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Chapter 11:Training in Sports



Chapter 10: Psychology and Sports

This lesson is for "Psychology and Sports " for Grade XI students of CBSE as per new syllabus

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Chapter 10: Psychology and Sports

  1. 1. CHAPTER 10
  3. 3. 10.1 Definitions and Importance of Psychology in Physical Education and Sports 10.2 Define and Differentiate between Growth and Developments 10.3 Developmental Characteristics at Different Stages of Development 10.4 Adolescent Problems and their Management 10.5 Define Learning, Laws of Learning and Transfer of Learning 10.6 Plateau and Causes of Plateau 10.7 Emotions: Concepts and Controlling of Emotions PSYCHOLOGY AND SPORTS
  4. 4. • The scientific study of the human mind and its functions, especially those affecting behaviour in a given context • The mental characteristics or attitude of a person or group. Psychology
  5. 5. • Sport psychology is the scientific study of people and their behaviors in sport contexts and the practical application of that knowledge. • Sport psychology is an interdisciplinary science that draws on knowledge from many related fields including biomechanics, physiology, kinesiology and psychology. 10.1 Definition of Sports Psychology
  6. 6. Sport psychologists have two objectives in mind: (a) To understand how psychological factors affect an individual's physical performance (b) To understand how participation in sport and exercise affects a person's psychological development, health and well-being. 10.1 Meaning of Sports Psychology
  7. 7. 1. Enhancement of Physiological Capacities : • Psychological capacities plays important role in enhancement of strength , speed , flexibility etc. • Motivation plays an important role in enhancement. 10.1 Importance of Sports Psychology
  8. 8. 2. Learning the Motor Skills : a) Motor skills learning depends on individual’s level of physiological and psychological readiness b) Physiological readiness means development of necessary strength, flexibility and endurance c) Psychological readiness means the desire and willingness to learn the particular skill 10.1 Importance of Sports Psychology
  9. 9. 3. In Understanding the Behaviour : a) Sportspersons interest, attitude towards physical activity, personality traits and instincts b) This information is used in different sports situations 10.1 Importance of Sports Psychology
  10. 10. 4. In Controlling the Emotions : a) Anger, disgust, fear, negative thinking, feeling of ownership are the emotions which need to be controlled b) Uncontrolled emotions can decrease the performance c) Controlling the emotions during practice sessions and competitions d) Prevent buckling under pressure 10.1 Importance of Sports Psychology
  11. 11. 5. In Preparing the Athletes Psychologically for Competitions : a) Mental preparations for the competitions have gained importance now b) Individuals and teams are given psychological tips before and after the competition d) Psychologists work to create the will “to win” and a positive attitude to handle the losses 10.1 Importance of Sports Psychology
  12. 12. 6. Role in the Emotional Problems of Sportspersons : a) Stress, tension & anxiety common emotional problems b) Depression, Frustration, Anorexia & Panic c) Techniques for relaxations and stress management are helpful 10.1 Importance of Sports Psychology
  13. 13. Growth: – The process of increasing in size. – The growth of a person or ​animal is its process of increasing in ​Size, Shape, Height or Weight – Used in the physical terms 10.2 Definition of Growth
  14. 14. Development: The process of developing or being developed. (evolution, growth, maturing, expansion, enlarge ment, spread, progress, success, blossoming, bloo ming )  Not limited to growing larger  Consists of a progressive series of changes of an orderly, coherent type towards the goal of maturity  An event constituting a new stage in a changing situation 10.2 Definition of Development
  15. 15. Development:  Can be observed, appraised and measured in 3 major manifestation  Anatomic, physiologic & behavioural  Behaviour constitute the most comprehensive index of developmental status & potential  Changes in qualitative aspects 10.2 Definition of Development
  16. 16. S.N Growth Development 1 Can be measured quantitatively e.g. change in height, weight Multiple changes in behaviour, efficiency and capability 2 Limited to a definite age Life long process 3 Part of Development Includes physical, mental, social & emotional Growth 4 Linked to Food and Age Linked to Physical activity, Education, social interaction 5 Related to one aspect of Personality Related to all aspects of Personality 10.2 Difference Between Growth and Development
