Bottom up budgets for pr is coloured 28 10-06 b&w


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How to enable women to direct economy through designing and constructing fiscal policy?
How to link economic governance to political governance ?
How to enable EWRs to participate in the budget-making efforts ?
Method-Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and Focus Group discussion (FGD)

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Bottom up budgets for pr is coloured 28 10-06 b&w

  1. 1. Bottom Up Budgets for PRIs Presented at workshop by Anandi on 28 th and 29 th October, 2006 by Dr. Vibhuti Patel Professor and Head, University Department of Economics SNDT Women’s University Churchgate, Mumbai-400020 Phone-91-022-26770227 Mobile-9321040048
  2. 2. Women Elected Representatives(WERs) in Local Self government Bodies (LSB/PRIs) <ul><li>The 73 rd and 74 th amendments in the Indian constitution in 1994. PRI Legislation </li></ul><ul><li>1 million WERs in Panchayati Raj Institutions </li></ul><ul><li>The 9 th 5 Years Plan(1997-2002)-WCP to ensure that not less than 30% of development sectors funds and benefits flow to women. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals-Good Governance, transparency, efficiency, social audit and accountability </li></ul><ul><li>GR to 18 ministries to submit gender audit of allocation and actual expenditure on women . </li></ul>
  3. 3. Gram Panchayat (GP) Budget <ul><li>Secretary of GP to prepare the budget and present to General Body of GP between 1 st February and 10 th March. </li></ul><ul><li>Amendments of GP members to be incorporated and the budget to be voted upon. </li></ul><ul><li>The budget as passes by GP to be sent to TP for follow up. </li></ul><ul><li>Every year, Controller of State Accounts to audit the A/c of GP. </li></ul><ul><li>Karnataka-G.P.s display income & expenditure on the public notice-board-Social Audit-JAMABANDHI </li></ul>
  4. 4. Municipal(M) Budgets <ul><li>The Accounts Superintendent tables statement for income and expenditure in December.Also gives estimates of income and expenditure for the financial year end. </li></ul><ul><li>Response from Municipal commissioner, president of Municipality, and standing committee. </li></ul><ul><li>Portion for committed fund can’t be changed by councilors at the time of final approval </li></ul><ul><li>Revision of property tax once in 4 years. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Three Aspects of PRI Budgets <ul><li>State & Central government’s Allocation </li></ul><ul><li>State and Centrally sponsored schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Revenues obtained thro’ local taxes-water, electricity, road,etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Funds obtained from the Finance Commissions </li></ul>
  6. 6. Challenges for NAWO while making Bottom Up budgets <ul><li>How to enable women to direct economy through designing and constructing fiscal policy? </li></ul><ul><li>How to link economic governance to political governance ? </li></ul><ul><li>How to enable EWRs to participate in the budget-making efforts ? </li></ul><ul><li>Method-Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) and Focus Group discussion (FGD) </li></ul>
  7. 7. Macro-economic Policies and Gender Audit of State Budgets <ul><li>Trends of allocation to social sector in the pre (before 1991) and post(after 1991) SAP phase </li></ul><ul><li>Income and expenditure of municipalities in Orissa- Profile of PDS and public health </li></ul><ul><li>Preparation of checklist according to priorities set by the PRIs </li></ul><ul><li>IDEAL BUDGET </li></ul>
  8. 8. Meetings with the stake holders <ul><li>Discussion on Needs of GP identified by EWRs with GOs and NGOs, SHGs </li></ul><ul><li>1. Socio-economic Profile of the GP/Munici </li></ul><ul><li>2. Scrutiny of needs-perceived problems </li></ul><ul><li>3. Methods to fulfill needs(Labour, land, services)+financial aspects </li></ul><ul><li>4. Suitable budgetary allocations-revenues from local sources </li></ul>
  9. 9. Tasks of Citizens Association <ul><li>Verify/cross check collected data and results of the surveys/interactive workshops-Vision document </li></ul><ul><li>Sub-committees to work out details of different budget heads </li></ul><ul><li>Presentation of reports thro’ ERWs to TP, ZP and municipal authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Lobbying for reprioritization of allocation to reflect the EWRs. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Activity Mapping:Beyond Grievance Redressal - Awareness about technicalities of Budget, Building knowledge, procedural information about Critical issues/Felt Needs Housing Housing Schools Transport facilities Roads, connectivity Public toilets, drainage Water Educational institutions Street lights Hospital Lady doctor in PHC Garbage disposal, occupational Health Drainage, public toilets Violation of corporation rules Non-payment of electricity bills & property tax Non-payments of Electricity Bill , property tax Rural Areas Urban Areas
