Understanding the wave• Waves are vibrations that propagate through the medium.• Waves carry energy from one place to another.• Periodic wave is a wave motion on a regular basis and repeatedly having a continuous source of disturbance and oscillates, in the form of vibration or oscillation.
Terminology of a Wave• Highest points on the wave called the crest of a wave, while the lowest points called the trough of the wave.• Amplitude (A) is the maximum displacement, is a maximum height of the peak, or maximum depth of the trough, relative to its equilibrium position.
Terminology of a Wave• Wavelength (λ) is distance of two consecutive points in the same position.• Frequency (f), is the number of peaks or a complete cycle that passes through a point per unit time.• Period (T), is the time required for one oscillation, is the time elapsed between two consecutive peaks that pass through the same point in space.
Terminology of a Wave• Wave velocity (v) is the distance traveled in unit time wave.• If a wave to travel one wavelength (λ), in one period (T), then the wave velocity is equal to λ / T, or v = λ/T. Because 1/T = f then : The Wave Equation v=ƒ
TYPES OF WAVESWaves are classified into different types accordingto their natures : WAVES Mechanical waves Electromagnetic wavesTransverse waves Longitudinal waves Transverse waves
1. Mechanical Waves• Mechanical waves in a wave that requires propagation intermediary medium. Mechanical waves cannot travel through vacuum.• Mechanical vibration waves originating from a point or a particle in space.• Examples : Water waves, sound wave, vibration of spring, etc.
2. Electromagnetic waveselectromagnetic waves in a wave that notrequires propagation intermediary medium.Electromagnetic waves from vibration load - theelectrical charge in the atom or particle.Examples of light waves, X-rays, radiowaves, micro-waves.
1.1 Transverse wavesTransverse wave is a wave vibration directionperpendicular to the direction propagation. Atransverse wave consists of one peak and onetrough.For example : water surface waves, rope waves.
1.2 Longitudinal wavesLongitudinal wave is a wave vibration direction parallel tothe direction propagation. A longitudinal wave consistsof a single dense and strain.For example : sound wave and waves on the spring.
Common Characteristics of Waves1. Reflection Reflection is the event of return of all or part of a particle or a wave file when the file was to meet with the boundary between the two mediums.
Common Characteristics of Waves2. Refraction Refraction is changes the direction of the wave when the waves enter into a new medium that resulted in a wave moving at a different pace. This effect is a consequence of the wave equation, v = ƒ . Since ƒ is constant, a decrease in v produces a decrease in .
Common Characteristics of Waves3. Diffraction Diffraction is the spreading or bending of a wave incident at the time of the wave is passing through openings or around the tip of the barrier. The wavelength of the wave is not changed in diffraction
Common Characteristics of Waves4. Interference The interaction between two or more wave motion that affects a part of the same medium so that the momentary interruption in the alloy is the sum of the wave vector of disturbances at each moment is an explanation of the phenomenon of wave interference.
Common Characteristics of Waves5. Dispersion Dispersion is the incident light beam that the decomposition of a mixture of several wavelengths into its components due to refraction.
Common Characteristics of Waves6. Polarization Polarization is a process of restriction vector vibrations that form a transverse wave so that it becomes one-way.