  17. 17. Classification of Stages of Growth & Development : 1.Infancy 2.Childhood 3.Adolescence 4.Adulthood 10.3 Developmental Characteristics at Different Stages of Development
  18. 18.  Stage from birth to the end of 5 years of age  Grasping power & thinking ability of brain is very fast  Understands & speaks the language  Curiosity is high & asks various questions  Do not have control over emotions & tend to forget  Exhibit emotions through motor skills activities  Learn the activities related to motor skills like walking, running, jumping, throwing & catching etc.  Learn to use physical organs, internal organs and sensory organs in balanced way 10.3 Developmental Characteristics at Infancy
  19. 19. – Stage from 6th year of age to 12 year – Can control their muscles – Neuro-muscular coordination efficient 10.3 Developmental Characteristics at Childhood
  20. 20.  Concentration power and thinking ability increases  Learn to control their emotions & behaviour  Social qualities start developing  Show qualities like courage, imagination, adventure etc  Have their idols & try to imitate their idols  Strong memory 10.3 Developmental Characteristics at Childhood
  21. 21.  Starts after childhood and ends around 19 year of age  Also called teenage  Stage of complex changes a) Physical characteristics b) Mental characteristics c) Emotional characteristics d) Social characteristics e) Motor characteristics 10.3 Developmental Characteristics at Adolescence
  22. 22. a) Physical characteristics I. Many physical changes take place II. Moustache & beard in boys III. Breast development in girls (cont.) 10.3 Developmental Characteristics at Adolescence
  23. 23. a) Physical characteristics (cont.) IV. Height, weight, bones, muscle power begins to mature V. Development of internal & external Sexual organs VI. Body structure of boys and girls is clearly differentiated VII.Physical changes make them impatient, restless & worried as they do not have complete knowledge of the changes 10.3 Developmental Characteristics at Adolescence
  24. 24. b) Emotional characteristics i. Full of emotions ii. Alteration between Intense Excitement & Deep Depression iii. Becomes sexually active iv. Love, hate, anger, greed, jealousy etc are the emotions which trap them v. Find difficult to cope up with disrespect and disgrace vi. Suggestions & guidance of elders is disliked ( Rebels) 10.3 Developmental Characteristics at Adolescence
  25. 25. c) Social characteristics I. Want to have their own standards against the established social traditions and customs II. Ready to revolt 10.3 Developmental Characteristics at Adolescence
  26. 26. c) Social characteristics (cont.) III. Aspire for leadership and specific recognition IV. Keen to build life long partnership with boys and girls V. Keen to participate in recreational activities where they can interact with persons of their age group VI. Consider friends of their age group most trustworthy 10.3 Developmental Characteristics at Adolescence
  27. 27. d) Motor characteristics I. Motor coordination improves II. Boys have better motor coordination abilities due to active participation in sports and training 10.3 Developmental Characteristics at Adolescence
  28. 28. d) Motor characteristics (cont.) III. Rapid development of strength in boys IV. Girls have more flexibility V. Performance in various sports improves considerably during this age VI. Regular participation in sports and training can lead to continuous motor development 10.3 Developmental Characteristics at Adolescence
  29. 29. Adolescence : I. Is the period through which a growing person makes transition from childhood to maturity II. Is the period of great stress, strain, storm and strife III. Is the period in which a child tries to become capable of doing everything by himself 10.4 Adolescent Problems and their Management
  30. 30. 1. Physical Problem : a) Internal and External growth of organs b) Physical appearance c) Development of sexual organs 10.4 Adolescent Problems
  31. 31. 2. Mental Problem : a) Stress and tension are the common problems b) Difficulty in cooperation c) Maladjustment 10.4 Adolescent Problems
  32. 32. 3. Problem of aggressive behaviour : a) Tendency to be aggressive b) Become irritated easily c) Tendency to revolt 10.4 Adolescent Problems
  33. 33. 4. Lack of Stability and Adjustment : a) Continuous alteration in behaviour b) Lack stability c) Find difficulty in working in a team d) Difficult to coordinate with others e) Feel Parental and Peer pressure all the time 10.4 Adolescent Problems
  34. 34. 5. Emotional Problems : a) Live intensely emotional life b) Wide fluctuation in emotions 10.4 Adolescent Problems
  35. 35. 6. Problems related to Sex : a) Opposite Sex attraction b) Most of the times curiosity leads to troubles 10.4 Adolescent Problems
