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Samadhi pada

First part of Yogasutra of Maharishi Patanjali

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Samadhi pada

  1. 1. समाधिपाद Samadhi-Pada Yoga Sutras of Maharishi Patanjali Picture by D K Cha
  2. 2. For him who has obtained a body ablaze with the fire of Yoga , there is no disease, no aging, no death
  3. 3. Introduction • In tattva samasa presentation, it has been explained that Sankhya and Yoga are two philosophy to achieve the same goal. • The Yoga philosophy shares with Sāṅkhya its dualistic cosmology. • Like Sāṅkhya, the Yoga philosophy does not attempt to explicitly derive its authority from the Vedas. • Like Sāṅkhya , the Yoga holds that the cosmos is the result of the interaction of two categories: Prakṛti (Nature) and Puruṣha (Person). • Like Sāṅkhya, the Yoga holds that Prakṛti, or Nature, is comprised of three guṇas, or qualities. • Three qualities are—tamas, rajas, and sattva • Like Sāṅkhya, liberation (Moksha) in the Yoga is facilitated by the ascendance of sattva in a person’s mind, which permits enlightenment on the nature of the self.
  4. 4. Introduction • The Yoga Sūtra tells us that the point of yoga is to still perturbations of the mind—the main obstacle to liberation (Samadhipaad sutra2). • The goal is achieved through practice and dispassion(Samadhipaad sutra12). • In order to facilitate the calming of the mind, the Yoga system prescribes several moral and practical means. • The core of Yoga philosophy is the Astāṅga yoga. • The Astāṅga yoga sets out the eight (aṣṭa) limbs (anga) of the practice of yoga ((Sadhanapaad sutra29)
  5. 5. Introduction • The subject matter of a text must include  Lakshana : definition (Samadhipaad sutra 2)  Bheda : various divisions( samprajnata & asamprajnata samadhi)  Upaya: methods of obtaining the desired goal( Eight limbs of yoga)  Phala: end results obtained( kaivalya) • It is also requisite that the author should state the four binding reasons( anubandhas) in the beginning of the text  Vishaya: subject matter ( yoga).  Prayojana: purpose( kaivalya or self realization)  Adhikara: qualification of student( an individual is qualified if he has the desire for knowledge)  Sambandha: the relationship of these three with the text( relationship between Yoga & Yoga-sutras is that of an expositor and exposition. Yoga & student is that of a practice & practitioner. Student & liberation is that of an achiever and his goal
  6. 6. अथ योगानुशासनम् ॥१॥ atha yoga-anushasanam [1]  atha : now, at an auspicious moment of transition  yoga: (of) yoga  anu: within or following(a tradition)  shasanam: instruction, discipline, teaching  Meaning of Sutra: Now, at this auspicious moment of transition begins the instruction in the discipline of yoga following the past tradition  Explanation: certain words in the tradition are considered auspicious ie their occurrence in the beginning of a text imparts blessings. ॐ and अथ are two such words.  Yoga is considered personal and practical. It is not a group effort. Disciple of yoga has to achieve the states all by himself/ herself. People like company but yoga requires the company of one’s self only
  7. 7. योगश्चित्तवृत्तत्तननरोधः ॥२॥ yogaś-chitta-vr̥itti-nirodhaḥ [2]  yogah: yoga(is)  chitta: (of) mind-field  vritti: (of) operations, activities, fluctuations  nirodhah: control, dissolution Meaning: yoga is the control of fluctuations of mind-field Explanation: This sutra states the definition of yoga. “chitta” and “vritti” have no equivalent word in English, hence the meaning given here is not easily understood. Sutra may also be translated as- ‘yoga is the dissolutions of fluctuations(vrittis) into their origin in the mind-field(chitta)’ . Mind- field(chitta) is constituted of three attributes (gunas) - sattav, rajas, tamas
  8. 8. तदा द्रष्ुः स्वरूपेऽवस्थानम् ॥३॥ tadā draṣhṭuḥ svarūpe-'vasthānam [3]  tada: then drashtuh: seer’s  Svarupe: in own nature  Avasthanam: settling, being in a state Meaning: then( after dissolution of vrittis), the seer gets settled in his own true nature Explanation: sutra 2 & 3 completes the definition. This sutra explains the purpose of the spiritual self( also known as purusha) that is being served through nirodha. It draws the attention of the disciple to the absolute nature of the spiritual self and the ultimate goal of the yoga. The present sutra establishes direct connection with the final sutra of text- kevalyapaad sutra 34.
  9. 9. वृत्तत्त सारूप्यममतरत्र ॥४॥ vr̥itti sārūpyam-itaratra [4]  vritti: (of) operations, activities, fluctuations  sarupyam: similarity, identification of form or nature  Itatatra: elsewhere Meaning: Elsewhere, identification with the form of vrittis Explanation: In states other than samadhi, the spiritual self( purusha) appears in conformity with the vrittis. This is a very important sutra. A man conforms automatically with something he is not! So from this perspective most people go through life totally immersed in something they are not, totally identified with something they are not.  This in itself would be a tremendous motivating force and impetus to simply find out who I really am, or what we really are! Maharishi Pantanjali is saying that we live out our lives.
  10. 10. वृत्तयः पञ्ितय्यः श्लिष्ाश्लिष्ाः ॥५॥ vr̥ttayaḥ pañchatayyaḥ kliṣhṭākliṣhṭāḥ [5]  vrttayah: vrittis (are), fluctuations, activities, operations  Panchatayyah: fivefold ( and of two kinds)  Klishta: afflicted, painful and impure  Aklishtah: not afflicted, not painful,pure Meaning: the vrttis are fivefold ( and of two kinds): Afflicted and not afflicted Explanation: we need to control vrittis to achieve our goal. So first we need to understand what vrittis are. This sutra classify vrittis into five categories. Through control of the five, all their derivatives are controlled. The five categories of vrittis are further subdivided into two- afflicted and not afflicted. The vrittis produce their own kind of samskaras and in turn samskaras produce identical vrittis. The wheel of vrittis & samskaras revolves incessantly.
