Fingerprints A fingerprint is a series of dark lines that represent the high portions and valleys of friction ridge skin. This technology uses the fact that no two people have identical fingerprints. Fingerprint recognition devices create an image of these prints and compare them with fingerprints that are already on file on the system. A variety of sensor types-optical, thermal, capacitive and ultrasound- are used for collecting the digital image of a fingerprint. Optical scanners take a picture of the image and are the most common hardware used. Other devices use pixel value, high frequency devices that detect the change in light reflection or the difference in temperature to produce an image.
Face Recognition Facial recognition software uses the ability to recognize a face and then pinpoint various features of the face. Every face has distinguishable landmarks, peaks and valleys, that make up facial features. These are measured by the software. Face recognition works by using a computer to analyze an individual’s facial structure. The points measured include distances between key characteristics such as eyes, nose and mouth, angles of key features such as the jaw and forehead, and lengths of various portions of the face. With this information, the program creates a unique template, called a face print, using all of the numerical data. This face print may then be compared to a database of facial images to identify the subject
Speaker Recognition• This is a type of biometric input that uses an individual’s voice for recognition purposes.• It comes in two forms: identification and verification• Speech identification recognizes who is speaking by using the specific information included in speech waves to verify identities being claimed by people accessing systems .• Speech verification utilizes a computer program to anticipate certain specific patterns of speech and then verify that those patterns in a voice recording or live person speaking.• Text dependent systems requires predetermined utterances while text independent do not
Iris Recognition• The iris is a muscle in the eye that controls the size of the pupil• This system is able to localise the circular iris and the pupil region excluding other regions around the eyes. It then analyzes the random structure of the iris• The iris is unique because there is a certain degree of randomness in their structure• First, a black-and-white video camera zooms in on the iris and records a sharp image of it. The iris is lit by a low-level light to aid the camera in focusing.
Hand and Finger Geometry• Hands and fingers are unique but not as unique as other traits (fingerprints, irises). Because of this they are used to authenticate users rather than identify them.• Biometric hand recognition systems measure and analyze the structure, shape and proportions of the hand such as length, width and thickness of hand, fingers and joints; creases and ridges on the skin’s surface.• The user places the palm of his or her hand on the readers surface and aligns it with the guidance pegs on the device. The device captures the image using a camera and light and checks its database for verification of the user.
Signature Verification• This analyzes the way a person signs their name. Signature characteristics are absolutely unique to an individual and virtually impossible to duplicate.• Features analyzed include speed, acceleration, deceleration, stroke sequencing and length, pen pressure and signature shape.• In signature verification the signature in question is scrutinized and compared against a reference signature kept on file to determine the signatures genuineness.