  36. 36. 7. Problems of Self-support a) Want to make their own place in the society b) Want to be of use to the family, friends and the society c) Career selection problem 10.4 Adolescent Problems
  37. 37. 8. Feeling of Importance : a) Expect respect from others b) Fear of disgrace c) Fear of disgrace and disrespect make them Rebels 10.4 Adolescent Problems
  38. 38. 9. Social Problems a) Want to change the customs and traditions of the society b) Peer group is most important c) Easy to fall prey to vices like smoking, drinking, drugs 10.4 Adolescent Problems
  39. 39. 1. Education for Motor Developments a) Should be encouraged to play various games & sports 10.4 Management of Adolescent Problems
  40. 40. 2. Education of Psychology a) Parents and Teachers should be given the basic knowledge of Adolescent’s psychology b) Interaction of Teacher-student and Parents-children 10.4 Management of Adolescent Problems
  41. 41. 3. Sex Education a) Natural attraction for Opposite Sex b) No information breeds misconception c) Proper sex education is required d) Information should be disseminated through parents & teachers 10.4 Management of Adolescent Problems
  42. 42. 4. Vocational Guidance a) Vocational guidance is very important for adolescents b) Should be based upon intelligence, capabilities, aptitude and interest c) Future education & career is based upon vocational guidance 10.4 Management of Adolescent Problems
  43. 43. 5. Moral & Religious Education a) Moral education should be imparted in school b) Religious education is generally provided at home c) Indiscipline, anxiety & tension can be tackled 10.4 Management of Adolescent Problems
  44. 44. 6. Provide Suitable Environment a) Suitable environment for growth & development b) Environment should consist of proper facilities & opportunities c) Balanced diet & discipline 10.4 Management of Adolescent Problems
  45. 45. 7. Adequate Independence a) Adolescents want freedom in every facet of life b) Should be allowed to express their views freely and due importance should be given to their views c) Socializing activities like picnic, trekking, hiking should be encouraged 10.4 Management of Adolescent Problems
  46. 46. 8. Social education a) Adjustment with other in the society should taught b) Too much dependency should be discouraged c) Opportunities for interaction with elders & younger ones should provided through social functions 10.4 Management of Adolescent Problems
  47. 47. Learning • A process that depends on experience and leads to long-term changes in behaviour potential • A process by which behaviour originates or is altered through training or experience • Any relatively permanent change in behaviour that occurs as a result of practice and experience • Is a continuous process and universal • Is purposive and goal oriented 10.5 Learning
  48. 48. Psychologist Thorndike propounded laws of learning. These laws can be classified into: •Primary Laws of Learning •Secondary Laws of Learning 10.5 Laws of Learning
  49. 49. • Primary Laws of Learning Law of Readiness  Law of Effect Law of Exercise • Secondary Laws of Learning Law of Contiguity  Law of attitude  Law of Belongingness  Law of Similarity  Law of primacy  Law of Recency  Law of Contrast 10.5 Laws of Learning
  50. 50. 1. Law of Readiness • Also Known as law of preparedness • The learner learns when he is ready to learn 10.5 Primary Laws of Learning
  51. 51. 1. Law of Readiness ( cont…..) • Maturity & interest are essential for readiness • Until a child is physically & mentally ready to learn, he can not learn and the learning process will be annoying, dissatisfying and unpleasant • Motivation is an aspect of readiness • An environment should be created so that the child is eager or curious to learn the activity 10.5 Primary Laws of Learning
  52. 52. 2. Law of Effect • If the effort in doing any work is enjoyable or pleasant, the individual tries to learn that activity quickly and learns it too • Directly related to success and failure • Success brings satisfaction to the person which leads the person towards learning 10.5 Primary Laws of Learning
  53. 53. 3. Law of Exercise • The connections are strengthened with trail or practice and the connections are weakened when trial or practice is discontinued. 10.5 Primary Laws of Learning
  54. 54. 3. Law of Exercise (cont…..) • Also known as ‘law of use and disuse’ • Law of Effect & law of Exercise work together • Organs of body which are used become powerful • Law is applied in all sports activities • Swimming can not be learnt through correspondence course 10.5 Primary Laws of Learning