  11. 11. प्रमाण त्तवपययय त्तवकल्प ननद्रा स्मृतयः ॥६॥ pramāṇa viparyaya vikalpa nidrā smr̥tayaḥ[6]  pramana: valid proof  viparyaya: perversive cognition  vikalpa: imagination, illusion  nidra: sleep  smrtayah: memory Meaning: [the fivefold vrittis are] valid proof, perversive cognition, illusion, sleep and memory Explanation: Symptoms of these vrittis are explained in next sutras
  12. 12. प्रत्यक्षानुमानाअगमाः प्रमाणानन ॥७॥ pratyakṣa-anumāna-āgamāḥ pramāṇāni [7]  pratyaksa: direct perception  anumana: inference  agamah: (scripture, revealed) authority  pramanani: proofs  Meaning: direct perception, inference and revealed authority are the three kinds of valid proof( a vritti) Explanation: Sutra 21 of tattva samasa also talks about the same three kinds of valid proof. The mind-field(chitta) is drawn towards an external substance through our senses, it creates a vritti called direct perception.  Inference vritti conforms to the homogenous and excludes the others  A matter seen or inferred by an accomplished person is taught in the form of words to transfer one’s knowledge into another. This vritti is agama.
  13. 13. त्तवपयययो ममथ्याज्ञानमतद्रूप प्रनतषठम् ॥८॥ viparyayo mithyā-jñānam-atadrūpa pratiṣṭham [8]  viparyayo: perversive cognition, Indiscrimination  mithya: false  jnanam: knowledge  atadrupa: not in the nature  pratistham: established. positioned Meaning: perversive cognition( a vritti) [is based on] false knowledge [and] on perception of what is not the true form Explanation: perversive cognition is false knowledge not established, having no basis in the nature or form of that object of which this purports to be the knowledge. It does not reveal the ultimate nature of that object.
  14. 14. शब्दज्ञानानुपाती वस्तुशून्यो त्तवकल्पः ॥९॥ śhabda-jñāna-anupātī vastu-śhūnyo vikalpaḥ [9]  shabda: word  jnana: knowledge  anupati: dependent upon  vastu: real object shunyo: devoid of  vikalpah: imaginary cognition Meaning: dependent upon a verbal knowledge [that is] devoid of real object [is] imaginary cognition( a vratti) Explanation: Imaginary Cognition arises neither in association with valid proof nor in association with perversive cognition. A usage appears, confined to an exaltation in the knowledge of words, devoid of substance.
  15. 15. अभावप्रत्ययाअिम्बना वृत्तत्तननयद्र ॥१०॥ abhāva-pratyaya-ālambanā vr̥ttir-nidra [10]  abhava: absence, negation  pratyaya: cognition principle  alambana: resorting to  vrttir nidra: vritti sleep Meaning: sleep [is the] vritti [of chitta ] resorting to the cognition principle of absence [ and to the cause thereof] Explanation: sleep is to be considered a particular type of cognition because one reflects about it and has memories about sleep. For the purpose of samadhi, this vritti called sleep should also be brought under control.
  16. 16. अनुभूतत्तवषयासंप्रमोषः स्मृनतः ॥११॥ anu-bhūta-viṣhaya-asaṁpramoṣhaḥ smr̥tiḥ [11]  anu-bhuta : experienced  vishaya: objects of experience  asampramoshah: retained, not being lost  smrtih: memory Meaning: retained impression of experienced objects [is the vritti called] memory Explanation: Memory has to do with the past. Memory must be curbed by a yogin, because otherwise he would never be free from the mental impressions which have formed in his conscious and subconscious mind. If one does not quell, or quiet off completely, the memory and disconnect from the memory, he cannot become liberated.
  17. 17. अभ्यासवैराग्याअभ्यां तश्न्नरोधः ॥१२॥ abhyāsa-vairāgya-ābhyāṁ tan-nirodhaḥ [12]  abhyasa : (with) practice  vairagyabhyam: with dispassion, with detachment  tat: of those  nirodhah: control(takes place), cessation(happens) Meaning: Control of those [vrittis] occurs with practice and dispassion Explanation: after introducing the vrittis ( five kind) from sutra 6 to 11, maharishi now states the method to control these vrittis. To wipe out one’s connection with the vrittis, we need to be detached from them and as explained in this sutra , it happens with practice and detachment from all vrittis through dispassion.
  18. 18. तत्र श्स्थतौ यत्नोऽभ्यासः ॥१३॥ tatra sthitau yatno-'bhyāsaḥ [13]  tatra : between those( practice & dispassion)  sthitau: coming to rest(of chitta), as regards stilling  yatno: effort  abhyasah: practice  Meaning: between those[ practice & dispassion], the efforts towards stillness[& stability] of the chitta [is called] practice Explanation: The definition of practice is given by way of stating its nature and purpose. stillness here means chitta is without vrittis. The efforts made towards this purpose is exertion. Practice is the observance of the means thereto, with the will to achieve its fulfilment.
  19. 19. स तु दीर्यकाि नैरन्तयय सत्कारासेत्तवतो दृढभूममः ॥१४॥ sa tu dīrghakāla nairantarya satkāra-āsevito dr̥ḍhabhūmiḥ [14]  sa: that(practice) tu: however  dirghakala: (for) a long time  nairantarya: without interruption, continuous  satkara: respect, devotion  asevito: pursued, thoroughly served  drdhabhumih: (becomes) firm ground Meaning: that[practice], however, becomes firm ground[only when] pursued [in complete observance for] a long time without interruption [and] with respect[ & devotion] Explanation: uninterrupted and continuous practice for a long time is being advised here. Practice must have three qualification. It must be observed (1) for a long time (2) without interruption (3) with due respect, devotion and positive feeling.
