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Cultivating Reflection


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An inter-institutional workshop aimed to share reflective educational practices and promote inter-disciplinary collaboration

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Cultivating Reflection

  1. 1. Cultivating Reflection University of the Western Cape October 2013 Melanie Alperstein M Phil (Ad Ed) P G Dip (PHC Ed) B Soc Sc (Nursing) Education Development Unit, Health Sciences Faculty, University of Cape Town, South Africa Veronica Mitchell M Phil (HES) B Sc (Physio)
  2. 2. Today’s pathway
  3. 3. Introduction Free writing for 3 mins Video clip Theoretical concepts Melanie Alperstein Veronica Mitchell Sharing experiences Different contexts Challenges Insights
  4. 4. is to encourage the development of a habit of processing cognitive material that can lead the student to ideas that are beyond the curriculum, beyond learning defined by learning outcomes, and beyond those of the teacher who is managing the learning. Moon, J., 2001. PDP Working Paper 4 Reflection in Higher Education Learning “ Our objective as educators:
  5. 5. Free writing Video clip YouTube video on reflective writing
  6. 6. Introduction to reflective journaling Melanie Alperstein
  7. 7. Theories support reflection Dewey  Effective learning: student engages actively with content in an intensely personal way Kolb  Experiential learning – reflective cycle  Concrete experience; reflective observation; abstract conceptualization; active experimentation of application  Reflective journaling helps students through stages to final stage of applying new meaning or interpretation
  8. 8. 3 concepts  Journals  Portfolios  Reflection  reflective practice  reflective writing
  9. 9. Reflection Why reflect? What exactly is reflection? “An important human activity in which people recapture their experience, think about it, mull over it and evaluate it” (Boud et al, 1995)  Reflective journaling helps adult learners toward higher levels of critical thinking and personal insight.
  10. 10. Stages in reflective practice (Atkins 1993 in Brigden and Purcell, 2004) Awareness Critical analysis New perspectives
  11. 11. Reflective practice skills Self awareness Description Critical analysis Synthesis Evaluation
  12. 12. ABC of reflection (Welch, 1999)  Affect – explore feeling and emotions  Behaviour –actions  Cognition and content – information, concepts, theory, skills, knowledge, v alues
  13. 13. CC:BY: Highways Agency Reflective activity Dynamic / unpredictable Term: Reflection ? Veronica Mitchell
  14. 14. Multiple forces, interpretations & resistance
  15. 15. Exploring beyond the surface
  16. 16. Reflection is the process we use when working with material that is presented in an unstructured manner – not organised and purified as in a traditional curriculum. Moon, J., 2001. PDP Working Paper 4 Reflection in Higher Education Learning “
  17. 17. Dr Maria Christodoulou Adapted from a conflict resolution model Couple Communication 1: Talking Together” by Sherod Miller, Elam W. Nunnally and Daniel B. Wackman Transitions Europe Empowerment Circle Manual 5th Revision, 2002”. (Transitions is an outreach of Woman Within International) A model for conflict resolution developed by Woman Within lnternational. www.womanwithin.orq 6 steps for reflective practice Year 1 @ UCT Health Sciences
  18. 18. Towards empathy and empowering practices Steps 1. Data 2. Feeling 3. Meaning 4. Consequences 5. Needs 6. Learning Adapted through the years
  19. 19. Kolb’s Learning Cycle
  20. 20. Butler’s model Social Self Public Knowledge Reflection Professional Practice Personal Knowledge World View Butler, J. (1996) Professional development: Practice as text, reflection as process, and self as locus. Australian journal of education. 40(3) 265-283
  21. 21. The Paper Mirror: Understanding Reflective Journaling Delaura L. Hubbs and Charles F. Brand (2005) Journal of Experiential Education. 28:1: pp. 60-71 Viki Janse v Rensburg Delaura, Hubbs & Brand’s quadrants
  22. 22. Gibbs, G. (1988) Learning by Doing: A guide to Teaching and Learning Methods. Oxford: Further Education Unit, Oxford Polytechnic. Gibb’s model Nariman Laattoe
  23. 23. Arnold, R., et al. (1991). Educating for a Change. Toronto: Between the Lines. Adapted with permission from the Doris Marshall Institute for Education and Action. In Equitas manual, International Human Rights Training Programme. The Learning Spiral
  24. 24. Vula UCT’s Learning Management System Six Step Spiral for Critical Reflexivity (SSS4CR) Thanks to Dr Kevin Williams, Prof Athol Kent, Nariman Laattoe, Dr Simone Honikman, Sarah Crawford-Browne Year 4 @ UCT Health Sciences
  25. 25. UCT OpenContent
  26. 26. Learning Management System Limitations
  27. 27. Google Drive Collaboration Student managed Anytime, anywhere App Free Net generation … Affordances
  28. 28. Challenges and limitations Students Sharing private thoughts & feelings Motivation & commitment Active participation Honesty Emotional disturbance Process Depth of reflection Making connections / theory Assessment Trust
  29. 29. Our practices ?1. Are there limitations on the questioning in which students are allowed to engage? 2. Does the assessment system enable students to be really free to reflect and express their own views? 3. Are student told to ‘reflect’ when actually they will simply follow a recipe 4. Is learning really going to occur or are students going through the motions of reflection? 5. Is the material that students are encouraged to produce more than descriptive? 6. …is there pressure (through monitoring and assessment) … to write what they think the tutor wants to see? 7. Have there been appropriate guidelines developed for students with regard to ethical issues and confidentiality of material that they produce? 8. …Is there adequate consideration of the costs / benefits of potentially revealing information for the student, staff and others? Moon, J., 2001. PDP Working Paper 4 Reflection in Higher Education Learning “
  30. 30. Thank you