  11. 11. Stack groups in support of EWRs <ul><li>Self Help Groups </li></ul><ul><li>Administrators </li></ul><ul><li>Political parties </li></ul><ul><li>Corporators /councilors </li></ul><ul><li>NGOs </li></ul><ul><li>Women in the communities </li></ul><ul><li>To seek allocation under appropriate budget heads to identify streams of revenue </li></ul><ul><li>Available revenue and the required expenditure </li></ul>
  12. 12. Method of Revenue Generation <ul><li>Increase in tax revenues </li></ul><ul><li>for road use by vehicle owners </li></ul><ul><li>alcohol consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Tobacco consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce Green Taxes </li></ul><ul><li>Surcharge, earmarked charge for specific purpose-Education Cess-2 %, income tax for disaster management, in Maharashtra transport cess at the time of Bangladesh was in 1971, later on diverted to EGS kitty </li></ul>
  13. 13. Some unresolved Issues <ul><li>How to bridge the gap between notional allocation and actual allocation? </li></ul><ul><li>Accounting, auditing and record keeping of gender disaggregated data & allocation </li></ul><ul><li>How to achieve physical and performance/ achievement targets </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation of maternity benefits, TCP,SCP </li></ul><ul><li>Major departments claiming indivisibilities of allocation of resources </li></ul><ul><li>Notional allocation projected as real allocation </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of uniform guidelines & procedures </li></ul>
  14. 14. Gender budgeting in PRIs <ul><li>Special programmes targeting women </li></ul><ul><li>Differential impact of expenditures across all sector and services-gender disaggregated impact on literacy, school drop outs, mortality, morbidity, starvation deaths, nutrition, illnesses </li></ul><ul><li>Review of equal opportunities, policies and opportunities in the public sector-jobs, school education, wages, health care, skills, technical training, computer education </li></ul>
  15. 15. NIPFP classification of public expenditure concerning women <ul><li>Targeted 100% to women (DWCD) </li></ul><ul><li>Pro women schemes(30 % reserved for women-All anti-poverty programmes) </li></ul><ul><li>Gender Neutral Schemes meant for community as a whole(Employment generation programmes) </li></ul><ul><li>Residual schemes </li></ul>
  16. 16. Protective and Welfare Services <ul><li>Shelter homes, short stay homes </li></ul><ul><li>Rehabilitation schemes for women survivors of violence </li></ul><ul><li>Pensions for widows and destitute women </li></ul><ul><li>Directly benefiting women, </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis management of situations arising out of </li></ul><ul><li>economic and socio-cultural subordination and dehumanisation of women </li></ul>
  17. 17. Social Services Expenditure for capacity building, reduction of domestic drudgery and better quality of life <ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Crèche </li></ul><ul><li>Working women’s hostels </li></ul><ul><li>Housing </li></ul><ul><li>Nutrition </li></ul><ul><li>Water supply </li></ul><ul><li>Sanitation-toilets, drainage </li></ul><ul><li>Fuel </li></ul><ul><li>Fodder </li></ul>
  18. 18. Economic Services to provide economic opportunities to women <ul><li>SHGs-credit, loans to self employed women </li></ul><ul><li>Training programmes </li></ul><ul><li>Physical infrastructure-transport, energy </li></ul><ul><li>Marketing </li></ul>
  19. 19. Regulatory Services to put in place institutional structures and mechanisms <ul><li>State Commission for Women </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s cell at the police stations </li></ul><ul><li>Awareness generation programmes </li></ul>
  20. 20. 10 th Five Year Plan and funds for Women <ul><li>18 central ministries to ensure fund flow to women specific and women related schemes </li></ul><ul><li>Family welfare Department-70 % of total </li></ul><ul><li>population control-two child norm-CMP </li></ul><ul><li>Untouched ministries-Defense, telecom, communications, transport, industry and commerce- Except for defense, all of tem are money spinners </li></ul>
  21. 21. Need of an Hour <ul><li>State governments must devolve substantive powers, funds, functions, functionaries upon PRIs. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities, tasks & responsibilities of GP,TP and ZP-Direct funding from the union Govt. to ZP </li></ul><ul><li>Simplifications of programme guidelines by central ministries and departments </li></ul><ul><li>Centrally sponsored Schemes must be recast to empower PRIs. </li></ul><ul><li>PRIs must get untied funds to formulate plans according to their needs and priorities. </li></ul><ul><li>CMP promise-at least 100 days of employment at minimum wages </li></ul>
  22. 22. If we don’t engender budgets, women’s lives will be endangered. <ul><li>Thank </li></ul><ul><li>you </li></ul>