  20. 20. दृष्ानुश्रत्तवकत्तवषयत्तवतृषणस्य वशीकारसंज्ञा वैराग्यम् ॥१५॥ dr̥ṣhṭa-anuśravika-viṣaya-vitr̥ṣhṇasya vaśhīkāra-sanjṇā vairāgyam [15]  drshta: seen, perceived with physical senses  anushravika: heard of in a tradition or scripture  vishaya: objects of enjoyment or experience  vitrshnasya: of one who has lost desire for  vashikara: mastery, bringing under total control  sanjna: term, definition, name  vairagyam: dispassion Meaning: The mastery established by a person who has lost all desire for the matters of experience or enjoyment whether perceived with physical senses or heard of in the tradition & scriptures is dispassion Explanation: When seeker has lost the craving for matters perceptible( food, power, affluence) and matters heard of in tradition/ scriptures( attainment of heaven etc) then the state of mind is termed as mastery and control (vashikara) . This condition is termed as dispassion( vairagya).
  21. 21. तत्परं पुरुषख्यातेः गुणवैतृष्यम् ॥१६॥ tatparaṁ puruṣa-khyāteḥ guṇa-vaitr̥ṣhṇyam [16]  tat: that(dispassion)[is]  param: supreme, transcendent  purusha: (as regards) the conscious being  khyateh: through discernment  guna: attributes of nature( prakriti)[sattva, rajas, tamas]  vaitrshnyam: state of being free of all desires Meaning: that(dispassion) is of higher kind(supreme) when it is free from all desires for the attributes( gunas)[of prakriti] arising through the realization of conscious being(purusha) Explanation: {continued on next slide}
  22. 22. तत्परं पुरुषख्यातेः गुणवैतृष्यम् ॥१६॥ tatparaṁ puruṣa-khyāteḥ guṇa-vaitr̥ṣhṇyam [16] [Continued from previous slide] Explanation: dispassion (vairagya) are of two kinds. One that has been explained in previous sutra. The other kind which is of higher kind or supreme is explained here . It states that purusha becomes dispassionate towards the attributes of prakriti and it happens through repeated practice of realizing and seeing. It provides clarity of knowledge and discernment. At this stage, the seeker is able to contemplate that whatever was to be attained has been attained and that all afflictions have been eliminated. This is the state of higher state of dispassion( vairagya). Immediately after this, seeker is able to transcend to samadhi and isolation(kaivalya) folllows.
  23. 23. त्तवतकय त्तविाराअनन्दाश्स्मतारुपानुगमात्संप्रज्ञातः ॥१७॥ vitarka-vicāra-ānanda-asmitā-rupa-anugamāt-saṁprajñātaḥ [17]  vitarka: gross thought  vichara: subtle thought  ananda: ecstasy, joy  asmita: i-am-ness  rupa: nature, appearance of  anugamat: through accompaniment[of]  samprajnatah: lower samadhi, cognitive samadhi Meaning: lower samadhi( samprajnata) occurs through the accompaniment of the appearances of gross thought, subtle thought, ecstasy and I-am-ness Explanation: once , the seeker has controlled the vrittis of his chitta through practice( abhyasa) & dispassion (vairagya), the first stage of samadhi( samprajnata) occurs. In first stage of samadhi, mind requires an object to take a support from( alambana). The support factors are defined here as gross thought, subtle thought, ecstasy & I- am-ness. These are the four different levels of samprajnata samadhi and seeker moves gradually from one level to another.
  24. 24. त्तवरामप्रत्ययाभ्यासपूवयः संस्कारशेषोऽन्यः ॥१८॥ virāma-pratyaya-abhyāsa-pūrvaḥ saṁskāra-śheṣho-'nyaḥ [18]  virama: cessation, stopping  pratyaya: cognition principle, cognition  abhyasa: practice  purvah: preceded by , having as a prerequisite  Samskara-sheshah: leaving its samskara as residue  Anyah: the other (asamprajnata samadhi) Meaning: the other( asamprajnata samadhi) having practice of cognition as its prerequisite [leading to] cessation of cognition , leaving its samskara as residue Explanation: Once, samprajnata samadhi has been perfected, the yogi moves to next stage. This sutra explains the nature and means to acognitive ( asamprajnata ) samadhi. When all the vrittis of mind- field(chitta) have ceased and only the samskaras remain as residue, such control is acognition( asamprajnata) samadhi. The means thereof is the transcendent dispassion( para-vairagya). The awareness of cessation, devoid of objects is used as the supportive factor and it is without a substance , without interest or purpose.
  25. 25. भवप्रत्ययो त्तवदेहप्रकृ नतियानम् ॥१९॥ bhava-pratyayo videha-prakr̥ti-layānam [19]  bhava-pratyayo: (samadhi) of causal cognition of being at (re)birth  videha: bodiless ( yogis)  prakrti-layanam: those who have merged ( awareness) into nature( prakriti) Meaning: Bodiless (yogis) & (yogis) who have merged with nature, have (understanding of samadhi of )causal cognition at the time of rebirth. Explanation: after explaining samprajnata & asamprajnata samadhi in sutra 17-18, Mahrishi comes back to samprajnata samadhi in this sutra and says samadhi having causal cognition of worldly being, such yogis will continue to be confined to cycle of world. They have not yet realized the supreme reality and need to strive for the knowledge of the supreme reality.
