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  • Chapter 2,berk.doc (1)

    1. 1. DevelopmentThrough the Lifespan Chapter 2 Biological and Environmental Foundations This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law:  Any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network;  Preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images;  Any rental, lease, or lending of the program. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    2. 2. Genotypes and PhenotypesGenotype PhenotypeGenetic make-up Observableof an individual characteristics of an individual Absolute Family Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    3. 3. Genetic Foundations Chromosomes – store and transmit genetic information Genes – segments of DNA located along the chromosomes DNA – substance of which genes and chromosomes are made© Tiero/Dreamstime.com Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    4. 4. Chromosomes, Cells, and Sex: Terminology The 22 pairs of chromosomes that are Autosomes not sex chromosomes 23rd pair of chromosomes  Sex  Determines sex Chromosomes  XX = female, XY = male Gametes Sex cells: sperm and ova Zygote Sperm and ovum united Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    5. 5. TwinsFraternal/Dizygotic  two zygotes, or fertilized ova Corbis Royalty FreeIdentical/Monozygotic  one zygote that divides into two individuals Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    6. 6. Chromosomal AbnormalitiesDown Syndrome  problems with the twenty-first chromosomeSex chromosome abnormalities © Carlos Santa Maria/Dreamstime.com  problems with the X or Y chromosomes Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    7. 7. Reproductive Choices Genetic counseling Genetic testing Prenatal diagnosis and fetal medicine AdoptionRubberBall Productions Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    8. 8. Reproductive Technologies Donor insemination In vitro fertilization Surrogate mother New technologies RubberBall Productions Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    9. 9. Genetic CounselingHelps couples: assess chances of hereditary disorders choose best course of action  risks  family goalsRecommended when: couple has had difficulties aware of genetic problems woman is over 35 RubberBall Productions Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    10. 10. Prenatal Diagnostic Methods Amniocentesis Chorionic villus sampling Fetoscopy Ultrasound Maternal blood analysis RubberBall Productions Preimplantation genetic diagnosis Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    11. 11. Amniocentesis andChorionic Villus Sampling Figure 2.5 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    12. 12. AdoptionTrends international adoption older children developmental issuesExhibit some difficultiesMost fare well Stockbyte Royalty Free Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    13. 13. Environmental Contexts for Development  Family  Socioeconomic status and family functioning  Affluence  Poverty  Neighborhoods, towns, and cities Cultural contextCorbis Royalty Free  Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    14. 14. Family Influences on DevelopmentDirect  two-person relationshipsIndirect  third partiesAdapting to change  changes from within and outside the family RubberBall Productions Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    15. 15. Socioeconomic Status (SES) Social status  years of education  job prestige and skill required Economic status  income Meetings and Presentations Royalty Free Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    16. 16. Socioeconomic Status and Family Functioning Timing and duration of family life cycle Values and expectations Education, status of women Communication and discipline styles Children’s cognitive Family Life development Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    17. 17. Risks of Affluence Alcohol and drug use Anxiety Depression Unavailable parents  overscheduled  demandingModern Teen Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    18. 18. The Importance of Regularly Eating Dinner as a Family Figure 2.6 Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    19. 19. Who Is Poor?12.5% in United States  parents under age 25 with young children  elderly living alone, especially women  ethnic minorities  women  children Senior Lifestyles Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    20. 20. Homelessness23% of homeless are families withchildren  majority with children under age 5  poor school attendance  health issues  developmental delays Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    21. 21. Benefits of Strong Community Ties for Children and Adults Social interaction, activities Cooperation to provide clean, safe environment Participation in important tasks Mutual assistance DigitalVision Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    22. 22. Extended FamiliesThree or more generations living togetherMore common in many minority culturesBenefits  reduces stress of poverty Senior Lifestyles  assistance for all generations  emotional bonds, support Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    23. 23. Individualist and Collectivist SocietiesIndividualist CollectivistPeople define People define themselves as themselves as part separate from other of a group. people. Stress group goalsLargely concerned over individual with personal needs goals. and goals. Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
    24. 24. Genetic– Environment CorrelationPassive correlationEvocative correlationActive correlation  niche-picking Absolute Family Copyright © 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

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