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structureofnailanddiseases-180711171533.pdf

  1. 1. Structure of Nail and Problems Associated Presented by Syed Imran Guided by Dr. U. N. Mahajan Department of pharmaceutics DBCOP Besa, Nagpur 1
  2. 2. Contents  Introduction  Structure of nail  Composition of nail  Problems associated with nails  References 2
  3. 3. Introduction • The nails are located at the dorsal distal ends of both fingers and toes and protect them from trauma. • Nails create a shape of the distal and enhance capacity for fine movements and sensation. • This allows humans to use them as precise tools for picking up objects. 3
  4. 4. The structure of the nail is divided into eleven parts and each serves a central function. 1. Nail bed 2. Nail plate 3. Free edge 4. Hyponychium 5. Nail grooves 6. Matrix 7. Nail mantle 8. Lunula 9. Cuticle 10. Nail walls 11. Perionychium 4
  5. 5.  The Nail Bed • This is the portion of skin upon which the nail plate rests. It has very rich supply of blood and lymph vessels to keep nail healthy. • The function of the nail bed is to supply nourishment and protection.  The Free Edge • The nail plate leaves the end of the finger and forms a projection that is called the free edge. This is attached to the nail bed and appears as white. • The function of the free edge is to protect the fingertip and the hyponychium. 5
  6. 6.  Nail Plate • The nail plate is composed of layers of keratinized skin cells. • The layers are packed very closely together with fat but very little water content. • The nail gradually grows over the nail bed and becomes free edge. • There are no blood vessels or nerves in the nail plate. The pink color of the nail plate derives from the blood vessels that passes beneath it. • The main function of the nail plate is to protect the living nail bed of the fingers and toes. 6
  7. 7.  The Hyponychium • This is a part of the epidermis under the free edge of the nail plate. • Its function is to protect the nail bed from infection.  The Matrix • This is the growing area of the nail and sometimes called as the nail root. The shape and size of the matrix determines the thickness of the nail. The process of the keratinization takes place in the epidermal cells of the matrix, forming the hardened tissue of the nail plate. • The function of the matrix is to produce new nail cells. 7
  8. 8.  The Nail Grooves • This lies along side of the edge of the nail plate. • The function of the nail groove is to keep the nail growing in a straight line.  The Nail Mantle • The nail mantle is the layer of epidermis at the base of the nail, before the cuticle. The function of the nail mantle is to protect the matrix from physical damage.  The Lunula • This is located at the base of the nail, lying over the matrix. It is white in color and known as half-moon. The nail is slightly soft in this area and can be easily damaged. 8
  9. 9.  The Cuticle • The overlapping epidermis around the base of the nail is called the cuticle. The function of the cuticle is to protect the matrix from infection.  The Nail Walls • These are the folds of the skin overlapping the sides of the nails. The function of the nail wall is to protect the nail plate edges.  The Perionychium • This is the collective name given to the nail walls and the cuticle area. 9
  10. 10. Composition of Nail • The nails are made up of hard keratin like hair. • The protein structure contains a high proportion of methionine, tyrosine, lysine and histidine. • The nail is composed of three layer, a soft lower layer called central nail, with hard keratin forming the intermediate layer, and the outer layer called dorsal nail. • The nail also contains 12 to 14% water and fatty materials called cholesterol. 10
  11. 11. 1. Anonychia 2. Onychomadesis 3. Leukonychia 4. Onycholysis 5. Koilonychia 6. Brittleness 7. Onychorrhexis 8. Pitting 9. Paronychia 10. Discoloration 11
  12. 12.  Anonychia • Complete absence of nail from birth. • Anonychia is rare and appears to be associated in several ways with other hereditary defects. • Absence of nail may be individual, multiple or total in some congenital conditions. • Loss of nail plate may occurs with some inflammatory conditions such as lichen planus and irritant dermatitis to artificial nails or secondary to trauma. 12
  13. 13.  Onychomadesis • It is the separation and falling off of a nail from the nail bed. Common causes include localized infection, minor injury to the matrix bed, or severe systemic illness. • It is sometimes a side effect of chemotherapy or x- ray treatments for cancer. • A new nail plate will form once the cause of the disease is removed. 13
  14. 14.  Leukonychia • Complete whiteness of nails or spots on the nail frequently occurs and is not necessarily termed as disease. • One suggestions is that this is due to the injury to nail with simultaneous production of air bubbles. • Alternative suggestions is that this may be due to the presence of keratohyalin granules or enlarged acidophilic cells. • The diffusion of light by these granules makes the cells appear white instead of pink. 14
  15. 15.  Onycholysis • The separation of nail from its bed is fairly common It may result from external damage both traumatic and self induced that is overaggressive cleaning, fungal and yeast infection, acute or chronic dermatitis or drug eruptions. 15
  16. 16.  Koilonychia • This is also called spoon nails, as the nails are depressed in centre and raised at the edges like a spoon. 16
  17. 17.  Brittleness • Brittleness of nails may be caused by congenital defects, systemic disorder or due to some other factors. • The brittle nails may split easily. Systemic disorder which can make nail brittle are anaemia, avitaminosis, gout, hyper and hypo thyroidism. • Sometimes continous use of nail vernishes or vernish remover without supplementing in between with nail creams, may also cause brittleness. 17
  18. 18.  Onychorrhexis • Longitudinal striations are common in healthy nails and become more prominent with aging, and in lichen planus, psoriasis and some other clinical and occupational conditions. • More prominent longitudinal ridging is seen in median nail dystrophy which is attributed to habit tics (self induced behavior). 18
  19. 19.  Pitting • Pitting of the nails is found most commonly in psoriasis. • Pits represents punctuated or depressed sites in the nail plate secondary to irregular matrix production. They can vary in size, shape, depth and number. • They are most common manifestations of nail psoriasis but can also be seen in chronic dermatitis, fungal infections, reiters syndrome, and lichen planus. 19
  20. 20.  Paronychia • Paronychia is defined as inflammation of proximal or lateral nail folds or a combination of the two. • Paronychia occurs after loss of the cuticle or either by trauma or aggressive cuticle trimming or cuticle pulling. • It can be acute or chronic. • Acute paronychia is caused by introduction of an infectious agent into the nail folds, usually through trauma , cuticle pulling or exposure to an irritant agent. • Chronic paronychia occurs over time due to continuous exposure to an irritant behavior, constant exposure to water from hand washing, or a specific contactant such as food items or chemical irritant. 20
  21. 21.  Discoloration • Nails may discolored for a variety of reasons. • External causes include hair and other chemical dyes, smoking and chemical compounds such as mercury salt, dithranol and picric acid. • The use of artificial nails and either acrylic or preformed plates can cause discoloration. • Abnormal or very slow growth of the nails may can also produced color changes. • In the yellow nail syndrome the nail almost cease to grow and several months later become yellow or greenish. 21
  22. 22. 22 References 1. B. M. Mithal, R. N. Saha “ A handbook of cosmetis” Vallabh Prakashan, First edition p.no 178-181. 2. Dr. Martin M. Reiger “Harrys Cosmetology” Chemical publishing Co. Inc. New York, 8th p.no:71- 79. 3. www.wikipedia.com
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