  26. 26. श्रद्धावीययस्मृनत समाधधप्रज्ञापूवयक ततरेषाम् ॥२०॥ śhraddhā-vīrya-smr̥ti samādhi-prajñā-pūrvaka itareṣhām [20]  shraddha: faith, respect virya : strength  smrti: memory samadhi: meditation  prajna: awakening of wisdom  purvakah: preceded by, having them as prerequisite  Itaresham: of others  Meaning: To others (this Samadhi) comes through ( having them as prerequisite) faith, energy, memory, concentration, and discrimination of the real.  Explanation: sutra 19 introduced the concept that samadhi can be attained in two ways- (1) by birth, as continuity from previous lives (2) by practice of a method(upaya). Samadhi, the causal cognition of which is cultivated through method accrues to the yogis. The method does not mean merely the techniques of concentration but also attitudes of mind expressed in words like faith, strength, memory, meditation and awakening of wisdom. It is the path of fivefold means shown in this sutra. The next sutra talks about the methods.
  27. 27. तीव्रसंवेगानामासन्नः ॥२१॥ tīvra-saṁvegānām-āsannaḥ ॥21॥  tivra: intense, speedy, fast  samveganam: of those with vehemence, speed, force  asannah: near, very close, imminent Meaning: For those who (practice) forcefully in intense way, samadhi is very near ( and even imminent) Explanation: 1. There are nine kinds of yogis by virtue of the fact that their observance of the methods ( upaya) is mild , medium or intense 2. Then every method is divided threefold 3. Mrdu samavega- mild progress 4. Madhya samvega- medium progress 5. Tivra samvega- speedy progress 6. Now the sutra can be understood- one of the nine kind of yogi’s progress is described here stating that for such yogis samadhi is very near or imminent
  28. 28. मृदुमध्याधधमात्रत्वात्ततोऽत्तप त्तवशेषः ॥२२॥ mr̥du-madhya-adhimātratvāt-tato'pi viśeṣaḥ [22]  mrdu: gentle(slow) madhya: medium(moderate)  adhimatra: extreme(very high)  tatah: from that api: also  visheshah: distinction Meaning: Even from [among ] those of great momentum, [there is a] distinction of slow, moderate and very high Explanation: what was discussed in previous sutra is reemphasized here. Even from among those of great momentum described earlier have further distinction of slow, moderate & very high intensity.
  29. 29. ईचवरप्रणणधानाद्वा ॥२३॥ īśvara-praṇidhānād-vā [23] isvara : god’s pranidhanad: by practising the presence  va: or Meaning: or [samadhi can be attained quickly] by practicing the presence of God. Explanation: is there any other method to attain samadhi besides fivefold method. Here another method is explained to attain Samadhi. The practice of the presence of God is another method stated here.
  30. 30. लिेश कमय त्तवपाकाअशयैःअपरामृष्ः पुरुषत्तवशेष ईचवरः ॥२४॥ kleśa karma vipāka-āśayaiḥ-aparāmr̥ṣṭaḥ puruṣa-viśeṣa īśvaraḥ [24]  klesa: afflictions karma: actions  vipaka: fruition of action  ashayaih: accumulation a-para-mrshtah: unaffected  purusha-visheshah: a special purusha  Ishvarah: God Meaning: a special purusha [who is] not affected by afflictions, actions, their fruitions and the domains of their accumulated propensities is God Explanation: This is a definition (lakshana) sutra defining God(ishvara). So far we had come across purusha and prakritti, now in addition to these two, God is introduced in the previous sutra . Here to explain this 3rd entity, it is stated that God is the special purusha who is not affected by afflictions, actions, action’s fruitions & propensities of like nature accumulated in their domain.
  31. 31. तत्र ननरनतशयं सवयज्ञबीजम् ॥२५॥ tatra niratiśayaṁ sarvajña-bījam [25] tatra: there, niratisayam: ultimate, not exceeded (by any other) sarvjna: of omniscient  bijam: seed Meaning: There, in Him, is found the unsurpassed origin of omniscient. Explanation: The one in whom knowledge reaches its ultimate dimension is the omniscient one. He is special purusha. This is a further description of the God. Mahrishi Patanjali has carefully not named any person. He explained God’s special characteristics through which God may be identified
  32. 32. पूवेषामत्तपगुरुः कािेनानवच्छेदात ् ॥२६॥ pūrveṣām-api-guruḥ kālena-anavacchedāt [26]  purvesam: of the first  api:also  guru: teacher  kalena: by time  An-avachchhedat: division, there being no limitation Meaning: [He is] teacher of the very first , ancient & former teachers [because] [in Him] there is no delimitation by time. Explanation: The characteristics of God are further described in this sutra. God is the Teacher of all teachers, because these teachers, however great they may have been were all bound and limited by time, and God is not limited by time. These are the two peculiar distinctions of the Yogis. The first is that in thinking of the limited, the mind must think of the unlimited, and that if one part of the perception is true the other must be, for the reason that their value as perceptions of the mind is equal.
  33. 33. तस्य वािकः प्रणवः ॥२७॥ tasya vācakaḥ praṇavaḥ [27]  tasya: his  vacakah: signifier, manifest, name  pranavah:the word OM Meaning: His manifesting word is Om or the word OM is his significator(name) Explanation: Sutra 23 asserted that samadhi can be attained through the practice of the presence of the God(alternative method). Sutra 24-26 explained God. This sutra is preparatory to next sutra which explains how practice of the presence of the God is to be done. It is the tradition of the mantra science that certain mantras are given specific names. The mantra OM is called pranava. It is stated here that OM signifies God.
