Win-wins in forest product value chains?
How governance impacts the sustainability of
livelihoods based on non-timber fore...
2004
2008
2010….
AMSTERDAM
ZEIST
WAGNENINGEN
 Congo Basin 2nd largest
forest globally
 59% country forested
 40% live in/near forests
 Forests provide food,
cash, ...
Non-timber forest products (NTFPs)
• Cola nuts - stimulant and flavouring
• Raffia palms- wine, food, poles, leaves
• Bamb...
Value Chains
Harvester WholesalerProcessor Exporter Retailer Consumer
Access to resources for
production
Access to
markets
Sustainable
• Development that meets the
needs of the present without
compromising the ability of
future generations to me...
Governance....
Way a society organises its
self
• Rules of the game
(formal & informal)
• Boundaries
• Umpires
• Supporter...
Problems
 Population 19 million & growing
 People depend on NTFPs for
subsistence and cash
 Increasing deforestation an...
The question:
How does
governance
impact the
sustainability of
livelihoods
based on NTFPs
?
1. How do these chains work, c...
• Talking 2,195 interviews!
• Hassling officials trade data
• Walking observation
• Counting plants resource assessment
• ...
Results
Many laws, conventions &
projects,
Strong customs, corruption,
weak union governance
High value & demand
Unsustainable
New laws
Strong customs, unions &
market governance
High value & growing deman
Sustainable
Ineffective laws & customs
Strong union governance
High corruption
High value & demand
Not sustainable
Q1. How do these chains work
and can people earn a living,
both today and tomorrow?
• 710 NTFP species, 225 traded
• 34,00...
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
Statutory
regualtion
Voluntary/m
arket
standards
Customary
regulation
Projects
Corruption
Involunta...
Q3. Are the NTFP chains sustainable?
Pygeum
Gum arabic*
Bamboo
Honey
Yes - Win No - Lose
Cola
Raffia
Bush mango Eru
Q4. Recommendations
and some results
• Change the law
• No one arrangement works best
• Plural arrangements work, if recog...
Thank you!
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Win-wins in forest product value chains? How governance impacts the sustainability of livelihoods based on non-timber forest products from Cameroon  

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Public presentation for doctoral thesis defence 18 March 2014

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Win-wins in forest product value chains? How governance impacts the sustainability of livelihoods based on non-timber forest products from Cameroon  

  1. 1. Win-wins in forest product value chains? How governance impacts the sustainability of livelihoods based on non-timber forest products from Cameroon Verina Ingram PhD defence 18 March 2014, Agnietenkapel, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands
  2. 2. 2004 2008 2010…. AMSTERDAM ZEIST WAGNENINGEN
  3. 3.  Congo Basin 2nd largest forest globally  59% country forested  40% live in/near forests  Forests provide food, cash, water, fuel, shelter, forage, medicines……….. Cameroon
  4. 4. Non-timber forest products (NTFPs) • Cola nuts - stimulant and flavouring • Raffia palms- wine, food, poles, leaves • Bamboo stems - poles, tools, construction, paper • Honey, wax, propolis food, cosmetics, medicine • Gum arabic - resin as medicine, food, dyes • Pygeum bark- medicine, timber, fuel, forage • Eru leaves - food, wine & hangover medicine • Bush mango nuts - sauces & slimming medicines
  5. 5. Value Chains Harvester WholesalerProcessor Exporter Retailer Consumer Access to resources for production Access to markets
  6. 6. Sustainable • Development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs. • Cope with risks and shocks, and improve way of living while not undermining the natural environment
  7. 7. Governance.... Way a society organises its self • Rules of the game (formal & informal) • Boundaries • Umpires • Supporters • Winners and losers
  8. 8. Problems  Population 19 million & growing  People depend on NTFPs for subsistence and cash  Increasing deforestation and degradation  Unsustainable trade  Contradicting governance regimes  High corruption
  9. 9. The question: How does governance impact the sustainability of livelihoods based on NTFPs ? 1. How do these chains work, can people earn a living, both today and tomorrow? 2 How is the trade governed? 3. Does this make the trade sustainable? 4. How can it be done better ?
  10. 10. • Talking 2,195 interviews! • Hassling officials trade data • Walking observation • Counting plants resource assessment • Participatory action research • Data analysis Methods : Getting the answers
  11. 11. Results
  12. 12. Many laws, conventions & projects, Strong customs, corruption, weak union governance High value & demand Unsustainable
  13. 13. New laws Strong customs, unions & market governance High value & growing deman Sustainable
  14. 14. Ineffective laws & customs Strong union governance High corruption High value & demand Not sustainable
  15. 15. Q1. How do these chains work and can people earn a living, both today and tomorrow? • 710 NTFP species, 225 traded • 34,000 people involved • 8 NTFP markets worth over US$ 32 million annually • Average yearly incomes US$ 3,189 annually, US$ 1.4 per day per person • NTFPs not a way out of poverty for most • Most dependence on NTFP incomes, with fewer income sources are at end of chain
  16. 16. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Statutory regualtion Voluntary/m arket standards Customary regulation Projects Corruption Involuntary standards Score 10 = strong governance 0 = weak governance NTFP Chain Apiculture Gnetum Irvingia Prunus Cola Raphia Bamboo Gum arabic Q2. How are the NTFP chains governed?
  17. 17. Q3. Are the NTFP chains sustainable? Pygeum Gum arabic* Bamboo Honey Yes - Win No - Lose Cola Raffia Bush mango Eru
  18. 18. Q4. Recommendations and some results • Change the law • No one arrangement works best • Plural arrangements work, if recognised and complementary • And if govern forest species and markets • Get people in chains talking • Cultivation • Know what NTFPs are worth • Support the most vulnerable people • Tackle corruption
  19. 19. Thank you!

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