  55. 55. 1. Law of Contiguity • Also known as Law of Association • One condition may match with many other condition • When we think about one object , all objects related to it will also be remembered • Poems are easy to remember as the words and lines are associated with each other 10.5 Secondary Laws of Learning
  56. 56. 2. Law of Attitude • Learning depends on our propensity or attitude 3. Law of Belongingness • If the mutual relationship between stimulus and response is natural, then learning is more effective • Natural activities like running, jumping is easy to learn but unnatural activity like running backward is difficult to learn 10.5 Secondary Laws of Learning
  57. 57. 4. Law of Similarity • Learner reacts on the basis of his past experiences • Its easy for a long jumper to learn triple jump 5. Law of Primacy • Based on “first impression is the Last impression” 10.5 Secondary Laws of Learning
  58. 58. 6. Law of Recency • The experiences that are learnt recently, remain fresh in memory • If first impression is the last impression, the last impression is the lasting impression 7. Law of Contrast • If we learn an activity properly, we also learn it quickly and easily • Learning opposite words, synonyms together can help you remember them quickly & always 10.5 Secondary Laws of Learning
  59. 59. Transfer of Learning • The ability to extend what has been learnt in one context to new contexts • The carry over of habits of thinking, feeling or working of knowledge or of skills from one learning area to another area • The process of using knowledge or skills acquired in one context to new contexts • Influence of previous experiences on performing a skill in a new context or on learning a new skill 10.5 Transfer of Learning
  60. 60. 1. Positive Transfer • When learning in one context enhances a related performance in another context • Basketball player finds it easier learn Handball 2. Negative Transfer • When learning of one skill makes learning of another skill difficult • A squash player finds it difficult to stop using the wrist during the shots 10.5 Types of Transfer of Learning
  61. 61. 3. Application Transfer • When previous learning is applied successfully to life situations 4. Bilateral Transfer • When training one side of the body improves performance of the corresponding other side of the body • A change in right foot performance as a result of left foot training in Football 10.5 Types of Transfer of Learning
  62. 62. 5. Proactive Transfer • Learning of a skill affects the learning of the skill yet to be learnt • In Tennis, first learning the forehand shot and then applying this skill to learn top spin shot 6. Retroactive Transfer • When learning new skill, affects the previously learnt skill • A Hockey player, Learning the flicking skill may affect his previously learnt push pass 10.5 Types of Transfer of Learning
  63. 63. 1. Learner’s Will 2. Learner’s Intelligence 3. Learner’s Personal Achievements 4. Identical Subject Matter 5. Training in Transfer 6. Depth of Original Understanding 10.5 Factors Affecting Transfer of Learning
  64. 64. Plateau : When a skill is learnt, initially rapid progress is made by the learner, however, after some time the progress is stopped and no amount of training makes any improvement. This stage is called “Plateau of learning”. Plateau is a common phenomenon. It may occur again & again 10.6 Plateau & Causes of Plateau
  65. 65. 1. Deficiency in physiological power 2. Too much time spent in one training environment 3. Competition Schedule 4. Less Interest 5. Too rapid progress at the start 6. Use of old methods of training 10.6 Causes of Plateau
  66. 66. 7. Lack of concentration 8. Toughness of the skill 9. Fatigue or staleness 10. Poor coaching or training 11. Environmental pollution 10.6 Causes of Plateau (cont….)
  67. 67. The period of Plateau can be reduced but can not be avoided Psychologists say Plateau is part of the learning Trainers should use psychological methods to reduce the period 10.6 Elimination of Plateau
  68. 68.  A moved or stirred up state of feeling in an individual linked with some tendency. There are physiological changes associated with each emotion  Strong agitation of the feelings actuated by experiencing love, hate, fear accompanied by increased heartbeat or respiration , crying or shaking  Disturbs logical thinking  Changes facial expression 10.7 Emotions: Concept of Emotions
  69. 69. 1. Control breathing 2. Meditation 3. Repression 4. Introspection 5. Suggestions by Coaches/Teachers 6. Avoid the situation 7. Redirection 8. Practice Progressive muscle relaxation 9. Exercise 10.7 Emotions: Method of Controlling Emotions
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This lesson is for "Psychology and Sports " for Grade XI students of CBSE as per new syllabus


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