  34. 34. तज्जपः तदथयभावनम् ॥२८॥ taj-japaḥ tad-artha-bhāvanam [28]  tat: of that japah: recitation  artha: meaning  bhavanam: absorbing, meditating Meaning: recitation of that ( OM)[and] meditating on its meaning [ is called the practice of the presence of God( ishvara-pranidhana)]  Explanation: as the yogi performs the recitation of OM and becomes intent upon cultivating and impressing upon the mind the meaning of the word OM, his chitta succeeds in becoming one pointed
  35. 35. ततः प्रत्यलिेतनाधधगमोऽप्यन्तरायाभावचि ॥२९॥ tataḥ pratyak-chetana-adhigamo-'py-antarāya-abhavaś-ca [29]  tat: then, through that( practice of the presence of God)  pratyak: inward  chetana: consciousness  adhigamah: attainment, realization  api: too  antarya: (of) obstacles, obstructions, impediments  abhavah: absence, removal cha: and Meaning: then, through that[ practice of the presence of God(ishvarapranidhan)][accrues] the attainment of inward consciousness [and the realization of the inward conscious self] and the impediments are removed Explanation: [on next slide]
  36. 36. ततः प्रत्यलिेतनाधधगमोऽप्यन्तरायाभावचि ॥२९॥ tataḥ pratyak-chetana-adhigamo-'py-antarāya-abhavaś-ca [29] Explanation: The first manifestation of this repetition and thinking of Om will be that the introspective power will be manifested more and more, and all the mental and physical impediments will begin to vanish. The realization of one’s true nature occurs. Just as God ( Ishvara, special purusha) is pure, joyful, absolute, so also this purusha attains the same nature. What are the impediments to the Yogi? The impediments are explained in the next sutra.
  37. 37. व्याधध स्त्यान संशय प्रमादाअिस्यात्तवरनत भ्राश्न्तदशयनािब्धभूममकत्वानवश्स्थतत्वानन धित्तत्तवक्षेपाः ते अन्तरायाः ॥३०॥ vyādhi styāna saṁśaya pramāda-ālasya-avirati bhrāntidarśana-alabdha- bhūmikatva-anavasthitatvāni citta-vikṣepāḥ te antarāyāḥ [30]  vyadhi: illness styana: procrastination  samsaya: doubt pramada: negligence  alasya: laziness avirati: proneness to sensuality  bhranti- darsana: mistaken views, confusion of philosophies  a-labdha- bhumikatva: failing to gain a ground( unable to maintain the progress)  an-avasthitatvani: instability, unsteadiness in the progress  chitta-vikshepah: distractions of the mind-field(chitta)  te: they are antarayah: impediments, obstacles Meaning: illness, procrastination, doubt, negligence, laziness, proneness to sensuality, mistaken views, failure to maintain the progress [and]unsteadiness in the progress are the distractions of the chitta. They are the impediments.
  38. 38. व्याधध स्त्यान संशय प्रमादाअिस्यात्तवरनत भ्राश्न्तदशयनािब्धभूममकत्वानवश्स्थतत्वानन धित्तत्तवक्षेपाः ते अन्तरायाः ॥३०॥ Explanation: The nine impediments described in this sutra are the distraction of the chitta(mind-field).In their absence the vrittis of the chitta explained before do not exist.  Illness is the imbalance of the body constituents and senses  Procrastination is the mind’s idleness  Doubt is the observation touching both ends  Negligence is not cultivating the means that lead to samadhi  Laziness is the lack of initiative due to heaviness of the body & the chitta( mind-field)  Non-abstention is the chitta’s failure to turn away from the world and sensuality of the senses  Mistaken views  Failing to gain ground means not attaining samadhi  Instability is chitta’s failure to sustain in the ground that has been attained. These distractions are called the nine impurities of yoga, adversaries of yoga, obstacles or impediments of yoga.
  39. 39. दुःखदौमयनस्याङ्गमेजयत्वचवासप्रचवासाः त्तवक्षेप सहभुवः ॥३१॥ duḥkha-daurmanasya-aṅgamejayatva-śvāsapraśvāsāḥ vikṣepa sahabhuvaḥ [31]  dukha: pain  daurmanasya: frustration, ill-mindedness  angam- ejayatva: unsteadiness, unsteady movement of limbs  svasa-prasvasah: inhalation- exhalation  vikshepa: distraction  sahabhuvah: natural accompaniment Meaning: pain, frustration, unsteadiness of limbs, [involuntary] inhalation-exhalation- these are the natural accompaniments of distraction. Explanation: Physical distress, mental distress, emotional distress causing nervousness of the body and laboured breathing, occur as symptoms of a distracted mind. To decrease these occurrences consistent asana and pranayama practice is required. They do not happen to yogi whose mind is harmonized in samadhi
  40. 40. तत्प्रनतषेधाथयमेकतत्त्वाभ्यासः ॥३२॥ tat-pratiṣhedha-artham-eka-tattva-abhyāsaḥ [32]  tat: those  pratishedha: prevention, removal  artham: for the purpose of  eka: one  tattva: principle, subject, element, reality  abhyasah: practice Meaning: to remove those( impediments, distractions & their correlates), the practice of a single reality( or one principle or one element) [is prescribed]  Continued on next slide
  41. 41. तत्प्रनतषेधाथयमेकतत्त्वाभ्यासः ॥३२॥ tat-pratiṣhedha-artham-eka-tattva-abhyāsaḥ [32] Explanation: The seeker has to practise, using methods which yogis in the past were successful in applying. There is a similar verse in Shrimad Bhagwat Gita:  श्री भगवानुवाच -- असंशयं महाबाहो मनो दुर्निग्रहं चलं।अभ्यासेन तु कौन्तेय वैराग्येण च गृह्यते।।6.35।।  shri bhagavan uvacha --asamsayam mahabaho mano durnigraham chalam. abhyasena tu kaunteya vairagyena ca grhyate[6.35]  The Blessed Lord said Undoubtedly, O mighty-armed (Arjuna), the mind is difficult to control and restless; but by practice and by dispassion it may be restrained.
