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Sports and Nutrition

Lesson 3 of physical education for Grade XII students of CBSE

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Sports and Nutrition

  1. 1. Sports & Nutrition Chapter 3
  2. 2. Sports & Nutrition Chapter 3
  3. 3. 3.1 Balanced Diet and Nutrition : Macro and Micro Nutrients 3.2 Nutritive and Non-Nutritive Components of Diet 3.3 Eating Disorders- Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia 3.4 Effects of Diet on Performance 3.5 Eating for Weight Control- A Healthy Weight, the Pitfalls of Dieting, Food Intolerance and Food Myths 3.6 Sports Nutrition ( Fluid & Meal Intake, Pre, During and Post Competition) Overview
  4. 4. 3.1 Balanced Diet & Nutrition: Macro & Micro Nutrition
  5. 5. ● Intake of edibles which can provide all the essential constituentsnecessary for growth and maintenance of the body ● A diet which consists of all the essential food constituents viz. protein, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and water in correct proportion ● Every individual does not require same type of diet Meaning of Balanced Diet
  6. 6. ● The scienceof food and its relationship to health ● Deals with the dynamic process in which the food consumed is digested, nutrients are absorbed, distributed to the tissues for utilization and wastes are disposed off the body Meaning of Nutrition
  7. 7. ● Constitute the majority of Individuals’ diet ● Taken in large amounts ● Supply energy & are needed for growth & maintenance of the body ● Include :  Carbohydrates  Proteins  Fats  Water Macro Nutrients
  8. 8. ● Required in very small amounts ● Extremely significantfor normal functioningof the body ● Enables various chemical reactions to occur in the body ● Include:  Minerals : Macro & Micro Minerals  Vitamins : Fat Soluble & Water Soluble Micro Nutrients
  9. 9. ● Very essential in our diet ● 4 % of body weight is made up of minerals ● Required for healthy teeth, bones, muscles ● Transmission of nerve impulses, formation of hormones, maintenance of heart beats etc. ● 0.1 gm of Macro Minerals required/ day ● 0.01 gm of Micro Minerals required / day Minerals
  10. 10. Macro Minerals 1. Calcium 2. Potassium 3. Sodium 4.Magnesium 5. Phosphorous Micro Minerals 1. Iodine 2. Iron 3. Chromium 4. Copper 5. Cobalt Minerals
  11. 11. M I N E R A L S
  12. 12. ● Organic chemicals required in very small amount to keep our body healthy ● Absence of vitamin in diet causes deficiency disease ● Fat Soluble Vitamins are composed of Carbon, Hydrogen and Oxygen ● Water Soluble Vitamins contain Nitrogen & Sulphur Vitamins
  13. 13. Fat Soluble Vitamins 1. Vitamin A 2. Vitamin E 3. Vitamin K 4. Vitamin D Water Soluble Vitamin 1. B1 (Thaimin) 2. B2 (Riboflavin) 3. B4 (Pantothenic Acid) 4. B5 (Nicotinamide) 5. B6 6. B7 7. B9 8. B12 9. Vitamin C Vitamins
  14. 14. 3.2 Nutritive and Non-Nutritive Components of Diet
  15. 15. Nutritive and Non-Nutritive Components of Diet A. Nutritive Components of Diet ● Provide energy or calories B. Non-Nutritive Components of Diet ● Does not provide energy ● Provide Fibre or Roughage ● Provide Water, Flavour, Colour
  16. 16. Nutritive Components of Diet Components Categories Sources Proteins Animal Eggs, Milk, Meat, Fish Vegetable Pulses, Soyabean, Mustard, Dry fruits, food grains Carbohydrates Rice, Maize, Jowar, Bajra, Pulses, Banana, Potato, Sugar, Date, Grape Fats Animal Ghee, Butter, Fish oil, Milk, Meat Vegetable Coconut, Mustard, Cotton seed, Soyabean, Sunflower seed
  17. 17. Nutritive Components of Diet: Vitamins Fat Soluble Vitamin Characteristics Sources A Yellow colour, Oxidation destroys Ghee, Milk, Curd, Egg yolk, Fish, Tomato, Papaya, Carrot D Colourless, Deficiency : rickets Egg yolk, Fish, Sunlight, Milk, Tomato, Carrot, Cod liver oil E Increases fertility. Adrenal gland Green Vegetables, Cotton seed, Coconut oil, Dry and Fresh Fruit, Milk, Sprouts, Egg yolk K Help clotting of Blood. Deficiency : Anemia Cauliflower, Spinach, Cabbage, Tomato, Potato, Wheat, Egg, Green Vegetables, Meat
  18. 18. Nutritive Components of Diet: Vitamins Water Soluble Vitamin Characteristics Sources B1 or Thiamin Colourless, Metabolises Carbohydrate Wheat, Groundnuts, Green peas, Orange, Eggs, Green vegetables, Rice, Sprouts B2 or Riboflavin Yellow Colour, keeps eyes, nose, mouth healthy Egg yolk, Fish, Pulses, Peas, Rice, Yeast, Wheat and Green vegetable B3 or Pantothenic Acid Helps in growth of body. Deficiency: grey hair Milk, Dry fruits, Egg yolk B5 or Nicotinamide Deficiency: Pellagra disease. Maintains body weight Yeast, Milk, Polished rice & Nuts
