Indian Women in the Labour Force
Dr. Vibhuti Patel
Reader, Centre for Women’s Studies
Department of Economics,
University of Mumbai, Kalina,
Santacruz (East), Mumbai-400098
E email@example.com Ph®-6770227
Statistical Profile of Women
• Women constitute ½ of the world’s population, 2/3 of the world’s labour force but get 1/10th of the world’s income and 1% of the world’s Wealth.
• As per 2001 Census, 23% of women are in the work force. 94% of all working women are in the informal sector.
Work participation rate
Major Findings of Time use Survey
– “Women carry a disproportionately greater burden of work than men and since women are responsible for a greater share of non-SNA
( system of National Accounts) work in the care economy , they enter labour market already overburdened with work.” Report of Gender Diagnosis and Budgeting in India of National Institute of Public Finance and Policy, NIPFP. December, 2001.
WORK PARTICIPATION RATES 1991
The Female Economic Activity Rate (FEAR)
Census of India, 2001, Series 1
Distribution of Women Employees Across Industries
Women in the organized Sector
Women constitute only 14% of the total employment in the organized sector. It is concentrated in Maharashtra, Delhi, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Tamilnadu.
In the urban areas, FEAR in tertiary sector has increased, from 37.6 % in 1983 to 52.9 % in 1999. (Economic Survey, 2002, GOI).
Here, women workers and employees get relatively better wages, standard working hours, and the protection of labour laws.
Women in the Informal Sector
Factors Affecting Women’s Labour Force Participation
• Changes in age-structure, urbanisation, level & nature of economic development, infrastructure, government policies, labour laws, nature of work, structure of family, culture & tradition affecting autonomy and control, fertility levels and childbearing practices, nature of housework,women’s property rights, education, age at marriage, migration, access to technology.
Segmentation in the labour market
• Nature of wage differentials (WD)-for identical tasks women are paid less. And women are confined to relatively inferior tasks, casual work.
• Causes of WD-patriarchal attitude, myths
• Effects of WD- subordination of women, son preference, man is treated as a “bread winner”- Head of the Household (HoH)
Affirmative Action to remove
*Equal Remuneration Act
*Formation of women’s union
*Job reservation for women
*Self Help Groups(SHGs)
Demands of the Women’s Groups
Special Facilities for Women
Women and Trade Unions(T.U.)
Women’s Action Plan for T.U.s
Role of Human Rights Organisations
Women and Development Debate
Development Alternatives With Women
Human Development With Distributive Justice
Implications of Development Process on Women
Use of conservative ideology to retrench and lay off women
Women’s Challenges to the T.U.s
Role of the UN System-ILO, UNICEF