  42. 42. मैत्री करुणा मुददतोपेक्षाणांसुखदुःख पु्यापु्यत्तवषयाणां भावनातः धित्तप्रसादनम् ॥३३॥ maitrī karuṇā mudito-pekṣhāṇāṁ-sukha-duḥkha puṇya-apuṇya- viṣhayāṇāṁ bhāvanātaḥ citta-prasādanam [33]  maitri: friendliness, love karuna: compassion  mudita: joyfullness upekshanam: indifference  sukha: pleasure dukha: pain, suffering  punya: virtue apunya: vice  vishayanam: in relation with, with regard to  bhavanatah: through cultivating, by impressing into oneself  chitta: mind-field  prasadanam: purifying, rendering clear, making pleasant Meaning: by cultivating and impressing into oneself the emotions of friendliness, compassion, joyfulness [and] indifference with regard to those comfortable, suffering, virtuous and vice, chitta is purified and made pleasant.[continued on next slide]
  43. 43. मैत्री करुणा मुददतोपेक्षाणांसुखदुःख पु्यापु्यत्तवषयाणां भावनातः धित्तप्रसादनम् ॥३३॥ maitrī karuṇā mudito-pekṣhāṇāṁ-sukha-duḥkha puṇya-apuṇya- viṣhayāṇāṁ bhāvanātaḥ citta-prasādanam [33] Explanation: The seeker should cultivate friendliness towards all living beings who are endowed with pleasures, compassion towards those who are suffering, joyfulness towards those of virtuous nature and indifference towards those having wicked disposition. Cultivating like this, chitta calms down. Purified and pleasant , it attains the state of one-pointed stability  The approach so far is as under:  Samadhi can be attained only when chitta( mind-field) is one pointed( Ekagra)  Five methods were stated in sutra 20 to make chitta one pointed(Ekagra)  The practice of these methods must be undertaken together with dispassion(Vairagya) [ Continued…..]
  44. 44. मैत्री करुणा मुददतोपेक्षाणांसुखदुःख पु्यापु्यत्तवषयाणां भावनातः धित्तप्रसादनम् ॥३३॥ maitrī karuṇā mudito-pekṣhāṇāṁ-sukha-duḥkha puṇya-apuṇya- viṣhayāṇāṁ bhāvanātaḥ citta-prasādanam [33] Explanation: Continued from previous slide…. Practice along with dispassion takes the seeker to the highest level of control(vashikara) sutra 15 Though practice ( sutra 13) is defined as endeavour to make chitta stable but it is a difficult path Sutra 33 to 39 explain the various ways to make that stability permanent ( sthiti nibhandhan)
  45. 45. प्रच्छदयनत्तवधारणाभ्यां वा प्राणस्य ॥३४॥ prachchhardana-vidhāraṇabhyāṁ vā prāṇasya [34]  prachchhardana: expulsion, exhalation  vidharanabhyam: restrain, control  va: or pranasya: of prana( breath) Meaning: or by regulation of exhalation, inhalation of breath[prana] ( chitta’s stability is established) Explanation: Another method to achieve the stability of chitta is explained here.  The word used “prana” is not exactly breath. Prana relates to energy that allows one to think, move limbs or has its manifestation as life.  Prachchhardana is visceral air slowly exhaled through the nostrils with a particular care, effort and method  Vidharana is stretching or expanding of the visceral air ie maintaining it outside and not a quick or sudden intake.  this process is not to be confused with pranayam
  46. 46. त्तवषयवती वा प्रवृत्तत्तरुत्पन्ना मनसः श्स्थनत ननबश्न्धनी ॥३५॥ viṣayavatī vā pravr̥tti-rutpannā manasaḥ sthiti nibandhinī [35]  visayavati: having sense objects, having sense experiences  va: or  pravrttih : inclination, direct perception  utpanna : born, become manifest  manasah: mind’s  sthiti: (of) stability, steadiness  nibandhani: that which binds, firmly establishes Meaning: or by direct perception of the experiences of subtle or celestial sense objects firmly establishes the stability of the mind( chitta) Explanation: In order to reinforce the conclusions drawn from the scriptures, inferences and the teachings of the Gurus, it is necessary that something specific be experienced directly.
  47. 47. त्तवशोका वा ज्योनतषमती ॥३६॥ viśhokā vā jyotiṣhmatī [36]  vishoka: free of grief or suffering va: or  jyotishmati: luminous, full of light(of sattva) Meaning: or [the natural mental state that becomes manifest as ] free of grief [is called] luminous [ and effects the stability of the mind] Explanation: The yogis have narrated that there is an 8 petal lotus turned downwards, in the heart centre. As one practises concentration, it makes the lotus turn upwards. This state called ‘vishoka jyotishmati’ the one without grief and luminous manifests itself in yogi. The word ‘ pravrtti’ mentioned in previous sutra, is again used here mentioning that for seeker(yogi) ,having such inclination, effects the stability of the mind. This stability again leads to sthithi- nibandhan as explained in previous sutra.
  48. 48. वीतराग त्तवषयम् वा धित्तम् ॥३७॥ vītarāga viṣhayam vā chittam [37]  vita: devoid of raga: attraction, attachment  vishayam: sense objects  va: or chittam: mind-field Meaning: or concentrating [one’s] chitta on those[persons] who have given up all attraction to sense objects Explanation: someone totally dispassionate and free of attractions and attachments is ‘vitaraga’. They are part of that Teacher(Guru) lineage which begins with Hiranyagarbha. They are considered disembodied masters helping the seekers. The seeker takes support by concentrating his chitta on ‘vitaraga’ and attains the state of stability.
  49. 49. स्वप्नननद्रा ज्ञानाअिम्बनम् वा ॥३८॥ svapna-nidrā jñāna-ālambanam vā [38]  svapna: dream nidra: sleep  jnana: knowledge,awareness  alambanam : supportive factor, object of meditation Meaning: or by taking support of ( by meditating) on the knowledge that comes by dreams in sleep ( chitta becomes stabilized) Explanation :Some aspirants gain stability of chitta by keeping track of their dreams and by remaining objectively conscious in dreamless sleep. Through these mystic observations they study the movements of consciousness and are able to discern reality and non-reality and to situate themselves in the state which is detached from the normal operations of chitta.