  19. 19. Nutritive Components of Diet: Vitamins Water Soluble Vitamin Characteristics Sources B6 Vital for formation of Haemoglobin. Keeps skin healthy Meat, Fish, Egg yolk, Rice, Wheat, Peas B12 Red Colour, deficiency: anaemia Egg yolk, Fish, Pulses, Peas, Rice, Yeast, Wheat and Green vegetable Folic Acid Yellow Colour. Deficiency : loss of leucocytes Yeast, Spinach, Liver C or Ascorbic Acid White Colour. Increases Metabolic rate. Deficiency: Scurvy Lemon, Pineapple, Grapes, Tomato, Amla, Green chilly, Spinach, Sprouts, Turnip
  20. 20. Nutritive Components of Diet: Minerals Minerals Characteristics Sources Calcium Teeth & Bones. Deficiency: Asthma, Rickets Milk, Cheese, Yolk, Orange, Green Vegetables Phosphorus Teeth and Bones Egg , Fish, Milk, Meat, Liver, Unpolished Rice Iron Formation of Haemoglobin. Deficiency: Anaemia Meat, Egg, Dry Fruits, Liver, Green Vegetables Iodine Thyroid Gland. Deficiency: Goitre, May stop Growth Sea Fish, Iodized salt Sodium Balances water in body, contraction of Muscles Common Salt, Milk, Milk Products, Meat , Egg Potassium Deficiency: weakens muscles, Addison’s disease Carrot, Beet root, Onion, Tomato, Orange, Banana Sulphur Helps cells of the body, formation of hair & nail Egg, Radish, Pulses, Carrot, Peas, Spinach, Tomato
  21. 21. Non-Nutritive Components of Diet 1. Fibre or Roughage  Food component which can not be digested by intestinal tract  Has no nutrient value  Add bulks to the food and satisfy the appetite  Prevents constipation  Two categories  Soluble – soluble in water  Insoluble – not soluble in water
  22. 22. Non-Nutritive Components of Diet 1. Fibre or Roughage Soluble fibre reduces blood sugar fluctuation and lowers cholesterol  Insoluble fibre is good stool softener  30 gm is recommended for adult/day  Decreases the risk of Heart Disease Source:  Wheat, Fresh Fruits, Vegetables, Oats  Connective tissues of meat & fish
  23. 23. 2. Water  Essential component of diet  Blood comprises of 90 % water  Regulates body temperature  Functions as lubricant, keeps skin moist and protects the body from shock  20 % from food & 80% from water intake 3. Colour Compounds  Food becomes more appetizing and attractive by colours  Natural pigments are found in fruits and vegetables  The colours from animal products and grains are less bright
  24. 24. Non-Nutritive Components of Diet 4. Flavour Compounds  Flavours are derived from both nutritive and non-nutritive component of food  Acidic food provides sour taste  Alkaline food provides bitter taste 5. Plant Compounds  Plant contains other non-nutritive substances  Tea , Coffee contains caffeine
  25. 25. 3.3 Eating Disorders- Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia
  26. 26. A. Eating in Excessive amount or in very small amount B. Eating disorders affect mental and physical health C. Depression and Anxiety is common D. Malnutrition and electrolyte imbalance E. Two major eating disorders: 1. Anorexia Nervosa 2. Bulimia Eating Disorders- Anorexia Nervosa and Bulimia
  27. 27. Causes of Anorexia 1. Psychological Factors 2. Social Factors 3. Biological Factors Symptoms of Anorexia 1. Excessive Weight loss 2. Feeling of Fat 3. Using Diet Pills or Laxatives 4. Excessive Exercise 5. Strange Food Rituals 6. Pretend to Eat 7. Dieting despite being Thin 8. Afraid of Gaining weight 9. More Cautious about Calories 10. Remain conscious about appearance
  28. 28. Management & Treatment of Anorexia 1. Face the reality 2. Restoring Healthy Weight 3. Individual Psychotherapy 4. Medication
  29. 29. Bulimia Nervosa 1. Eating Disorder 2. Person eats in excessive amount and then vomits to avoid gaining weight 3. Types of bulimia 1. Purging Bulimia 2. Non-Purging Bulimia Causes of Bulimia Nervosa 1. Family History 2. Psychological factors 3. Performance pressure in sports 4. Social factors
  30. 30. 1. Tries for vomiting after every meal 2. Faces dehydration due to frequent vomiting 3. Inflammation of food pipe 4. Performs excessive exercise 5. Uses laxatives, diuretics or enemas 6. Salivary gland may be swollen 7. Broken blood vessels may be seen in the eyes 8. Peptic ulcers Symptoms of Bulimia Nervosa 1. Multidisciplinary treatment includes medical and psychological treatment 2. Recovery is slow 3. Psychological treatment 4. Medication 5. Education of Nutrition and Healthy Weight 6. Be cautious about Exercise Treatment of Bulimia Nervosa
