Las Islas Galápagos


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Las Islas Galápagos

  1. 1. MY FAVORITE PLACE I WANTED TO KNOW THE GALAPAGOS ISLANDSGeographyThe Galapagos archipelago is located on both sides of the equator to about970 km (600 miles) west of mainland Ecuador. Local time is GMT -6. Itconsists of thirteen major islands, six smaller islands, 42 islands and severalrocks, which cover a total area of 7,850 km ². The largest island is Isabela,with an area of 4,590 km ², which also has the highest point of thearchipelago, Wolf Volcano, 1,690 meters. 97% of the total area of the islandsis part of the Galapagos National Park, the rest is inhabited areas andcultures of the islands of Santa Cruz, San Cristobal, Isabela and Floreana, inaddition to Baltra island, occupied in its entirety by the Armed Forces ofEcuador. The Galapagos are also a province of Ecuador, whose capital isPuerto Baquerizo Moreno on San Cristobal Island. Puerto Ayora on SantaCruz Island is the city with the highest tourist. The total population of theislands, including the floating population is around 16,109 inhabitants.
  2. 2. GeologyThe islands were formed about 4 or 5 million years as a result of volcaniceruptions, emerging from the ocean surface. Today the Galapagos areconsidered one of the groups most active volcanoes in the world. Many of theislands are only the tips of some volcanoes and show an advanced state oferosion, others are completely submerged. Recent eruptions like FernandinaMarchena in 1991 or in 2005, are evidence that the islands are constantlybeing formed. Other islands like Baltra and North Seymour, have evidence ofhaving been formed by tectonic movements in the ocean floor was pushed tothe surface.ConservationThe Galapagos Islands archipelago form the most diverse and complex worldin which the conditions remain relatively intact. Because of its distance to themainland and the fact that this was never attached to the existing flora andfauna evolved dramatically until they are now and have remained unchangeduntil the man came to them first. The species of plants and animals typical ofthe islands had no predators for thousands of years of evolution, for whichanimals show no fear in the presence of humans and other animals. Thismakes the Galapagos a very special and fascinating and so interesting toscience, tourism and photography, where visitors can have an experiencewith nature that will not forget in his life.But while this same feature makes your balance is so delicate and fragile,and therefore their management is essential in controlling the introductionand spread of alien species, and strict control of tourism and other humanactivities, such as fishing. The institution responsible for the managementand protection of the islands and Marine Reserve is the Galapagos NationalPark, in collaboration with other entities such as the Charles DarwinFoundation.The wildlife consists mainly of birds, mammals and reptiles. In the Galapagos
  3. 3. there are no amphibians. Its rich marine life makes these islands a uniqueplace and so now has the reputation as the most important dive destination inthe world. At present, the animals introduced by settlers for some years, suchas goats, pigs, donkeys, dogs, cats and rats, which, having no competitorshave expanded to become one of the main problems for the conservation ofwildlife the islands. The same is true in the case of plants, so that theinstitutions involved in conservation are also responsible for control anderadication of plants and animals.ClimateDespite being in Ecuador, the Galapagos Islands do not have a humid andhot as other equatorial regions, being in a dry area of the Pacific, wheretemperatures are kept low by the influence of the cold Humboldt current,which comes from the Antarctic. This particular phenomenon of cooling airalong the southeast trade winds and sometimes the influence of the Child,produced two seasons throughout the year. The "rainy" season from Januaryto May, is characterized by warm temperatures between 23 and 27 ° C andsunny days. The ocean is warmer and less moved, with better visibilityunderwater. This station can have periods of rain, which is usually low, butmay be years with excessive rainfall, such as those caused by El Niño.The cold season from June to December, with temperatures dropping to 19 °C or less, is caused mainly by the cold Humboldt current, which comesstrongly from the north coast of Peru. The cold water lowers the temperatureof the air, bringing a rough wind with low water and overcast skies. The coldseason is usually dry, but in the highlands mist is present, which alwayskeeps them moist. This results in large islands with altitudes higher than500m, they are up to 7 zones of vegetation, each with its own microclimate.This current also brings lots of plankton, which, together with cold water,causing a significant increase in marine life, which increases the activity ofland animals, especially birds, thus enhancing their reproduction.Human HistoryOn March 10, 1535, Fray Tomas de Berlanga, Bishop of Panama, whiletraveling to Peru due accidentally swerved off the beaten track anddiscovered the islands, where they stopped for water and food. This isconsidered the official discovery of the archipelago.In the year 1570 appears Galapagos for the first time on a world map with thetitle "Insulae of Galopegos". Towards the years 1593 - 1710 becomes refugeand center of operations and supply British and American pirates, who usedthe giant tortoises for food. By this time, about the year 1684, the pirateWilliam Ambrose Cowley made the first map of the islands, using names ofEnglish royalty. Then came whalers and sealers American and English andused them as food supply, endangering the populations of giant tortoises, thecapture of hundreds of thousands and also decimating the populations ofseals and sea lions. On February 12, 1832 Colonel Ignacio Hernandez tookofficial possession of the islands Floreana and called on behalf of Ecuador,calling them "Archipelago of Ecuador" and giving Spanish names. Three
  4. 4. years later comes the scientist Charles Darwin aboard HMS Beagle, whoremained in the archipelago for five weeks, from September 15 to October20, 1835. During this period the young scientist visited the islands of SanCristobal, Santiago, Floreana and Isabela. Their observations and notes onthe fauna and flora of the islands helped him formulate his theory of evolutionof species and in 1859 published his famous book On the Origin of Speciesby Means of Natural Selection.In 1892 Galapagos gives the official name of "Archipelago de Colon" and theislands are given names related to the discovery of America, which is whysome islands have come to have five different names. During World War IIAmerican forces occupied the islands and built a naval air base and in Baltra,where they remained until 1948. On July 4, 1959, the Government declared aNational Park Galapagos all areas that are not settled, setting limits. On 23July the same year, he created the Charles Darwin Foundation and ResearchStation was inaugurated the same name in 1964. In 1978 the UNESCOdeclared the Galapagos "Natural Heritage of Humanity".During the 60s tourism starts on a larger scale, and with it the increasingpopulation on the islands. Until 1998, this increase was estimated at 8% peryear, which caused strong pressures on natural resources, increased the riskof introducing nonnative species and created problems related to land, basicservices and food requirements. Today, with the creation of the "Special Lawfor the Conservation and Sustainable Development of Galapagos Province"and then signing the general rules applicable to the same law, is expected toend the threats facing most the park.MarinReserve. DialogueWhy would i want to know is the Galapagos islands as part of our countryand also tourists visiting these beautiful islands give your views and is verygood, say that there are very exotic animals that are not in any other side ofthe world.our country is rich in wildlife that we appreciate Ecuador and how not care,but my greatest dream is to know these islands so beautiful.As a tourist attraction, Galapagos can hardly be surpassed. with itsprehistoric-looking animals, the wildness of the landscape, its bloody history,the exotic flora and fauna, have given reason hundreds of people to visit thisplace very beautiful.Nothing more attractive than this suggestive letterhead to create the "need"for people to see him, but tourism to the Galapagos is a special tourism,leisure and entertainment no, no large hotels, crowded beaches of caberetsand casinos, but on the contrary, on a visit to the islands, to admire nature inits original splendor, to experience for a moment my life so simple but yet sopeaceful and more humane than that daily harasses the poor inhabitant.