  50. 50. यथामभमतध्यानाद्वा ॥३९॥ yathā-abhimata-dhyānād-vā [39]  yatha: as  abhimata: desired, object of choice  dhayanat: by meditation va: or Meaning: or by meditation on whatever object is agreeable[to the seeker][ chitta attains stability] Explanation :Different individuals have varying inclinations(pravratti), like wise the seeker feels reverent faith(shraddha) towards different entities. My meditating on these , the seeker may attain desired perfection. These objects of meditation can be many such as various deities and divine incarnations or extarnal objects as Sun, nature or internal objects such as lotus in heart described in sutra 36. Let the seeker meditate on whatever is agreeable to him and attain the stability of chitta.
  51. 51. परमाणु परममहत्त्वान्तोऽस्य वशीकारः ॥४०॥ paramāṇu parama-mahattva-anto-'sya vaśīkāraḥ [40]  paramanu: minutest atom  parama : greatest, ultimate  mahattava: magnitude  antah: ending in, extending upto  asya: of this  vashikarah: mastery, control Meaning: this [yogi’s] mastery [and control] is established over [starting from] the minutest atom [and] extending up to the ultimate magnitude Explanation:
  52. 52. क्षीणवृत्तेरमभजातस्येव मणेर्ग्यहीतृर्ग्हणर्ग्ाह्येषु तत्स्थतदञ्जनता समापत्तत्तः ॥४१॥ kṣīṇa-vr̥tter-abhijātasy-eva maṇer-grahītr̥-grahaṇa-grāhyeṣu tatstha- tadañjanatā samāpattiḥ [41]  ksina- vrtteh: of one whose vrittis have subsided  abhijatasya: of pure born iva: like  maneh: of gem, crystal  grahitr:one who perceives and understand or grasp  grahana: process of apprehension  grahyesu: apprehended objects, understood objects  tat-stha: becoming stable on them  tad-anjanata: coalescence with them  samapattih: conclusion, attainment of a state of consciousness Meaning: when one’s vrittis have subsided, chitta has attained stability [and] coalescence with the apprehender, process of apprehension [and] the objects of apprehended,[chitta] becomes pure like a high graded jewel, [such state of chitta is called] samapatti
  53. 53. क्षीणवृत्तेरमभजातस्येव मणेर्ग्यहीतृर्ग्हणर्ग्ाह्येषु तत्स्थतदञ्जनता समापत्तत्तः ॥४१॥ kṣīṇa-vr̥tter-abhijātasy-eva maṇer-grahītr̥-grahaṇa-grāhyeṣu tatstha- tadañjanatā samāpattiḥ [41] Explanation: This sutra explains the nature and the field of proficiency, attainment and transmutation , once the chitta of the seeker has attained stability. Chitta has been compared with a high graded pure( pure-born) crystal which becomes affected by the colour of its proximate objects. The purusha, the senses and the elements are respectively the agent, the instruments and the objects of understanding. Chitta’s stability on and coalescence with them means that it remains concentrated on them and take on their form. This state is called samapatti.
  54. 54. तत्र शब्दाथयज्ञानत्तवकल्पैः संकीणाय सत्तवतकाय समापत्तत्तः ॥४२॥ tatra śabdārtha-jñāna-vikalpaiḥ saṁkīrṇā savitarkā samāpattiḥ [42]  tatra: there sabda: (with)word  artha: meaning jnana: knowledge  vikalpaih: with options, imaginary cognitions  samkirna : mixed, mingled  sa-vitarka: accompanied with gross thoughts  samapattih: conclusion, attainment of a state of consciousness Meaning: there, the one mingled with imaginary cognitions of word, the object signified as meaning and knowledge [is called] vitarka accompanied( sa- vitarka) samapatti( attainment of a state of consciousness) Explanation: The last sutra provided a general definition of samapatti. Now with this sutra, specific samapattis are being explained.[continued on next slide…..]
  55. 55. तत्र शब्दाथयज्ञानत्तवकल्पैः संकीणाय सत्तवतकाय समापत्तत्तः ॥४२॥ tatra śabdārtha-jñāna-vikalpaiḥ saṁkīrṇā savitarkā samāpattiḥ [42] Explanation: [continued from previous slide….] In sutra 17 four kinds of samprajnata samadhi were explained. The first two are further subdivided into two levels each. Sa-vitarka samadhi is divided into sa-vitarka samapatti and nir-vitarka samapatti. This sutra explains sa-vitarka samapatti. The field of both of these levels and the objects of concentration therein are the same as explained in sutra 17 but the attainments are different.
  56. 56. स्मृनतपररशुद्धौ स्वरूपशून्येवाथयमात्रननभायसा ननत्तवयतकाय ॥४३॥ smr̥ti-pariśuddhau svarūpa-śūnyeva-arthamātra-nirbhāsā nirvitarkā [43]  smrti: (of) memory  parisuddhau: upon complete purification  svarupa-sunya: devoid of its own form  iva: as it were, as though  artha-matra: (of) only the object meant  nir-bhasa: illuminative  nir-vitarka: state of samadhi known as nirvitarka samadhi Meaning: [when] complete and all round purification of memory has occurred and [the chitta is] as it were devoid of its own form [and becomes] illuminative of the object signified,[ this state of the yogi is known as] nirvitarka [samadhi] Explanation: This sutra elucidates the definition of nirvitarka samapatti. [continued on next Slide……]
  57. 57. स्मृनतपररशुद्धौ स्वरूपशून्येवाथयमात्रननभायसा ननत्तवयतकाय ॥४३॥ smr̥ti-pariśuddhau svarūpa-śūnyeva-arthamātra-nirbhāsā nirvitarkā [43] Explanation: [Continued from previous slide….] When complete purification of memory of the imaginary cognition and linguistic misconception of the knowledge that originates from teaching and inferences has occurred. Wisdom becomes coloured by the object apprehended because of its proximity. Chitta takes on the nature and form of the object itself transformed, as it were into the nature and form of the object apprehended It is known as nirvitarka samapatti.
