verbs already in the past We’d finished our work He said they had finished their perfect meat. work. The following modal verbs: You should eat more. She said I should eat more. could, might, ought, should, I couldn’t eat anything. She said she couldn’t eat would anything.
Choosing names, pronouns and possessive adjectives: Direct speech One day you’ll understandViorica Condrat (C) why we worry about you Report A now. My parents always told that Report B one day would understand why worried about in days. Mary’s mum told the other day that would understand one day why worried about I he / she at the moment. me him / her my his / her we they I can’t stand her. She said she couldn’t stand Pat.
Choosing expressions of time and place: here thereViorica Condrat (C) this that these those come go now then bring take today that day yesterday the day before tomorrow the next day this week that week this month that month
Word order (indirect speech): When we report questions, the word order is the same as that of statements ( rather than ).Viorica Condrat (C) We use or to introduce a reported question. Do you have the time? Someone asked if I had the time Where are we going at the I asked you where we are going at weekend? the weekend.
Common mistakes: * She said me she had to go.Viorica Condrat (C) * She explained me how to do it. * She suggested me to go. Reporting verbs: patterns * She told she was ill. * She advised me I had to go. * She encouraged us leaving early.
Common mistakes: * He asked her where she came from and she answered that she came from Greece.Viorica Condrat (C) He asked her where she came from and she said that she came from Greece. He asked her if she was happy but she didn’t answer.
Common mistakes: Reporting verbs: over-useViorica Condrat (C) * She asked Robert if he wanted something alcoholic to drink and he said that he didn’t. He said that he would prefer a cup of coffee and she said that would be fine. He said thank you.
Common mistakes: Tense and expressions of timeViorica Condrat (C) * She said she’ll come tomorrow so I waited in all day. * She said she was busy now but I’m surprised she didn’t come later. Word order * She asked him did he like the music. * They wanted to know were there any more people to come. * He wondered why were they so late.
Practice: Transform the dialogue above into reported speechViorica Condrat (C)
Blanche: Oh, your luggage all matches. That’s so nice. Say cheese. Are you a scrapper?Ms. Hill Excuse me?Blanch: Oh, there’s Merle. Hey, Merle. That’s our mailman Merle. That’s what we call him,Mailman Merle. Because he delivers the mail and he’s our mailman. So you know? Oh, yeah.Do you keep a scrapbook? Because I do. I’m a scrapper, see. We even got a club. I got amini in my bag here. Ok, this here, is our dog, Winston Churchill. He’s dead. He was a bit of adrooler, I’m afraid. And this here is my kitty Snowflake. She’s dead too. We had to put herdown on account of that kitty-leukemia thing. You should’ve seen the kinds of things she wasbarfing up on our couch. Poor thing. Bless her heart. She’s not dead in the picture though.She’s just sleeping.Ms. Hill: Could I look at that later maybe? Okay?Blanche: So… Are you married? Do you have children?Ms. Hill: No, no. I’m not married.Blanche: Oh, you’re still young, you know? Relatively. I mean you still got time, I suppose.Do you eat meat, or are you just one of those vegetarian people?Ms. Hill: No, I’m not a vegetarian. Why?Blanche: Because it’s your first night in town. Don’t think we’re gonna let you go hungry.You’re coming to my house for dinner. Nothing fancy, of course. Meatloaf. Do you mind if Iask you a personal question?Ms. Hill: Isn’t that what you’ve been doing?Blanche: Have you found Jesus?Ms. Hill: Well, I didn’t know he was missing. It was just a joke.Blanche: Normally we don’t joke about Jesus around here. But I can see how you’d think that Viorica Condrat (C)was sort of funny. Imagine Jesus gone missing. Imagine.
Possible Answer:Blanche noticed that Lucy’s luggage all matched. Then she asked if Lucy was a scrapper.Lucy didn’t understand what she meant. When Blanche saw the local mailman she tried toexplain to Lucy why they called him “Mailman Merle”. She came back to her previous topicabout scrapping. She even told Lucy that she had a mini scrapbook in her bag. She took itout and started showing the pictures of her pets. The details she was giving about how herpets had died were a bit grotesque. That was why Lucy asked her to show her the scrapbookanother time as she was driving. Blanche asked if Lucy was married. When she heard thatshe wasn’t, Blanche tried to encourage her and tell that she was relatively young. The nextquestion was whether Lucy liked meat or she was one of those vegetarian people. Lucyadmitted that she liked meat, though she couldn’t understand the point of the question. Itturned that in that way Blanche wanted to invite her to dinner that night. She said she wouldprepare meatloaf. They drove in silence for a while. Then Blanche wanted to ask a personalquestion. Lucy was surprised to hear such a request as she considered that was exactlywhat Blanche had been doing. However, when she heard Blanche asking her if she hadfound Jesus, she tried to make a joke. She said that she had no idea he was missing.Blanche didn’t understand the joke. She warned Lucy that they didn’t joke about Jesusaround there. However, she said she could see how Lucy would think of it funny. Viorica Condrat (C)
Thank you for your attention!!! Viorica Condrat (C)