  31. 31. 3.4 Effects of Diet on Performance
  32. 32. Effects of Diet on Performance Essential Nutrients Purpose Effect on Performance Fat Major source of fuel Various sports require different proportion of fat to muscles. Extra fat diminishes the performance Carbohydrates Major fuel for muscular contraction Increases the endurance. Low level of carbohydrates results in exhaustion. Proteins Necessary for growth of tissues Protein is used as fuel for muscular work but does not have significant effect on performance Minerals Essential for good health Deficiency decreases performance. Sweating reduces the amount of Na & other minerals in the body. Excess amount of salt in take can lead to K loss and extra water retention Water Essential for life Has no calorific value Deficiency decreases performance, causes risk of central nervous disorders Vitamins Essential for good health Body can not store large amount of Vitamins. Passed out through urine. Puts extra load on excretory organs. Vitamin C: Non-Athlete intake = 60 mg Athlete intake = 300 to 500 mg B- Complex deficiency decreases performance
  33. 33. 3.5 Eating for Weight Control- A Healthy Weight, the Pitfalls of Dieting, Food Intolerance and Food Myths
  34. 34. Height and Weight Chart
  35. 35. WHO criteria for underweight, healthy and overweight Method to Calculate BMI Category BMI Under weight Less than 18.5 Normal weight 18.5 to 24.5 Over weight 25 to 29.9 Obesity Class I 30 to 34.9 Obesity Class II 35 to 39.9 Obesity Class III More than 40
  36. 36. Methods to Control Healthy Body Weight 1. Set the appropriate goal 2. Lay stress on health not on weight 3. Cut calorie in take 4. Follow active life style 5. Take support from family and friends 6. Yogic exercises 7. Avoid junk and fast food 8. Do not skip meals 9. Avoid alcohol, smoking and drugs 10. Regular exercise/ physical activity
  37. 37. The pitfalls of Dieting 1. Extreme reduction of calories 2. Restriction on some nutrients 3. Skipping meals 4. Intake of calories through drinking 5. Underestimating the calories 6. Intake of labelled foods 7. Not performing exercises
  38. 38. Food Intolerance 1. Food Intolerance and Food allergy are not same 2. A detrimental reaction to a food or beverage that produces symptoms in one or more body organs but refers to reactions other than food allergy Cause: Part or complete absence of activity of enzymes which breakdown the food elements Symptoms: Bloating, diarrhoea, nausea, vomiting, irritable bowel , skin rashes and sometimes fatigue, joint pains, dark circles under the eyes, night sweats and other chronic conditions
  39. 39. 1. Elimination followed by reintroduction 2. Prolonged elimination builds tolerance 3. Fructose intolerance therapy 4. Lactose Intolerance therapy 5. Histamine intolerance therapy
  40. 40. 1. Potatoes make you fat 2. Fat free products will help you in losing weight 3. Eggs increase cholesterol level so avoid it 4. Drinking water while eating makes you fat 5. Do not take milk after eating fish 6. Starve yourself to lose weight 7. Exercise makes you eat more
  41. 41. 3.6 Sports Nutrition ( Fluid & Meal Intake, Pre, During and Post Competition
  42. 42. Sports Nutrition before competition: 1. Start taking complex carbohydrates one week before which helps in glycogen storing 2. Glucose is usually preferred as best energy source for the activity of high intensity 3. Diet rich in carbohydrates and low in fat, protein and fibre 4. Sufficient intake of fluids to prevent dehydration during competition
  43. 43. Sports Nutrition during competition 1. Necessary to stay hydrated and to maintain blood sugar level 2. Frequent intake of fluids 3. If duration of the competition is more than 60 min, take small amount of carbohydrates at regular intervals( 10 to 20 min) 4. Sports drinks may be beneficial during high intensity level activities
  44. 44. Sports Nutrition after the competition 1. Necessary for proper recovery and to maintain energy level for the next day’s competition 2. Intake of fluids 3. Take some carbohydrates within 15 min after competition to start restoring glycogen 4. Take Fruits, juice and sports drinks 5. Meal within 2 hrs of competition containing 100- 200 gm carbohydrates and lean protein ( 20 gm or more) to enhance muscle recovery 6. Take Cheese, egg, milk and curd etc. 7. After 2 hrs take a full balanced meal containing grains, rice, potatoes, cereals, vegetables, fruits and protein 8. 2 gm carbohydrate/ Kg of body weight and 40 gm of proteins is recommended