  58. 58. एतयैव सत्तविारा ननत्तवयिारा ि सूक्ष्मत्तवषय व्याख्याता ॥४४॥ etayaiva savicārā nirvicārā ca sūkṣma-viṣaya vyākhyātā [44]  etaya: by this eva: alone,  savichara: accompanied by subtle thought  nirvicara: devoid of subtle thoughts  cha: and vyakhyata: is explained,  suksma visaya: having subtle objects as domain Meaning: by this, savichara and nirvichara [samadhi] are explained. Explanation: In the savitarka & nirvitarka samapatti , the gross elements in various tangible forms grasped with the external senses are the objects of concentration and realization. In savichara & nirvichara samapattis, the five subtle elements ( tan-mantras) and the subtle senses are the objects of concentration and realization.
  59. 59. सूक्ष्मत्तवषयत्वम्िामि्ग पययवसानम् ॥४५॥ sūkṣma-viṣayatvam-ca-aliṇga paryavasānam[45]  suksma: subtle ca : and  visayatvam: the state of having as objects  alinga: unmodified prakrti  paryavasanam: extending up to, ending at Meaning: And having subtle objects extends up to unmodified prakrti. Explanation: The gross objects are only the elements, and everything manufactured out of them. The fine objects begin with the Tanmatras or fine particles. The organs, mind, egoism, chitta (the cause of all manifestation) , the equilibrium state of Sattva, Rajas and Tamas materials— called Pradhana (chief), Prakrti (nature), or Avyakta (unmanifested), are all included within the category of fine objects. The Purusa (the Soul) alone is excepted from this definition.
  60. 60. ता एव सबीजस्समाधधः ॥४६॥ tā eva sabījas-samādhiḥ [46]  ta: those  eva: very ones  sabijas: with seed  samadhih: samadhi Meaning: Those samadhis are with seed Explanation: The four samapattis explained in previous sutras ( 42 to 45) have exterior realities as their seeds thus samadhi too is with seed. Of these savitarka & nirvitarka are concentrations on the gross object and savichara & nirvichara are concentrations on the subtle objects. Thus samadhi is counted to be fourfold.
  61. 61. ननत्तवयिारवैशारद्येऽध्यात्मप्रसादः ॥४७॥ nirvicāra-vaiśāradye-'dhyātma-prasādaḥ [47] nirvichara-vaisaradye: upon purification & proficiency of nirvichara adhyatma: spiritual, in regard to atman prasadah: clarity and serenity Meaning: upon reaching the purity and proficiency of nirvichara , [the yogi gains] spiritual clarity and serenity Explanation: When the proficiency of nirvichara samadhi has occurred, there ensues the yogi’s spiritual clarity which is the illumination of wisdom revealed with regard to the realm of matters as they are and without being obstructed by sequence
  62. 62. ऋतंभरा तत्र प्रज्ञा ॥४८॥ r̥taṁbharā tatra prajñā ॥48॥ rtambhara: truth bearer tatra: there prajna: wisdom Meaning: therein [occurs that ] wisdom [which] bears the supreme truth Explanation: The wisdom that accrues when the chitta has reached samadhi in that ( nirvichara samapatti) has the appellation “ bearer of supreme truth” By authority ( agama) and by logic ( anumana) and by enjoyment of practice ( abhyasa) of meditation (dhyana), cultivating wisdom( prajna) in three ways, one gains the highest yoga
  63. 63. श्रुतानुमानप्रज्ञाअभ्यामन्यत्तवषया त्तवशेषाथयत्वात ् ॥४९॥ śruta-anumāna-prajñābhyām-anya-viṣayā viśeṣa-arthatvāt [49]  sruta: from traditions, hearing, learning  anumana: from logical processes, interference  prajnabhyam: from two kinds of wisdom  anya: having different, other  visya: object, domain, scope  vishesha-arthatvat: because of having special purpose , aim, significance Meaning: (ritambhara) is different in scope from the wisdom gained by learning or from processes of logic because it has a special aim that of dealing with particulars
  64. 64. तज्जस्संस्कारोऽन्यसंस्कार प्रनतबन्धी ॥५०॥ tajjas-saṁskāro-'nya-saṁskāra pratibandhī [50]  tat-jah: arising from that, produced from that  samskarah: impression, imprint in the subtle domain  anya: of other  pratibandhi: that which impedes, opposes, inhibits Meaning: the [resulting] impressions produced from that(samadhi) opposes and annuls other impressions Explanation: the impressions produced by the samadhi impedes the domain of the impressions(samskaras) of worldly disturbance. Once the impressions of worldly disturbance are overpowered, the cognnitions arising from them no longer occur. Upon control and cessation (nirodha)of the cognition, samadhi presents itself. At this stage, wisdom arises out of samadhi which inhibits the other samskaras.
  65. 65. तस्यात्तप ननरोधे सवयननरोधाश्न्नबीजः समाधधः ॥५१॥ tasyāpi nirodhe sarva-nirodhān-nirbījaḥ samādhiḥ [51]  tasya: of that api: even, also  nirodhe: upon control, cessation, dissolution  sarva: of all  nirodhat: through nirodha, dissolution  nirbijah: seedless samadhih: samadhi Meaning: when the control, cessation and dissolution of even that [samskara] occurs, the nirodha of all [else ensues and thereby] seedless(nirbija) samadhi [is attained] Explanation: This samadhi not only opposes the samadhi- wisdom but impedes even the samskaras produced by the samadhi- wisdom. As one progresses in samprajnata, wisdom- vritti at each level is dissolved into its own cause, as each vritti arises from a samskara, the yogi observes “ not this , not this”(neti, neti) and thus denying them any worth and continuing to pursue reality. He finally reaches the seedless, asamprajnata samadhi

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First part of Yogasutra of Maharishi Patanjali


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